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Mo. Bot. Garden, 





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Diites of Publication of the seyeral Numbers included in this Volume. 

No. 235, pp. 1-14G, published November 1, 1898. 

„ 236, 







„ 237, „ 171-299, 
















April 1, 1899. 
July 1 , 1899. 

Julj 1, 1899. 
November 1, 1899. 
July 1, 190O. 
November 1, 1900. 

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Barton, Ethel Sarel. 

On Notheia anomala^ Harv* et Bail. (Communicated by 


George Murray, F.R.S., F.L.S.) (Plates 12-14) , . , . 417-425 
On the Forms, with a New Species, of Halimeda from Funa- 

futi< (Communicated by George Murray, F.R.S., F.L.S,) 
(Plate 18) 470 482 

BiFFEN, R. II., formerly ^ Frank Smart ' Student of Gonville and 
Caius College, Cambridge. 
On the Biology of Agancus velufApes, Curt. {Collybia velutipes, 
P. Karst.). (Communicated by Prof, IL Marshall Ward, 
D.Sc, F.R.S., F.L.S.) (Plates 2-4) ' 147-162 

BuRKiLL, I. XL, F.L.S., and Wright, C. H,, A.L.S. 

On some African Labiates with Alternate Leaves. (Plate 6 

and 7 illustrations) . . . . 268-27C> 

Clarke, Charles Baron, M.A., F.R.S,, FX,S. 

On the Subsubareas of British India, illustrated by the detailed 

Distribution of the Cyperaeea^^ in that Empire. 


Map— Plat^ 1) 1-146 

On Carex Wahloxhergiana, Boott 295-290 

Drucbj G. Claridge, M.A,, F.L.S, 

Note on the Irish Carex rhynchophysa 276-279 

• J 




Hemsley, W. BoTTiNG, F.R,S., F.L.S., Keeper of the Herbarium, 
Koyal Gardens, Kew, 

Notes on an Exhibition of Ph-ints from China recently collected 
by Dr. A. Henry and Mi\ VV. Hancock 474-478 

MasseEj George, F.L.S. 

On the Origin of the Basidiomycetes. (Plates 15 c^- 16.). . 438-448 

Moore, Spencer Le Mahchant, B.Sc, F.L.S. 

The Botanical Results of a Journey into the Interior of 
Western Australia ; with some Observations on the Nature 
and delations of the Desert Flora 171--261 

Pearson, HENiiV Harold Welch, B.A., 'Franl^ Smart' Student 
of Botany at Gonville and Caius College^ Cambridge. 
The Botany of the Ceylon Patanas. (Communicated by Prof. 
H, Marshall Ward, RR.S., F.L.S.) (Plate 7— Map, and 
2 illustrations) 300-3U5 

Salmon, Ernest IStanley* 

Notes on the Genus Nanomitrium^ Lindberg, (Communicated 

by J. G, Baker, RR.S., F.L.S,) (Plate 5) 1G3-170 

On some Mosses from China and Japan. (Communicated by 

J. G. Baker, FJl.S,, F.L.S.) 


StansfielDj F, W., M.B. 

On the Production of Apospory by Environment in Athyriuni 
Filix-famina^ var. imco-ghvieratnm ^ an apparently barren 
Fern. (Communicated by C. T. Druery, F.L.S.) (With 
6 illustrations) 202-^68 

Staff, Dr. Otto, AX.S. 

Dicellandraj Hook, f., and rhceoncuron. Oilg (Melastomaceaj). 
(Plate 19) 482-495 

Wets, G, S., B,A., A.R.C.S., Scholar of St. John's College, Cam- 

On Variation in the Desmidieae, and its Bearinf^s on their 

(Communicated by W. West, F.L.S.) 


(Plates 8-11, and 4 illustrations) 366^1(J 


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West, G. S. A further Contribution to the Freshwater Algae of 

the West Indies, {See West, W.) 279-295 

West, W., RL.S., and West, G, S., B.A., A.R.O.S. 

A further Contribution to the Freshwater Algse of the West 
Indies 270-295 

Williams, Fbedeihc N., F.L.S. 

Caryophyllacece of the Chinese Province of Sze-chuen . . 426-437 

Wright, C. H. 

On some African Labiatse, with Alternate Leaves, 


BuRKiLL, I. II.) 268-276 

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1. Map to Illustrate the Subsubareas of British India. 

3. l^CoLLYBiA vELuTirES, P, Karst. . 

5. Capsules of Xatiomiirium, Lindberg. 

6. Alternate-leaved Labiat.e, 

7. Map— The Central Plateau of Ceylon. 



^ Variation in the Desuidie^. 




13. \ NoTuEiA anomala, Harv. & Bail 


15. Protobasidiomycetes, 

16. Photo- and Auto-basidiomycetes. 

17. Mosses from China and Japan. 

18 I ^^S^' '^"^' Haltmeda laxa, n. Bp. 

' 1 Figs. 4, 5- Halimeda cuneata, Kuetz., var. nov. elongata 

-q /FigB, 1-10, DlCELLANDKA, Hook, f, 
' I Figs. 11-20. PiliEONEURON, Gllg. 


< ^ 

x^OTEMBEfi 1. 

Price 65 







Vol. XXXIV. a 


No. 235. 


On tlie Subsubareas of British India, illustrated by tlit; 

detailed Distribution of the Cyperacece in tbat Empire. 
By C. B. Clarke, M.A., RR.S., F.L.S. (With Map— 


Plate 1.) 


See Notice on last page of Wrapper 


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AlfD BY 





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K^m jr 

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Elected 24th May, 189S. 


Albert C. L. G, Giiiither, M.A., M.D., F.RS 


W. Carruthers, RR.S. 
Frnnk Crisp, LL.B., E.A. 

A. D. Michael, F.Z.S., F.R.M.S. 
D. K Scott, Ph.D., F.R.S, 


Frank Crisp, LL.B., B.A 



B, "Dajflon Jackson, Eiq. 

Prof. G. B. Howes, LL.D., F.R.S 


Obas. A. Barber, M.A. 

W. Carruthers. F.R.S. 

C. B- Clarke, M.A., P.R.S. 

Frank Crisp, LL.B., B.A; 

A, C. L. G Gunther, M.A., M.D., RR.S. 

W, B. Hemsley, F.R.S. 

Prof. W. A.Herdruan, D.Sc, F^.R.S. 

Prof. G. B. Howes, LL.D., F.R.S. 

B. Dajdon Jackson, Esq, 

A, D. Michael, RZ.S., F,R.M.S. 

H. W. Moncklon, F.G.S. ' 

G. R. Murray, F.R.S. 
Howard Saunders, F.Z.S. 

D. H. Scott, Pli.D, F.R.S. 

W. Percy Sladtni, F.G.S. 


James Edmund Hartin^, F.Z.S. 

A. W» Kappel. 


A. R. Haiurnond 




This consists of nine Fellows (three of whom retire annually) and of the four 
odlcers ex officio^ in all thirteen members. The former are elected annually 
by the Council in June, and serve till the succeeding Anniversary. The 
Committee meet at 4 r.M., at intervals during the Sesaion. The MemF>erd for 
18V»7-98, in a Edition to the ofTieers, are t — 

0. B. Clarke, M.A„ RR.S. 

Prof. J. B. Farmer, M.A. 

Prof. J. Reynolds Green,Sc.D.,F,R,S, 

W. B. Hemsley, F.R.S. 

A. D. Michael, F.Z.S. 

George Murray, F.R.S. 

W. Percy Sladen. F.G.S. 

Rev. T. R. Stabbing, M.A., F.R.S. 

Roland Trimen, F.R.S, 

Note.— The Charter and Bye-Lavvs of the Society, as amended to 
the 19th March, 1891, maybe had on application. 



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On the Sttbsubaiu^us or Eeitish Ii^dia, illustrated bj the 

detailed Distril/ition of ih 

By C. B. ClaiUe, M,A., F.ll.S., r.L,S. 

G CijperacecB in that Empire. 

[Eead 2ncl Jane, 1898.] 
(With Map— rLATi-: 1,) 


Bgittsh India having been treated as a Subarea of the Indo- 
Chinese Area *, the present paper attempts to divide it Into a 
convenient number (11) of Subsubareas for botanic reference. 
Aa a test of tlie convenience of tliese sub;snbareas, and as an 
illi.stration of liow they are intended to be employed, the whole of 
the material used in prt'[)aring the Order Cyperacese for Sir J, D. 
Hooker's ' Plora of British India' has been tabulated upon this 
fra nework. Tliis is a somewhat length}^ process, but it is 
believed that only by a somewhat full trial can the convenience 
of a scheme of subsubareas be tested ; moreover, it ailord;^ an 
o[)i)ortunity for tlie suggestion of improvements in. the scheme 
of subsubareas proposed. The tabulation is also a complete 
account of the geographic distribution of the Cyperacea) in 
British India, and thus forms an Appendix to Sir J. D. Hooker's 
'F'.ora' in which the distribution is only given generally; 
the present paper is an Index to all tlie localities and all 

the collectors' numbers actually uaed in the CyperacesD for the 

' Piora of British India/ 

* riiiK Trans, vol 183 B (1892), p. 371. 

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At the end of the paper, as an inference more particularly 
from the distributioa of the genus Carex, there is ventured some 
speculation upon the components of the cxistini; Flora of British 
India and their successive entry into and route within the 


India has been regarded as a botanic subarea of the globe ; 
the Empire is not the most natural region that could be devised ; 
it is convenient as a subarea of reference, especially now that 
Sir J. D. Hooker's ' Flora of British India' is completed, 
next Btep, both towards the geographic and economic study of 
the Flora, is the subdivision of India into convenient sub- 
subareas ; for each of these subsubarcas a local Flora of manage- 
able size may be ^rritten, and the distribution of species in India 
may be more precisely indicated by "'tabulating " on these sub- 
subarcas by way of reference. The Floras of Ceylon and of the 
Malay Peninsula have now been carried so far that the areas 
included in these Floras must be taken as two of the sub- 


I commenced work on this subdivision of India about two 
years ago ; having formed my subsubareas (in wluch I have 
had the benefit of the advice of Mr. Ilcmsley, Sir G-. King, 
Mr. Gamble, Dr. Prain, and others), I proceeded to test them 
in practice by tabulating on them an Order of considerable size. 

I think it is only by working the subsubareas 

with large 

numbers of plants that any safe conclusions can be come to 
ref^ardin": their convenience, I selected the Order Eanuncu- 
lace^e ; but, after collecting the literature, I found tliat, to make 
the test of any value, it would be necessary to revise critically 
the whole material. I was quite unable to undertake this (in 
addition to other hotanic work in hand), and threw aside the 
papers. Some time after, it occurred to me that I might test my 
subsubareas with the Order Cyperacese, by assuming all the 
determinations I have already made of Indian Cyperaceae to 
be correct, and not referring to the plants at all. This I have 
here done ; only citing the localities and numbers of collectors 
ivhicJi IJind on mij notes already. This, inter alia, causes Garex to 
he very scantily done as compared wit h the other genera ; because 
in working up Carex for the 'Flora of British India ' only the 
material at Kew and at the Linnean Society was employed. But,, 
omg the work in this way, u e. merely copying from my own 
determination?, the present tabulation has occupied mo about 

^ -f- 


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If "hour (I estimate on the average) of all my working days for 

eight months. 

I mention this as it is the primary consideration In a scheme 
of subsubaroas how the worlt upon the framework is to como 

I made the number of sub- 

within manageable dimension. 

subareas 11; from my experience I strongly opine that this 
number is quite large enough, I am sure that anyone who 
tabulate.^ on a larger number will be overwhelmed if he attempts 
to deal with any considerable part of the Flora of India. 
The subsubareas can be made more natural by further sub- 
division ; it has been pointed out to me that the mountainous 
south-west of Ceylon is distinct as a biologic region from the 
diier north-east. In applying to my friends for suggestions, I 
fiave always asked them to show me how to improve my scheme 
of subsubarcas of India, the number of such subsubarcas re- 
miining 11 or less. 

So far as areas of reference are concerned, it is to be noted 
that it is no use giving them accurately-defined boundaries 
unless collectors note the habitats of their collections with 
rePercnce to these. If I make tlie Tropic of Cancer the limit of 
a subsubarca and a collector has ticketed a plant '' Chota Nag- 

I cannot refer it to any subsubarca. Now the ''type '* 
examples of nearly the whole of the Indian Plora have already 
been collected, so that tlie scheme of subsubarcas has to be 
largely confined to the problem of devising such subsubarcas as 
will admit the standard material for the Plora of British India 


being referred to them. 

A very largo [)crcentage of this 

material is ticketed as having been collected at a very limited 
nt.mbcr of localities, as "North-west Himalayas," ''Pegu," 
*' Moradabad " ; it is this fact which has enabled me to carry out 
tha tabulation of the plants at all. Largo numbers of Wight's 
plants are only ticketed '* Madras," or 'Mierb. Madras"; and 
the majority of these carried into AValllch's herbarium have, of 
course, no better localization; I have tabulated these, as a rule^ 
In subsubarea 5, Coromandelia, but it is known that many came 

a and Ceylon. So the i:)lants of Grriffitli, with the 
pr.nted Kew label "East Bengal" on them, came some from 
Di^rjeellng, t?ome from East Bengal Plain, some from Kliasis, 
some from other places. The percentage of doubt and guess 
thus introduced is so large, that I can lay no great stress on th(j 
numerical results. I have withdrawn the tables ahowino- the 



"' * 

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specific distribution and have printed only the abstract table^- 
The tabulations for the distribution of species can be con- 
structed by anyone who wants tliem out oftliis paper. I publish 
the paper, fir&tly as recording and defining geographically the 
whole material on w^hich the Cyperacesp (in the *!F]ora of British 
India ') stand"; and secondly, as the ground for some speculations 
which I have added regarding the derivation of the existing Flora 

of British India, 

The 11 subsubareas of tabulation adopted are (see Map) : — 

(1) West Himalaya. 

(3) India Deserta. 

(3) Malabaria, 

(4) Ccvlon. 

(5) Coromandelia. 

(6) Gangetic Plain. 

(7) East Himalaya. 

(8) Assam. 

(9) Ava. 

(10) Pegu. 

(11) Malay Peninsula. 

It is unnecessary to write out fully tlio boundaries of these 
fiubsubareas, as the Map shows them more quickly. But I may 
here explain the reasons w^hy some of the lines are drawn where 
they are : 


Long. E, 





collections made with his headquarters at Katmandu may 
go with Hooker's Tambur planlp, and may be tabulated 
separately from the plants \Yallich got from Eumacn, 
wnth Avhich last go Duthic's We^t Nepal plants. 

The south boundary is supposed the line betA\cen the 

hills and the plains, ^ay the line of 1500 feet above sea. 

The sub^ubarea is essentially that of the Indian Desert, the 

Pui^jab Plaiu, Sindh and Bclcochistan. Gujarat is supposed 

wliolly in Malabaria, IMalwa wholly in subsubarea (2), which 


also takes in Quetta and Kuram. 

.!■. I 

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Clarke . 

LirmSoc- Joiarn-Bot Vol AXXI\r ,P1 1 








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(3) The eastern boundary is 7G° 30' Long. E., as tar south as 

Mpore town, w]]e:iCL! the boundary is a line drawn from 
Mysore to Tinncvelly. I have, generally, tabulated plants 
labelled " Piilncys " in (3). Diudigal is of course iu (5). 
The line from Mysore to Tinneyelly is artificial and not very 
satisfactory ; it remains for some one to discover a better. 

(5) The north boundary is the base of the hills which run east 
and weat nearly parallel with the Granges from Gwalior to 
Enjmahl at the great beud of the Glanges. Thus subsub- 
arcas (3) and (5) together include the Gondwana re'^ioa of 

hardly a plant), 
tabuliitod in subsubarea (2). 

the Aravalli Mts., fro 

Mt. Aboo, not beiut: 

ia Grujarat, is 

(6) The Gangctio plain k a IIooker-and-Tliotn^oti area; it 
extends from Saharuupore to the sea, including the plain 

The Torai of Nepal and Sikldm is here supposed 



part of the East Himalaya (7). 

(8) Assam is understood to be the political province, as bounded 
by the present ''inner line" of the IG-milc-to-thc-iuch 
administration map ; but excluding such portion as drains 
into the Irawaddi : ^^ e. Muneyporo is in subsubarea (9). 
It is true that the administrative line which separati'S 

Goalpara from North 

appear possible to separate the Eruhmapootra Valley (of 

Bengal is arbitrary ; it does not 

Assam) from North 
arbitrary » 

Bengal by 

any line that is not 

Pegu nor i" 

(9) This area includes all Burma that is not in 
Assam; and includes Munoypoor as being a side valley of 
the Irawaddi. 

(10) The boundary-line between this and Ava i^ the boundary- 
lino between Pegu and Burma in 1S70 (and for some time 
before, and after) ; so that it coincides with the north 

boundary-line of Kurz's 'Porest Flora of Pegu/ The 
southern boundary, in the latitude of Junkceylan, is 
drawn to keep our subsubarea (11) identic with the '* Malay 
Peninsula" of Sir G. Kiui^. I 

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Tlic geographic localities for the Cyperacese which follow arc 
arrann^ed by, and the names cited from, Hoolvor's ' Flora of 
British India ' — a very few corrcctious and additions, which have 
come to hand since the publication of voL vi, of that work, have 

been made. 

In the numerical tables, in place of the uaual asterisk to 
denote the occurrence of a species, a number is put which 
indicates all that the asterisk would indicate, and is the number 
of localities cited in the list of localities. 




1. Kyllinga TEiCEi's, Jioith, ; Ilooh.f, FL Brit.Ind, vi, 587. 
1- Mussoorie, Rojjle^ 188 ; Behra Doon, King^ 54, (50. 
4. Ceylon, Thwaitcs, 8234 ; Colombo, Beokett, 249(J. 
b* Poudicherrjj Gammer son^ 120, Bcrrottet, 524. Coromandel, 

BeJanger, 186. Madras Peninsula, Wallich.Mi^ A, B, E 

(hb. propi-.), Wight, 1852, 1852 6 (hb. propr.), 1849 (hb. 

Calcutta). Chota Nagpore, alt- 1000 feet, frequent, 

C, B. Clarhe, Gwalior, Maries^ 378. 
6- Mtjradabad, T. Thomson, 257, Jaaiaemont^ 499 (399 in hb. 

Paris). Eeluir, Hope ; Moiighyr, Buchanan Hamilton^ 

213, Bengal, Wallich^ Monghir, Wallich, 3445 C (hb. 

propr,), D (hb. Kew). Calcutta, Wallich^ 370 (hb. Paris, 

10. Burma, Walllch^ 3443 I (hb. propr.). 
Bistrih. Ethiopia, Macao. 


., JVees ; Hook, f, 
4' Winterhottoni ; 



3, Canara, Metz, 827 a. Nilgiri Mts., Kuig, 

6. Maisor and Carjiatic, G. Tho?nson, 28. Madras, 

3443 B (hb. Calcutta). Nundydroog, Wallich, 3443 D 
partly (hb. propr.). Chotn Nagpore : Parasnath, T, 

7. Sikkini, alt. 2000 feet, G. B. Glarke, 35479, 

8- Khasia, alt. 5000 feet, (7. B. Clarke, 38909. Chittagong, 
Hook, f* et T. Thorns. 
11. Singapore, Hullett^ 495. 
Distrih. Ethiopia. Queensland, New South AVales, 



3. Kyllinoa melanospkkma., JSfecs : TToolc.f. Fl. Brit. Ind. vi. 

3. Nilgiri Mts., Lescltenault, Perrottet, G78, 1212 ; alt. 5000 

feet, C. B. Clarice, 10884. 

4. Ceylon, Gardner, 9GG ; Ceatral Province, alt. 4000-6000 
feet, Thwaitcs, 818, 2;)80 (819 in lib. Boissier). 

5. Madras Peninsula, WnlUch, 3440 (lib. propr.), WiyJit, 

2879, 2880, 1850 (in lib. Kcw, Calcutta, Delesnert, not in 

hb. propr.), 1851. Central India: Pauclimari, ButJiie, 

11. Singapore, Kurz. 

Bistrih. Ethio[)i;i. Madagascar. Malaya. 

4. Kyllinga BBEViFOLTA, RottJ). \ IIooJc. f. I. c. vi. 588. 

1, Eawul Pindce, Aitchii^on^ 240. Mussoorie, Royle^ r38. 

Kuiiiaon, DalJne, 3459. G-urlnval, alt, GOOO feet, Duthie^ 
5002. Bhecm Tal, T. Thomson. Nepal, WalUch, 3442 
partly (hb. propr.). 

2. Siiid, FimoilL Mt. Aboo, G. King, 
4. Ceylon (frequent), Thwaiies^ 3755. 

5* Nundydroog, Wallich^i^4i'\irlJ) partly (hb. propr.). Madras, 
Wallich, 3143 C (hb. propr.), Wight, 1849 partly, 1850 
partly. Chotu ]Srag[)ore, frequent, G, B. Clarke. 

6. Bengal, JJicchanan ILamilton^ 211, Widlich^ 3443 F partly, 
II partly (hb. propr.), 3444 a (hb. Delessert) ; common, 
G jB. Clarke. 

7. Sikkim, Sc^iiada, alt. 8000 feet, Kurz, Ea^t Himalaya, 

Grijith, Kew II. C252, G253. 

8. Assani; frequentj O. B, Clarke. Upper Assam, Griffith^ 

Kew li. G254, (5255 partly. Kbat^Ia, Tlook.f, ^ T. Thorns,^ 

10. Burma, Kurz, 038, 039, 2718. Mergui, Griffith, Kew 
n. G24S part, (5249, G25L Wellealey, G. King. Andamans, 
Kurz. Nieobars, Kurz, 

11. Penang, Beles^scrty DldricliHoi^ 3557. Malacc^i, GriJ/lthj 

Kcw n. G247, G250, Jagor, 307. Singapore, Kurz, 2997, 
99S, Ridley, 33, 81. 

Distrih, Ethiopia. Indo-Chiua. Oceania. Eloiida. Bermuda. 






Ind. vi 


1. Mussooree, HoyJe^ 37. 

2. Punjab, jT, Thomson, 

4. Ceylou (commoii), Thwaites, 8753, 

5. Coroniandelia, Belanger^ 185. Madras, TFallich, 3443 A, 
B (hb. \)V0])\\\ Wight, 1849 partly j Mangalore, Mefz, 



6. Saharunpore, Ditthie, Eehar, Buchanan Hamilton^ 212, 
Bengal, WaUich, 3413 1' partly, H partly (hb. propr.), 
3443 D (Iib.Ke\v,Calcutta,DC.),3443H (hb, Mus.Brit.); 

frequent, C. B. Clarice ; Calcutta, Heifer^ 59, Kamp^ 
hoevener^ 502. 

7. Sikkim, alt, 6000 feet, 21 Aiiderson, 2G3. 

8. Assam, Griffith, Kcw n, G255 mainly, Jenkins^ 219, 223, 
frequent, C. ^. 0/arX^^. Khasia, alt. 2500-4500 feet, 

Schlajintioeit^ 141. Bengal Orient,, Griffith^ Kew 

n. 6254/i. 

10. Burma, Griffith, Kew n. G248 partly, Kurz, G39, 663- 

Mergui, Griffith^ 98- Andamans, Kurz. Nicobars, Kamp- 
hoevenerj 2350, Jelinshi, 198, 216. 

11. Penang, D dessert^ G, King. Malacca, Deles serf ^ Yvan. 

Singa])()re, JVallich^ 3443 Gr (hb. propr.), KunstleVi 42, 
Bidhy, 48. 

Distrib, Ethiopia, Indo-China, Oceania, [In Neotropica 
very rarely collected.] 

6, Ktllinoa sqlfamulata, Vahl] UooTcf, I. c. vi, 589. 

1. Kashmir, 1\ Thomson, 1258, alt. 4000 feet, G B. Clarke, 
22792, 315G9. Kumaon, alt- 5500 feet, Strachey SfWinter- 
lottom, Duthie, 6073. G-urA\"aI, 5500 feet, Duthie, 5001. 

2. Mt. Aboo, G, King. 

3. Canara, Metz, 199, 

Distrib. North Ti-op. Africa, frequent. Martinique. 

1. PrcREUs FLAVESCENS, jB(^:;/cA&. FL Excurs. (1830-2) p. 72; 
\_Necs', Ilook,f. J. c. vi. 589J. 
1, Kurrmu Valley, ^^'/c/i^Vo/^, 964. 
Distrib, Palscarctica. Ethiopia. U.S. Orient. Neotropica. 

\ L-" ■ 




2. Pyckeus siramuseus, C. _S. Clarice \ Ilooh.f. FL Brit. Ind. 

vi. 589. 
4. Ceylon, Thivaites, iJ77G. 

6. Madras, WalUch^ 3320 A part. Maugalore, Ifohenackerj 

6, [Bengal], Wallich, 3318 part. Calcutta, a B. Clarke. 

Mjmcnsingli, C, B. Clarice, Jumalpore, Griffith^ Kew 

n. G217. 
8. Kha^ia, Hook, f, et T. llionu. Sylhet, Wallich, 3320 B. 

Silcliar, J. D. Ifooher. Chittagotig, J". 7>- Hooker^ 158. 

10- Arracan, Kurz^ 070, 


Moulmeic, Fhilipps. Tavoj> Wallich, 209 (lib. propr, 
not of List). 

Bistrib. Undemic la India. 

Butlde^ 3455. 
3, Malabar (vol Coucan), Stocks (vlI Law). 
5. Central Indin, Sumbulpore (herb. Calcutta). 

k.f, L c, vi. 590 
& Winterhottom 


Nagpurc, alt. 1500-2500 feet (plentiful), C B, Clarke. 

7. Sikkini Tcrai, Rtirz, 

SOU, Kew n. G200 part, (frequent) a B. Clarke. 


Bistrih. Endemic in Indi 


*3. Pyckeus malabaiucus, sp. nov. 

Radices fibrot^a}. Culini csDspitorii, pedalcs, graciles. Folia 
cum f parte culmi a^quilonga, y^^ unc. lata, debiiia. Urabella 
e 1-3 spicis structa, 1 uiiL'. in diam., 3-11-stacbya ; bractese 3, 
cum foliirf similes, ima usque "ad 3^ unc, longa. Splculao di- 
stantes, | unc. longa), 1 in. lata^, 20-ilorie, mnltum compressa?, 
lateribus exacte paraliolis. Grluma) Jiaviculnren, rlgldo accura- 
bentes, vix acutiie, nitidc tdgr^c margiuibus angusto albis. Stylus 
2-fidus, Nux ovoidia, lateraliter, eum f parte glumae 
aequilonga, tran?^vergiin crebre lineolata cellulis extitnis longi- 
tudinaliter oblongis. 

3. Malabar Ghats, Lanowlee, Woodrow^ 28 B, 

I *. 

Distrih. Endemic In Malabaria. 

4. PrcREus SANGUiNOLENTUS, Nees ; Ilook.f. I.e. vi. 590. 

1. Baltistlian, alt. 7500 feet, Schlnjintweit, 792, 1917, 5760, 
C. B. Clarke, 30021. Kashmir, T. Thomson ; alt. 7500 feet, 





Punjab, Jacqneniont, 432, 437, T. Thomson ; Eawul Pindee, 
Aifchison, 211. Kiim.'ioii, IFaUich, 3310 G-, T. Thomson, 




Gurhvva], alt, 6000 

feet, Duthie, 4481; Mussoorie, Jiai/h, 24; N'agkunda, 
lioi/ie, 30. Ntp:i], TVallich, 331911. 
3. Sfud, Pinwill. Mt. Aboo, G. i^my, Dutkic, 6722.' 


946 part. 

Nilgiri Mts.j TTohenacJcer, 

4. Central Province, Thicaites, 802, WalJcer. 


Naj,^pore, alt. I 7oO feet, C. B. Clarice. 

1, B part, D. Chota 


Saheb^iinj, Kurz. Dacca, 

G, B. Clarice. Mymeiusinj^'h, G. B. Clarke. 

7. East. Himalava, 


Kew n. 6201. Sikkim Terai : 

Balasun E., alt. 500 feet, C. B. Clarice. Lachen, alt. 
10,000 feet, J. D. Ilooher. 



19G ; Gowhiitty, Simons:, alt. 0-5000 feet, J, B. 
Ilooher, (frequent) O. B. Clarke. East Bengal, Wallich, 
3344 B, Griffith, Kew n. 0187, G200 part. tiylhet, 

k ^' ^ 


T. Thorns., 57. Wallich. 

Hook . f. 

MacClclland ; Tavov, Wallich 

265 (hb. propr. not of List), 
11. Pahang, Bidley, 2141. 
Bistrib. Cabul. Central A^ia. China. 

Australia. Tim 





PrCREUs MTKNri, Nees ; Hook. f. M. Brit. Ind. vi. 591. 

1. Kumaon, alt. 3500 feet, Strachey lJ- Winterhottom, 3, 
Bulhie, 3456; Dehra Dlioon, G. Kimj. Gurliwal, alt. 
5500 feet, BiUhie, 4485. Nepal, Wallich, 3312 C. 

2. Punjab, T. Thomson. Sind, T'iniuill. Mt. Aboo, ^?oe/c.^. 

202, G. King. 

3. iVIalabar, Bclanger, 233, 231. Canara, HohenacJcer, 825, 

826; Bababoodua Hills, Law. Nilgiri Mts., G. Thomson, 

4. Ceylon, Thioaitcs, 800, Beclceit, 2541. 

6. Madras P.nlnsub, TFiy/i/', 1809, Wallich, 3312 D part. 


K, L, 3313 B jmri-, 3339, G. Tlcmson, 179. Chanda, 
Buthie, 9823. CLota Nagporc, alt. 2000 feet, frequent, 

C. B. Clarice. 

6. Moradabad, T. Thomson, 77(5. Behar, Buclmnan Hamilton, 

132, 137, 138, 144 part, WaJllcJi, 3312 E. Lower Bengal, 
Wallich, 3312 A, B, F, Or part; .3370 part ; 21 Pergunnalis, 

O. B. Clarke. 

7. Silikiiti, G. King; Sookna, C. B. Clarice. 

8. Assam, Jenkins, 199, Griffith, irjSG. East Bengal, Grijith, 

Kew n. G186, J. B. Hooker. Khasia, all. 5500 feet, 

Schlagintweif, 135. Chittagong, J. D. Hooker, 151 . CacKar,. 

Keen an. 

)on, Walhch, 3312 H, B. Scott. Burma, Griffith, 

Kew n. G18G. Tavoy, Wallich. 


11. Teuasscrini,7/"^//.r,Kewn.G200/2. Pending, Cnrtis.mi. 

SingMporc, Kunsller^ G2, 
Distrih^ Trop. Africa. China, Malays. Trop. Australia. 

mEFS PUMiLUS, Nees', IIook.f.Fl. Brit, Ind. vi. 591. 

Bombay, in the suburb Sion, Woodroiv. 

Madras Peninsula, LcitJi, 25 (in hb. Linn, propr,) ; Mon 

putla, in a rice-field, WtffK 1808, 2S(U, WallicJi, 3336 C 


Distrih. Mozambique. jSorth Madagascar. Timor. 

7- PrcREUs GLOEOSUS, ReicU. Fl Excurs. ( 1830-2 ), Add. 
p, 140-10. 

[P, capillaris, Nccs ; Hook. f. I. c. vi. 591.] 

1. Kashmir, SeJila/pnhveit^ 5113, Ja c qtc emo nt, S19 ; Eajaori, 

alt. 2500 feet, Sclilagintweit, 12, 207. Baltisthan, Iskardo, 
21 Thomson ; Sliigaj', alt. 8000 feet, G. B. Clarice* Eawul 
Pindee, Ailchison, 243, 247. Kunawur, Jacquemo7it, 1149. 
N-W. Himalaya, up to 0500 feet, T. Thomson, Kuinaon, 
Wallich, 3318 C. Almora, Strachey c|' Wintcrhottom, 6. 
N.W. India, lioijle, 7. Nepal, Wallich, 3318 D. 

2. Punjab, Schlagintwcit^ 10186. Dcra Ismail Khan, Buthie^ 

3- Naissik, Kunfze, 

5. Chota Nagpore, alt* 750-2000 feet, plentiful, G B. Clarke. 

6. Moradabad, T. Thomson. Belmr, J, D. Hooker. 

7. Sikkim, J. B. Hooker. Darjceling, Griffiih, Kew n. 6191 ; 
Dalkajhar, alt, 400 feet, C B. Clarke. 

\ f 

F^il TT 

B B-Fi *. *T r^ -J f-v 


8. Upper Assam, JenJdns, 571, 574; Dihing R, 



Kew n. 6182. As^un, Made. 




ij!lli, Kew n. G189 (0191 iii hb. Berlin). 

Khiii^Ia, J. D. IFoolcer ; iilt. 8000-5000 feet (black chestnut 
spikelets), J. JD. Hooker, 5S0, Qriffitli, Kew n. 0182, 

SMiujinHceit 187 ; frequent, C. B. Clarice. 
10. Nicobars, Knrz. 

Distrib. Meditcrranea. Central Asia. Masci 
Japan. Malaya. Au:^tralia. Timor. 


Pycheus GLOBOsrs, Reichh. ; 


. :6c 


Brit. hid. VI. 

Stocks, Law. Canara, Youna. 

Poona, Jacciucmont. Malabar 



4. Ceylon, Gardner, 951, 955 ; " veiy common," TJiwaites 


5. Tuticorin, Wiglif, 2878. Madras Peninsula, Wallicli, 
3310, 3318 A, B. Ilyds^rabad, Camphell. Chanda, Dutlde 

Distrib. Africa Trop. Bourbon. China. Japan. Malaya. 
East Australia. 

PrcEEua GLOBOSus, Reichb. : 

Var. y. STRiCTA, O. B. ClarJcc; IlooJc.f. I, c. vi. 592. 
1. Kishtwar, Schlaqintiveit, 3715. Kumaon, alt. 5000 feet 

Duthie, 41S9. 


2. Punjab, Steivart, 293, 796. 

3. Poona, Jacqiicmonf, 276. 

5. Cliota Nagporc, Wood. 

6. Moradabad, T. Thomson, 193. Purneah, Buchanan 
Hamilton, 144 part; Natlipur, Wallich, 3312 G part. 
Lower Bengal, Wallich, 3318 E, 3319 B part. 

7. Bbotan, alt. 3500 feet, Gamble, 9598. 

.ssam, Griffith, 1022, J 
fcpriug, J. J). Hooker. 

Chittagong, at the burning 

Distrib. Susiana. Ethiopia. China. Luzon. 

Pycbeus GLOBOSUS, Rcichb. : 

Var. a. E RECTA, C. B. Clarice (var. nova') : stem and leaves 
more robust ; umbel compound, rays of the secondary 



■-.'■"ir T^T — r 'J^^ ^ r 



umbels 3-5 up to ^-f in. lonj^; spikclcts rather smaller, 
lv\le,— Ci/perus erectus (sp.), Eoxburgli MS. 
5. Coromandelia, Koenif), Boxhurgh. 
Disfrih. Formosa. 

8. PycuEUs roLYSTAcfiYUs, Beauv. ; Iloolcf. Fl. Brit. Ltd. vi. 592. 

2. Siud, Finwill. 

3. Malabar, Belanger, 225. 

4. Ceylon. " Very abundant." Tlnoaites, 800, Walker, 49. 


i77Z^/^, 109. 


Peninsula, Ho/lloell., 

Wight, 1811, ?r«Z//c7i, 3310 A, r5, C, 3333, 3332 B part, 

3320 A part. Pondicherry, Perrottet ; Palavcram, G, 


3340 D; Soondreebun, frequent, O. B. Clarice. 
5yll!ot, HooJcf. Sf T. Thorns. Cacbar, Kcena, 
Jionfr, C. JB. Clarice. 


Ifitli, Kcw ]i. G192, G205. Andatnans and 


11. Malacca, Griffith. Pcrak, irz-ay, 778. Singapore, Kurz, 

3013, 72iJ%, 80, 1781, 18G1, IVichura, C98rt. 
i>/..^rf6. Mediterranca. Elbiopia. Indo-Chlna, Florida. Neo- 



Var. LAXIFLOUA, Bcnth. ; JTooJc. f. l. c vi. 592. 

3. Anamallay j\Its., Bcddome. 

4. Ceylon, WalJcer, 23, 43, Wight, 2055. 

5. Madras Peninsula, Wallich, 3832 B (in hb. propr.), C (In 

hb. Kew), 3331. 
8. CbittagonET, J. D. Iloolcer, 402. 
10. Mer-ui, Grifilh, 70, 290, Kcw n. 6184. 


An damans. 

11. Peuaug, Curtis, 1802. Malacca, Grifith, Kcw n. G205. 

Singajiore, LoJ>l), Jlidleg, 1750. 
Dis^ri^*. Ethiopia. Malaya. N.W.Australia. Sandwich Tyles. 

United State^^. Ncotropica. 

0. Pycueus FERKUOiNEUS, G. B. Clarice in Iloolcf. I. c. vi. 593. 
5. Madras Peninsula, G. Thomson, 70. Mysore, Bottler. 
Bistrib. Ethiopia. Eastern North America. Central America, 

10- Pi'CREUS SULCI ^ux, O.B. Clarice in llook.f, L c. vi, 503. 
3. Anamallay Mti?., alt. :15'J0 feet, Beddome. 


.. t 

* \t 

^.- ... '- 


' VJ- 



7. North Bengal, alt. 1000-5000 feet, frequent, 0. B. 


8. East Bengal, alt. 1000-5000 feet, frequent, 0. B. Clarice. 
Assam, Grijlth, IGOl. 

10. Pegu, Kurz, Go9, Gates. IVIoulmeiu, Heifer, ^2Q. Tenas- 

serim, Ilelfer, Kew n. 6209/1. 
Bistrih. Nyasa-land. Borneo. Philippines. 

11. PrcEEUs AxauLATUS, Nees; Hook. f. FL Brit. Ind. vi. 593. 

1. Nepal, WalUcJi, 3;j21 A. 

3. Nilgiri Mts., Wi(/lii, 2S74. 

6. Dinajpore (floating), C. B. Clarice. 

8. Assam, Masters, 198. Khasia, Grfjith, 1,*J27, alt. 3000- 

5500 feet, Hook.f. Sf T. Thorns., frequent, C. B. Clarke. 

9. Ava, WaHicli, 3321 B. 

Bistrih. Zaiiibcsia. Caput. Australia. Neotropiea. 

Fycheus angflatuk, Nces : 

Var. fl AYmiiTii, C. B. Clarke in Hook.f. I. c. vi. 593. 

5. Madras Peninsula, TVi^hf, 2875, 2871 (in herb. Berlin). 
Bistrih. Endemic. 

12. PrcREUS Baccha, Nees in Linncea., ii. [1834] 283. 
[P. puncticulatus, C. B, Clarke in Hook. f. 1. c. vl. 593.] 

3. Loud'd, Cooke. 

4. Ceylon, Thwaites, 3:310 (lib. Kcu-, Mus. Brit.), 3751 
Damboul, Beckett. 

5. Madras Peninf^ula, Bottler, Walliclt, 3336 A, D, F, C 
part, 3355 B ])art, 3337 i)art (iu hb. Kew), W?r/7tt, 1813 
(in hb. propr.), 2871. 

Bistrih. Ciiefoo. 

P^'CRKUS Bag oil A, JV^ees : 

Yar. QUiNQUAGiXTirLOEA, C. B. Clarke in Hook, f I. c. vi, 

5, Madras Peninsula, WalUcJi, .'J336 B. 


Distrih. Endemic* 

13. Pyckeus ALimMAKQTNATus, Ness \ Iloolc.f, I, c.y\. 594. 
3. Concan and Malabar, G. Thomson, StocJcs, Beddome. 
10. liangoon, 7?, Scolt, Kurz. 

Bistrih. Ethiopia. Xortli Australia. New Mexico. Neo- 



_■- . H 

i j'*^^- '^* ■ I - ,- ^ J I ■; ■ - ^ , ' ' - ■] r-- --. ■ ^ 



1. JuNCELLUs SEROTINUS, C B. Clarke in Iloolc.f. Fl. Brit.Ind. 

vi. 594. 

1. Kashmir, Jacquemonf, 1138, W. S. Atkinson, 24199. 
Chuinba, alt. 3500 feet, C. i?. CTar/c^, 24276, 2469G. 
Ea^val Pindco, Aitchison, 240. 

3. Punjab, Clienab E., T. Thomson, 1589. 
Distrih. rala-aretica. China. Japan. 


To be wiped out! The single slieet on which the Bpcciea 
is founded is Fycreus vmhrosus, Neos (a South African plant) ; 
it is marked in hcrh. Kew *' Kh.asya Hills, Griffith." I have 
no doubt that this locality is some herbarium error that was 
introduced at the time of pasting down. 

3. JuNCELLUS iNUKDATUS, C\ B. Clarke in IIool\ f\ L c. vi. 595. 

WalliclK 1197 (in hh. Mus 

Jheela, T, Anderson. 

8. Sylhet, WallioJi, 3355 C. 
Distrih. ]\lascarcnia. China, Jap^n. 

4. JuKCELLUS ALOPECUHOIDES, C. B, Clarice in IlooJcf. I, c. vi 


2. Pcshawur, Grifdh, 199 <7, Kcw n. G150. Chcnah E., 

T. Thomson. ]Sr."W- India, Boyle. Sind, Slocks. 

3. Bombay, Balzell, Jacquemonf, 438* Poena, Jacqiiemont^ 
297. Canara, Lelanger^ 224. 

4. Batticaloa District, TJuvaites, 35G0, 

ula, Kocni/j, Heyne^ Bottler^ Wallicli 
Wiqht, 2877. Hyderabad, Cam])helh 


Delhi, (7. i?. 0/^?7t-^, 23351. 

Bengal, WallicJu 

8. East Bengal, Griffith, Kew n. G155. Sylhet, Iloolc.f. ^ 

11. Penang and Kelantan,^£/(? Bidley^ 

Disfril. Mc'diterranea. Ethiopin. Malaya. Queensland. 

5. Ju:ncellus PTGiriEUS, C. B, Clarhe in IIool\f. L c, vi. 596. 

1. Kashmir, Jacquemonf^ 1087- West Himalaya, Boyle, 100. 

2. Punjab, Chenab R., T, Thomson. 

3. Bombay, Law, 

^ ■ ■ r 


4. Ceylon, Thoailes, 8947. 

5. Madras Peniiisul;!, Wight, 1807, 2307, 2SG2, G. Thomson, 
177. Central India, Khandwa, Duthie, 8156. 

6. Luclmow, T. Anderson, II. Purnoali, (7. B. Clarice, 11740. 
Behar, Schhjinhoeit, ]294(j, J. D. Hooher. ]3ongal, 
Boxlurgh, Griffith, Kew n. G!.S5, Wallich, 3325 B, C. 

9. Ava, WaJUch, 3495. 
10. Pegu, iTwr^, GLG ; Burma, Walllch, 3484. 
Z)/s/W^. aicditerranea. North Trop. Africa. China. .Japan. 
Malaya. Australia. 

8. JuNCELLTJS LiEViGATUS, C. B. Clarke in IlooJc.f. FI. Brit. Lid. 
vi. 596. 

1. Rawul Pinrlce, Aitchison, 239. Bliinibur, Stewart, 799, 

871. E. Jhelum, Jacqiiemont, 133. N.W. India, lloylc, 
5, 59. 

2, Sind, Binwill. Marwar, G. King. Eajpootana, Duthie, 

5. Madras Peninsula, Bottler, Wight 2389, Walllch, 3311. 

Tuticorin, Wight, 2020. Bundelkund, Duthie, G500. 

6. Moradabad, T. Thomson. Meerut, T. Thomson, 101. 
Distrih. Mcditcrranea. Ethiopia. China. "West Australia. 

t>andwieh Isles. West U. S. JSTcotropica. 


Var. /3. Ju:^ciFoiiMrs, C. B. Clarke in IlooJc.f. I. c. vi. 597. 

2. Pesliawur, Steivart. Sind, Stocks, 751. 
Distrib. Mediterranea. Neotropiea. 

4. Gralle, Thwalfcs, 3221. 


Heyne, Wallich, 3441 A part, TFi 

1855, 2919 (iu herb. Calcutta). 



East Bengal, Griffith, Kew ii. G172, n. 6128/2, J. D. 
Ilooker,ixnic^^vX,G. B.Clarke. Q'A(i\\^v,Keenan, Sjlhet, 
Wallich, 3441 D. Cliittagoiig, J. D. Hooker. 



Malaya. QueeiiHlai 

c 2 

_' h 

. -pj' ;^ T<V,-^ 


■ f- . 




4. Ceylon, Walker; Batticaloa D; 

5. Madras Peninsulaj llcyne, Wa, 

3337 A, B. 

6. Calcutta, Gaudichaitd^ 330. S 

inr Jhfrihanan Hamilton, Wc 



E. Megua, 

J. D. Hooker. Beu^^iil, frequent, C B. Clarice. 
8. Assam, ^/wzo??,?, 6i4, 645. East Bengal, Orijpfli, Kew 
n. 6158, n. G158 bis (lib. Calcutta). Chittagong, J". B. 

Honker., 139. 

10. Pegu, Kurz, G85, G8G. Mergul, 6^v'#/7/, Kew n. 6168 

(hb. Calcutta). 

11. Penang, Wallicl, 3359 D part. 
Distrih. Malaya. New South Wales. 

3. CsPERL's AMABiLis, TaJil ; Ilook.f. I.e. vi. 598. 

1. KumaoTi, G. King, Dufhie, G075. Naiui Tal, Davidson. 

5. Cliota Nagpore, alt. 500-2000 feet, frequent, G. B. Clarice. 

6. Moradabad, T. Thomson, 393. 

Bistrib. Eiliiopia. Chiliualiua. Neotropica. 

4. Cypebus rvsTANKUS, Willd.; Iloolc.f. I.e. vi. 598. 

3. Laddapore, Cooke. 

4. Ceylon, Walker, TInvaitcs, 803. 



Wallicl, 3323. Chota 

Nagpore, alt. 1750 feet, G. B. Clarice. 

6. Mymensingb, C. B. Clarke, 17294. 

7. E. Tambur, J. B. Hooker. Sikkim Terai, alt. 500 feet, 

G. B. Clarke. 

10. Pegu, MacGlelland. Mergui, GriJ/ith, 43. Tenasserim, 

HeJfer, Kew n. 6202 (in lib. Leiden). 

11. Perak, alt. 700 feet, hb. King, 10805. 
Bistrih. Tonkin. Central Australia. 

5. Cypertjs uncinatus, Poiret, Kncyc. vii. p. 247. 

[O. cuspidaius, H. B. K. ; Hook. f. PI. Brit. Ind. vi. 598.] 

1. Kashmir, alt. 4000 feet, G. B. Clarke, 31570. Dehra, 

T. Thomson; Eanikhet, Buthie, G078. Nepal, Wallich, 
3312 C part. 

2. Sind, Pinwill. 

3. ]\Ianfialoro, Metz, 824. 


4. Ceylon, BecJcett, Thwaites, 803 (in lib. Mus. Brit,). 

5. Ma(l^asiPeni]l8uh,7^^y7^/', 2337. Chota Xagpore, aJt, 1000- 
2000 feet, a B, Clarice. Central India, Chundn, Duthie, 

6. Moradabad, T. Thomson, 321. Saharuiipore, PutMe,4i4^87 a. 
Lucknow, Bonavla, 230. Monghir, Buclimian Hamilton, 
135, Wallich, 3370 Apart. Purnea, Buchanan IJamilton, 
13G. Lower Bengal, Wallich, 3370 B part. 



8. As.sani, Griffith^ 1591, JenJcms,2Q\. East Bengal, Griffith, 
Kcw n, G202, 6203/1, Khasia, alt. 2500 Ceet, j; i)'. 7/oo;t^r, 
1818, frequent, C. -B. CTarZ;^?. Naga Hills, alt. 5000 feet, 
a B. Clarke, 

10. Pegu, MacClelland. 

11. Penang, Curtis, 1831. 

Bistrih. Ethiopia. China. Malaya. Queensland. Timor. 
Florida. Xeotropica. 

6. Cyperus fuscus, Linn.] IlooJc.f, FL Brit. Ind. vi. 599.. 
1. Kashmir, 6000 feet, 7; ^/^o??^^o;^; Kishtwar, GOOO feet, C _B. 
Clarice, 31383; Srcenuggur, Schlagintweit, 4310, 4473. 
North-west Himalaya, T, Thomson. 

Distrih, PaUearctica, 


1. Kashmir, alt. 9000 feet, Jacquemont, ITl^ 827, Schlagint- 

iveit, 4225. Kumaon, Wallich, 33G3 Gc, Dehra Dhoon, 
Dulhie, 2395. Nepal, Wallich, 33G3 H. 

2. Lahore, 2". Thomson, Sind, Finwill, Mt. Aboo, Duthie, 


3. Poona, Jacq^iiemont, 275. Canara, TTohenaclcer^ S21, Talbot, 

4. Ceylon, Ivoenirj, commoii, Thtvaifes, 3012. 

6. Madras Peninsuhi, Bottler, Wight, 1812, 2SS4, Wallich, 
33G3 A, B, C, D- Pondicherry, Perrottet. Madras, 
GriJJith, 101-. Bababoodun Hills, Zcfw?. Hyderabad, 
CamplelL Central India, X/?zy, 49. Chota Nagpore^ 
alt. 750-2500 leet, common, <7- _B, Clarice. 

6. Moradabad, 2", Thomson^ 282. Saharunpore, i?oyZ^, 32. 
Indulpore, Buthie, 4479. Oudh, ij. Thompson, 360. 

-H" ' " ^-' Yt " - "- T'-J-^^gr 71 "^r^r 


MoJighir, Walliohy 33G3. Patna, Buchanan Ilmnilton^ 
154. Lower Bengal, Wallich, 3363 I. 

8. Assam, Masters, 20G, Now Dihing, (7r//7/^//, Kcw n. 61G5 
part Sylliet, J". D. Hooker, Chittagong, J". D. Hooker. 

9. Ava, Wallicli, 33u3 K. 

10. Pegu, il^^>'2^, 057, 2G78. Eangoon, i?. ^co/^. Mergui, 

Orijfith^ Kew n. G1G5 part. Tavoy, Walliclt. 
Df'sfrib. Italy. Mediterraiiea. Ethiopia. Indo-Cliina. 
Australia. Polynesia. Mexico. 

8. Cyperus siLLEiENSis, Nces ; Jlook.f. FLBrit* Ind. vi. 600. 

6. Nortli Bengal, Buchanan Ilamiltony 155, C- B, Clarke^ 

120G8, 2G510. Dacca, C. B. Clarice, G747, G885. 
8- Suddiya, Grijfith, 1 029, 1474, Kew n, 6212. East Bengal, 
Orijfitli^ 1456, Kew n. 61G6. Cacliar, Keeaan. Sillet, 
Wallicli, 33G3 P; Companigunj, C. B. Clarke, 42740. 
10. Pegu, Kurz^ 2679. Eangoon, Glegliorn^ 215. Martaban, 

Kttrz, G53. 
Distrib. Endemic in Bengal, Assam, Pegu. 

9. Cyperus puJiCitEURiMug, Kuntli ; Iloolcf. he vi. GOO. 
2. Siiid, rinwiIL 

4. Ceylon, Dcscliam]}s\ Batticaloa, TJnvaitcs^ 3558. 
6. Bengal, Wallich, 3357- 

8. Assam, Jenkins, 5G5 ; Suddiya, Griffith^ 1035, 1480, Kew 

n. GI73. 
11, Penang, Curtis, 1951, Selangor and Pabang, fide Ridley, 
Bistrib. Malava. 

10. CrPEKUs Haspan, Linn.', Ilook.f. he, vi. GOO, 

2. It. Chcnal), ?'. Thomson, 

3. Canara, tLT^/z, G91, ITohenacker, 187. 

4. Ceylon, Gardner, 957, IFa^/c^?', 19; abundant, TJtwaites^ 
799, 805 part, 965. 

5. Madras Peninsula, lib. Hcyne^ Wallich, 3369 D, Wight, 

1822 i. Central India, Ki7ig. 

6. Saliarunpore, lioj/Ie^ 10. Mongbyr, Bitchanan Hamilton, 
160; ^athpur, WalUch, 33G9 G part; North Bengal, 
Bitchanan Hamilton^ 145. Serliampore, Caret/. 

7 Sikkim, alt. 2000 feet, /u^?y, 4812. 

8 Assam, J"t'?27m?5, 740, (7r/^f/^ 1480, 1599. Khu^ra, (^rijith, 

520; alt. 5000 feet, frequent, C. 5. Clarke. Sylhet, 




Wallich, 3308, 3372. Jul 
Jhecis, J. D. Hooker, 21 Q. 






n.6216. Tavoy, IF^/?//cA, 33G9E,F. G 
Kew n. 621G. Nicobars, Kurz^ 25979- 





Distrib. Efcliiopia. Indo-China. Trop. Australia- East U. S. 

L. Cyperus tlayidus, Betz. ; Ilook.f. FL Brit, Ind. vi- 600. 

1. Kashmir, Jaeqiiemont^ 1140- Kangraj alt. 3000feet, C. 5, 

Clarice, 24647. North-west India, Boyle, 10. Nepal, 
Wallich, 33G5 B. 

2. Punjab, T. Thomson. Sind, FinwilL 

3. Canara, Ilohenaclcer^ 1G07, 1G70. Malabar, Law^ Belanger^ 


4. Ceylon, Thwaites, 805 part. 

5- Madras Tcainsula, my/A^,l822, 2874, IFaZ/iW^ 33G9 A,B, 
33G5 A, 3313 part. Coromaudel, Belanger, 210- Chota 
Xai^-pore, alt. 2000 feet, O. B. Clarice, 20815, 25192, 
33838, 3387G, 34106. Chunda, Diithie, 9812, 9813, 9814, 
9818. Bundelkiuid, Buthie, 6496, 6498- 

6. Moradabad, T. Thomson, 785. Saharunpore. T. Thonnon, 
Monghyr, Wallicli^ 3369 Gr part. SilJgori, O, Kuntze* 
Lower Bengal, Wallich^ 33G9 C, frequent, C. jB- Clarice. 
Burrisal, C B. Clarke, 16947- 

8- Assam, Jenkins, Si^nons. • Naga Hills, alt, 400 fe(3t, 0. B, 
Clarice, 41550. Khasia, Griffith, 199, Kcw n. 6209/5. 
Cachar, C. B. Clarke, 18563. Sylhet, Wallich, 3365 C. 
Chittagong, J"- D. Hooker. Chittagong Hills, Lister. 

10. Arracan, Kitrz, 077- 

11. Penang, Curtis, 1788 part. 

Disirih, Ethiopia. Yokohama. Malaya. North Australia, 




5. Madras Peninsula, Bottler, WalUcIi, 3314 A part & B (in 
lib. propr.), WijJtt, 1817, Orijlih, 88 (in hb. Berlin). 
Carnatic, G^. Thomson, 99. 

Distril). Mcditerranca. Ethiopia. 


} "^ 

. ■ ■ 1 ■ 

V K 

P « 

■■ if 

1 L 1 

t ■ 



13. Ctpeuus nitettSj liefz. ; Ilook.f. FL Brit, Ind. vi. (501. 
1. Kashmir: Bimbur, W. S. Atkinson^ 24107; Kishtvvar, alt, 
8250 feet, Sfoliczka. Rawul Piiidce, Aitchison^ 94. 

Simla, alt, 6000 feet, Gamble, 4158 B. 




Kumaon, Wallich, 3377 E, F. Kumaon, alt. G500 feet, 

Strachey t^' Winterhottom^ 4, Gurhwal, Dutliie^ 71. Mus- 

soorie, Boyle^ 8< Choor, Boyle^ 25. Nepal, Wnllich^ 
3377 B, 

a. Pcshawur, Steivart, 280, 383, 782. Siiul, Pinivill Jodh- 
poor, G. King, Jullundur, Jacg^uemont^ 951. 

5. Madras PcninPuIaj WiyJity 1818, CamphelL Aiirun<;abad, 

Hardiviclce* Chota Nagpore, Wood ; frequent, C. B, 

6, Moradabad, T. Thomson, 212. Eajmahal, /Lwr^*, Mongbir, 

Wallich, 3377 A, C. 
7* Darjceling, alt. 6500 feet, Scldagintweit, 1251G. Sikkim 
Terai, J. D, Hooker, C. B. Clarke, 35098, 35100, G. 

8. As^am, Griffith, 1610, 1467 (hb. Mus. Brit), FisJier. 

East Bengal, Griffith, Ke^r n. 6171. 
10. Irravvaddi Bank, Wallich, 3377 D. Burma, Griffiah,Kew 

n. 6170- 
Distrib. Mediterranea. Szeeliuen. 

14, Ctperus leucocephalus, lietz. ; llook.f. L c. vi. 602. 
3. Concau, Canara, and Mysore, Law. 

5. Coromandclia, BusselL 

6. Monghir, Wallich, 3445 D (in hb. propr.), 3445 C (in hb, 

Kew). Burdwan, Burraknr, Kurz. 
8. Chundragona (in Chittagong ?), Koeniy. 
10. Pegu, Kitrz, 647. Moulmein, Heifer, 295, 328, Parish, 
66 mainly. Amherst, Wallich, Tenasserim, Heifer, Kow 
n. 6247/1. 

Bistrih. Africa Trop. Malaya. Trop. Australia. Brasil, 

15. Cyperus abenamus, Uetz. ; Hook.f. I c. vi. 602. 

2. Sind, Pinwill, Kurrachco, Stocks^ Punjab Plain, Duthie, 

3. Bombay, DalzelL Concan, Laiv. North Canara, Talbot, 



4* Batticaloa, Gardner^ TJiivallcs, 70S. 

5. Madras Peninsula, Roitler, WigU^ 181G (8, 2920 in hb. 

Berlin), Wallich, Mm, 3435 (hb. proj^r.), 3314 A part 

(hb. propr., Kew), 8535 (hb. Mus. Brit.) ; Coloor, G. 

Thomson ; IS'ellore, Gamble, 12395 ; Cldngleput, Gamble^ 

17193. Orissa, W. 8, Atkinson, 21729, 
Distrih. Meditcrranca, 

16. Ctperus co>^glomekatu8, Rottl). ; Rooh. /, FL Brit. Ind. 
vi. 602. 
2. Sind; Sibi, alt. 500 feet. Lace. Balucliistban, Elliott. 
Distrih. Mediterranea. North Trop. Africa. 

17, Ctpeeus PACHTBRHizrs, Boech.] Iloolc.f. L c. yi. 603» 

3. Bombay, Woodrow ; Bhiwa, Coohe. Laccadive Isles, 


4. Ceylon, Thwaiies, 808, Wiglii, 2381; North Ceylon, 

Bistrih. Bndenaic in South India* 

18. Cypeuus effusus, Eotih, ; Hool'.f, /, c, vi. C03, 
2* Sind, BinioilL 
Bisirib. Mediterranea. North Trop. Africa. 

19. Ctpekus Atkit^soni, C, B. Clarice}, Ilook.f. L c. vi. 603. 
1- Kashmir, Biinbur, W. S, AtJcinson, 24190. North-west 

Himalaya, Kotgurh, T, Thomson, 
2. Sind, Kurrachee, Stocks^ hb. BalzeiL 
Bistrib, Eademic in North-west India. 

20. CypERTJS DiEPUSU??, Vahl] Ilook.f. I. c, vi. 603. 

4. Kornegalle, Tktcaites, 2879. 

5. Madras Peninsula, Bottler, Walliclu 33G2 B (hb. propr.), 

Wight, 1003, 2374 (lib. Berlin). Courtallum, Wight, 

6. Lower Bengal, Wallich, 3358 B (hb, pro[)r.), 

7- Sikkim, T Anderson, 1344; K, Eungait, J. B. Hooker; 

alt. 750-3000 feet, common, C. B, Clarice. 
8. Assam, G^rj^M, 1605, Kew n. 6162, Je?;iH??5, 574. Khasia, 

Griffith, Kew n. G218, J". D. Hoolcer, 1902, Wallich. 

k - 4 ' -M 





Cachar, Kcenati. Paudua, J, B, Iloolcer^ 420- Chattnck, 
Griffith, Kew n. C218. Chitlagong, J- B. ILool-er, 3Sr>. 

10. Pegu, Kiirz^ G70 (hb. Hanco). llangoon, Wallicli,mij2 A 

(hb. propr.). Moulmein, Parish^ 294- Mergui, Griffith^ 
Kew II- C354. Tenasserim, lleJfer^ Kewn. GlGl. Anda- 
man s, Kiirz. 

11, Penang, Wallich, 3370 A (hb. propr.). Malacca, Griffith* 
Distrih. Ethiopia. China* Malaya* Polynesia. Neotropica. 

21. CypKRUs i'UBESQUAiMA, Slcud. \ Ilook- f. FL Brit. Ind. vi, 
4, Ceylon, Thioaites, 3931. 

8. Assam, Jenlcins. East Bengal, Griffith^ Kew n. G1G2. 

G-aro Hills, alt. 1200 feet, (7. B. Clarke, 42993. Khasia, 
J. B, IIooTcer ; alt. 1000 feet, G. B. Clarice, 546B. Naga 
Hills, alt- 450 feet, C B. Clarke, 37821, 40791. Cacbar, 
Keenan, Chittagongj C. B. Clarke^ 19089. 

9, Bhamo, J. Anderson. 

10. Arraean, K^irz. Burma, Griffith, 320, 324, Kew n. 6162. 

Teuasserim vel Andamans, Ilelfer, Kew n. G1C4/1, 

Packman, Mergui Archipelago, J, Anderson. 

11. Penang^ Wallich, 3370 B (hb. propr.). Perak^ Wray, 

Bistrib. Malaya. Polynesia, 

22. CrPERUs IlELrEui, Boeck. ; Hook.f^ I. c. vi, 604. 

10. Pegu, Knrz, 2G80, Burma, R, Chappedoiig, Wallich, 
3528 (hb. propr.). Mergui, GriJ/ith, 321, Kew u. G140, 
Tciiassiierim vel Andamans, ILclfcr^ Kew n. 6140. 

Bistrib, Endemic ia Pegu. 

23. Ctpebus MULTisncATUs, Boeck,; Jlook.f. L c. vi. 604. 
8. Cachar, Keenan, 
10. Tenasderiiu vel Andamans, ILclfer^ Kew n. 6163. 
Bistrib. Eadeniic in Assam and Pciru. 

24. Cypeuus Kuhzii, G B. Clarke ; Ilook.f. I. c. vi. 604, 
10. Andamans, Phaeacia, Kiirz. 
Bistrib. Endemic in Andamans. 

1 _ 



25, Ctperuis BA^^CAN^JS, Miq, Fl. Ind, Bat. Snpph [1860], 

pp, 260, 599, 

[C. iurgidiilus, C. 13. Clarke ; Hoolv. f. Tl- Brit, Tnd. vi. G04.] 

tO- Pegu, Ki(.rz^ G55. Marlubaiij Kurz, Monlmeiu, Heifer^ 

290, R. Scoit. Mcrgui, Griffith, 88. Amherst, Wallich. 

Tenasi^erim, Heifer^ Kew u. 61G4. Tavoy and Pcnangj 

Walliclt^ 3473 (lib- propr.), 
11. Peuaug, Curtis, SS3. Malacca, Griffith, Kew n- 6164, 

King. Singapore, HidUij, 

Distrib. Malaya. 

26. Cyperus hadians, Nees\ IIool^:./. l. c. vi. 605. 

10. Tenasscriin, IleJfer, Kew n. 6209. 

11. Penangj Curtis^ 8S4. IMalacca, Griffith^ Maiiigay, 1721, 

2987, 3191. Pahang, BidUij, Singapore, WalUch, 3427 
(hb. propr,), 3371 B part (hb, propr.), Ridlnjj 1747. 
.Distrih. China. Malaya. 

27. CvPERUS COMPRESSUS, Linn,; Uoolcf. L c. vi. 005. 

1. Gurlnval, alt. 11,000 feet, Schlagintiveit^ 7841. Knmaon, 

alt. 5000 feet, ButMe, 4490. Dehra Dlioon, Duilde, 2110. 

2. P. Chenab, T. Thomson. Slnd^ JPimcilL 

3. Poena, Woodroic, 173. Canara, Law. Mangalore, Metz, 


4. Ceylon, Moon; vei'v common, Thicaites^ 812, 

5- Coromandelia, Bclanger, 221. Madra??, Wight^ 181 


Madras Peninsula, Wighty 1814, 18 (hb. Berlin), Wallich, 
3308 C, D, E (hb. propr.) ; Kondarada, Motilcr ; Car- 
natic, Cr. Thomson, GO. Mysore, Zaz^;. Central India, 

(9-. King, Chota N^agpore, Wood, 

6. Moradabad, T. Thomson, 263. Saharunporc, Rogle^ 1- 
Oudli, -K. Thompson, 409 ; Luckuow, Bo?iavla, 238. 
Natlipur, WalUch, 3314 C (hb. propr.). Lower Bengal, 
Wallich, 3:'>08 B, common, (7. J?. Clarice ^^ Calcutta, C 5. 
CZrtr/.'^, 33G02; Ivhoolna, Grijil\ 167, Kew n. 6181. 

7- Sikkirn, T. Anderson^ 1341^ alt. 5500 feet, TreutJer, 381. 

8. Assam, Gr//;Z/A, 1457, 1481, J'fi^z/jms, 207, 507; E. Megna, 

J: B. Iloolcer, 180. 
LO. Pegu, MacClelland, E. Irrawaddi, WallicK 3308 F (hb. 
propr.). Aiidamans, Kurz, 

I - . -V 


11* Malay Peninsula, Griffltli^ Kew n. G181, Pcuang, Ridlei/j 
177'^ Perak, Wray^ 706. Singapore, Kunstler, 53, 
mdhf/, 34. 

Distrib, Mediterranean. Ethiopia. Indo-China» Oceania. 
East U.!^. Neotropica. 

28. CypLitus GLAUEii, Linn, ; JIool\f, FL Brit. Ind, vi- (JOG. 

2. Sind, Pinwilh 

Disfrih. Paliearctica ; from S,E, Europe tliroughout the Orient 

to Samarcand, Cabul, and S. Persia. 

29. CTrJi:RUs aktstatus, Iloith,\ IIooh.J\ Z. c. vi. GOG. 

1. Kashmir, alt. 7500 feet, 6\ B. Clarke, 312GG. Skardo, 
ScMaginticeit^ 063, C314. Drat^, StoUczka. Chumba, 
Scldagintiveit^ 1626. Punjab Himalaya, Jacq^ucmont^ 127G. 
Dalhou^ie, alt. 5500 metr., O, B. Clarke, 22845. Piti, 

T. Thomson. Kedarkanta and Mussoorie, Roijle, 26, 27. 
Kiimaon, 8lraclie)j ^ Winte^^hottom^ 2, DatMe, 4487, 
6079- Gurhwal, O, King. Nepal, alt. 11,000 feet, 
Butliie^ 3457* 

3. Poena, Jacqucmont, 315. 

4. Ceylon, very abundant, TJiwaites^ 96G. 

5. Coromandelia, Belanfjcr^ 215. Madras Peninsula, Wight, 
1810, 1S20, Wallich, 3374, 3375 A, B. Cannanore, 
CamplelL Central India, O. King. Chota Kagpore, 
alt. 1000 feet, C. B. Clarke, 2479J.. 

6. Moradabad, T. Thomson, 312. Monghir, Wallich, 337G A 

7. Sikkim, alt. 8000 feet, J". D. Hooker \ Laelioong, alt. 
9000 feet, J. D. Hooker, 

Distrih, Ethiopia. Australia, Nearetica. Neotropica. 

30. Ctpehus Ikia, Linn,] Hook. J, L c, vi. G06. 

1. Kashmir, Jacqiiemont, 873 ; Kishtwar, SchJar/intiveit, 29d4t) 
Eawul Pindee, Aitchison, 129. North-west India, Royle^ 
3, 4, 13, 17, 21. Kumaon, alt, 4000 feet, Strachey Sf 
Winterhotiom, 10. Gurhwal, 5500 feet, Buthie, 4480. 
Mussooree, T. Thomson, 279. Nepal, Wallich, 3360 G 
(hb, propr.). 

2. Punjab, T, Thomson. 

Z, Poona, Jacquemonf,'^]^^. QojiQnn, Law, Mahibar, i?e/«;?- 
ger, 227. Nilgiri Mts., alt. 2000 feet, GamUe, 17982. 
Mangalc)re, Ilohcnacker, 188, 


-V - . - 



4. Ceylon, very abundant, Thwaiies, 811 (hb. Mas, Brit,). 

5. Madras Peniusula, Bottler, Wujid, 1S41, WalUch.ZmQ A, 

B, C, D, 33G1 (lib. propr.). Mytsore, Ileyne, Quilon, 
WigU, 28G9. Saugor, Vicarij. Chuuda, Duthie, 08:31. 

6. Moradabad, T. Thomson^ 270. Lower Bengal, Wallichy 
3360 F, I, K; abundant, C. B. Clarice. 

7- Sikkim, J. D. I/ooIcer; Sonada, alt- 7000 feet, Kurz. 

8. Assam, Masters^ 200, 570. E. Megna, J! D, IIooTcer^ 

176. Siibet, WalUch, 33C0 E. Gnro HiUs, alt. 1750 feet, 
a B, Clarice, 43056. Khasi Hills, J. 2>. Ilooher. • 

9. Tiinan, J^ Anderson. 

10. Pegn, /l/^r:r, 675, 2G77. Burnm, ira/Z/c/^ 3360H. Moul- 
mein, lleJfer, 253. Mergui, Grijlth, Kew n. 6178. 
Andaman^ and Nieobars, Kiirz. 

n, Penang, Curtis^ li)52. Malacca, Grij^lliy Kew n. 6178. 

Singapore, JiTi/rr, 3003, 2fu//^^y, 37. 

'Distrih. Mcditerranca. Indo-CIiina. Auylralia* 

Oypekus Ikta, Linn^i 

Yar. /G. panic irodMis, C, B. Clarice in Jlooh.f. Fl. Brit. Lid. 

vi, 607. 
1. Jamn, Scldaginiwcit, 3060. 

3. Bombay, Coolce. 

4. Ceylon, Walker^ Thwaites^ 811 part. 

5. Madras Peninsula, Wight, 1810 (hb. propr.). 

6. Moradabad, T. Thomson, 2S0. 
).0. South Andaman, Kurz. 

Bistrih. China. Japan. Malaya. Polynesia. 

31. Ci'PERUS OLOMEHATUs, Linn. ; Tloolc.f. L c. vi. 607, 
1. Kashmir: Sonamnrg, alt. 7000 feet, T. Thomson. 

Bisfrib, Palaearctica. China. Japan. 

32. Ctperus DisTANs, Liuu, f. ; Boole* f. ?. c. vi. G07. 

1. Kumaon, Stracltey ^ Winterhottomy 12; alt. 2700 feet, 
Duthie, 3458, 60S3. Mussoorie, G.King. North-west 
India^ Bogle, 15, 16, 20, 21. Dehra Dhoon, Duthie^ 


3. Nilgiri Mts., G. Thomson. 

4. Ceylon, very abundant, Thicaifes, 810, 3844 (in ]Muf(. 


5. Madras Penin.^uhi, Wallich, 3366 A,B, C, D, Wight, 1S43, 

22 (in lib. Berlin); Mysore and Carnatic, G. TJtomson. 


6. Bindoo^thm.T.Thomson^Uld. Mou<;h jr,WalUcJf,^n6GK 

Bengalj frequent, C, B. Clarice, Dacca, e/". _D, JlooJcer, 

7. Sikkim, J. D, lloolccr. 

8. East Eengalj Grljpth^ Kew n. 615(i. Upper Assam, 

JenlcUis, 205, 5GG, GriJJltli^ 14G9. Caclur, C. 5. Clarke^ 
Khasia, Ilooh.f. Sf T. Thovis. 

9. Bhaino aiid Ilotha^ J. Anderson. 

10. Pegu, Kitrz^ 651, G52. Arracaii, Kurz. Moulmcin, 

Jlelfer, 584, Pam/^ 268. Eaiigoon, WaUiclt, 3366 C, 
Attran^ WalUcli^ 3350. Mergui, Orijflfli^ 151. Aiida- 
mnns, Ktirz. 

11. Penaiig, WaUlch, 3:]GG F, C/?fr//5, 1832. Malacca, GriJJlth, 

Kcw n. 6197. Perak, Wray, Singapore, ^«r^, 3001, 
Jiiinstler, 44, Ridley^ 35, Jagor^ 41. 
Dislrih. Canaries. Ethiopia. Indo-China. Oceania. Neo- 
tropica . 

33. Cyperus nutak^, Vahl\ Ilook.f, FL Brit. Ind. vi, 607. 
1. Gurhwal, 6r. King^ Biitlde^ 36S. Kumaou, Strachey ^ 
Winterhotfom^ 8, Didhie^ 4484. R, Sutledge (Eampore), 
T. Thomson. 

3. Pouibay, Dalzcll, Aimmallaj and Piilney Mt^:., Beddome, 

Coorg, Ilohenacher^ 2399. 

4. Dambool, Thivaites^ 3844 part. 

5. Mysore or Carnaticj G. Thomson. Cliota Nagporo, O. B, 

Clarice, 20479, Gamhle, 8S71. 

6. Mongliyr, WalUcli, 3317 13. Eajmalial, Kitrz, Klioolna, 

(7. B. Clarke, 33493. 

7. Nepal, R. Tambur, J". D. Hooker. Sikkim Terai, J". 2). 

Hooker, O. B. Clarke, 8899, 36760. 

8. Assam, Simons, Khasia: Mahadeo, Griffith, Kew n. 615G; 
Borpani, J, D. Hooker, 1645. Jowye, O. B. Clarke^ 
18357. Cacliar, Keenan, 

Bistrih. Angola. 

31. Cypeiius ELEUsi^oiDKs, Kuutli \ Hook^ f\ /. c. vi. GOB, 

1. Ka^]imir, alt- 3300 feet (Eajaori), Seldagintweif, 12541, 

Pawul Pindec, Aitchison^ 245. Chuinba, C. B. Clarke, 

24286. E* Chenah, T. Thomson, 1588. Dehra Dhoon, 

Jacquemonf, 410, Boyle^ 94. 
3. Suleiman Mts., Sanders, Sind, Binivill. Punjab, Stewart^ 

294, 384, Aitchison, 244. Marwav, Biithie, 4909, 4913- 


3. Bomho^y, I>aheU,Lai(?, Poona, G. Xing. Canara> Young. 
Nilgiri Mts.j G, Thomson. 

4. Doonibera District, Tlavaites^ SOil, 

6, Madras Peninsula, Wirjld, 2382, Wallich,^^^Q{\\h. propr.), 
3347 A (lib. propr.). Coiinhatore, (7. _B. Clarke, Kur- 
nool, alb. 1000 feet, GamUe, 1/738. Central India, 
G, King^ 20- Saugor, Vicary, Jubbalpore, O. Kuntze^ 
7341. Chota Nagpore, C. B. Clarice, 20423, 21220. 

6. Moradabad, T. Thomson^ 309, Suharunpore, Royle^ 14. 

7. Darjceling, 3300 feet, G, B. Clarice. 
8- Naga Hills, C. i?. (7/ar>tr, 41527, 

Bistrih. Mediterrauea. North Trop. Africa. China* Malaya. 



6- Nortli Bengal, Siligorl, C B. Clarice, 11G88. 

8. Assam, Jen/cmsy blasters. Secbsagur, Kicrz^ C B. Clarke^ 

38029. Cachar, Kee^ian, Sylhet, G. B. Clarke, 7235, 

42761 bis, Jhccls, J. D. Hooker, 263. 
Bistrib, Tonkin. 

30. Cyperus malaccensts, Lam.) Rook.f, I. c, vi. 608. 
2. Sind, Pinwill 

5. Circart!, Boxhitrgh^ 19G. 

6. Bengal, in the Soondreebun very common, Walllcliy '3S29 
M, N part, 3342 C part, 3351 A part, 3352 C part (said to 
have been collected in Nepal, but tlie sheet is so mixed 
that I attach no weigbt to the locality), Griffith^ Kew 
n. 6206; Dacca, (7. B, Clarke, 1G958; Biirisal, G B. 
Clarke, 16935 ; Noakhali, J". _D. Hooker, 

10, Pegu, with Arracan, Kurz, Mergui, Griffith, 57, 317, 
Kew n. 6147. 

11, Singapore, Kunstler, 106, Hullett, 238, 282. Pahang, 


Bhtrib, S. Persia. Indo-Malaya. N. Australia. Lombok. 

37. Ctpehus pilosus, Valil', Ilook.f. I. c. vl- 609. 

1. AVest Himalaya, Boyle, 29; alt. 4000 feet, Chumba and 
Dhurmsala, C. B, Clarke, 24693. Ivumaon, Stracltey Sf 
Winterhotiom, 11, WallicJt, 3334 C, 3335 D, alt. 5000 feet, 
Biithie, 6076. Gurbwal, alt. 5C0D feet, Buthie, 4488. 
Nenab WaUich. 3334 B. 3355 H. 


I - 



3.. Bombay, Burn. IN'ilglri Mts., G. Thomson, 4. 

4. Central Province, very commou, Thwaifes^ 797, Macrae, 


5. Madras Peninsuhi, WaJUch, 8334 a part, WigU, 2390. 

Chota Nnfjpore, alt. 1500 feet, frequent, 0. B. Clarke, 

6, Purnea, Bucltanan Hamilton, 148 ; Nathpnr, TlalUch, 
333GEpart, 3355 P, Lower Bengal, Wallich, 3334 D, 


7. Sikkiai, J, B. Hooker. Bhotan, alt. 4000 feet, Gamhle, 

8- Assam, Joskins, 107, Masters^ 5G9. Suddiya, Grr/fith^ 
1603. Naga Hills, alt. 5000 feet, C, ./?. Clarice, 41501, 
Khasi Hills, alt. 4500 feet, commoi], O. B. Clarke. 

Grifith, 422, 1313, Kew n. 61G2/1 

B, Hooker^ 1517. 

Wall I 

Pundua, J. B, Hooker^ 308, 

E. Soorma, J. B. Hooker, 324. 
n. G154, 0195, Cncliar, Keenan. 


10. Pegu, Kitrz.^ 648, (349, 2()74, Ari-aran, Kurz. R. Irra- 
waddi, WaJlicli, 3355 I part, 100 (hb. propr.). Tavoy, 

JVallicli. Mer 



25977 bis. 


(Kew n. G208/1). Kicobars, Kurz, 

11. Penang,(7Mr/^>, 1830, Z)^^r?V^5e?2, 3491. Malacca, Griffith, 

Kew n. G152, G20S. Singapore, Kurz^ Kunstler, 111. 
Bistrih. Djur. Indo-China, Trop, Australia. 

Ctpertjs PiLOsvs, Valil: 

Var. /?. OBLTQUA, C. B. Clarke in Hook.f, FL Brit, Lid. vi. GIO. 

3. Nilgiri Mts., JTolienacker, 944 part. 

5. Madras Peninsula, WalUcli^ 3334 a part. 

8* Assam, GriJJfllfy 1G04. Khasia, J. B. Hooker. 
10. Pegu, Xurz, 649 (in lib. Calcutta). 
Bistrih, Java. 


Var. y. polya^^tua, G. B. Clarke in Hook.f. L c* vi, 610. 

6. Bengal (Myme^nsingb), C B. Clarke, 77G3. 
Bistrib, Endemic in Mymensiiigh. 

38. Cypeeus babakensis, Steud, in Book.f, I, c, vi. 610. 

6. Nnthpur, Wallieh, 3336 E part. Serliampore, Lemann 
Mymensingli, C, B. Clarke, 7773. 



8. East Bengal, Griffith Kcw n. 6207. 
Distrib. Java. 



4. Ceylon, Burmann, 27, WaVcer; 

3752, 4018, 3310 (in lib. DC). 

5. Madras Peninsula, Heme, JVa 


2309 (hb. propr.), 38, 2871 (lib. Berlin), Koenig. Palicot 
Hills, Bottler. Mysore and Carnatic, G. Thomson, 100. 



Q. B. Clarice, 84(30, 24711, 33471, 33187, 33192, 33607, 
33626, 370G3. Mymensingh, Grijith, Kew n. 6160, 
C. B. Clarke, 77iJo. 
8. East Bengal, Grijilh, Kcw n. 6211. 

10. Arraean, Kurz. Morgui, Griffith, 342. 

11. Penang, Curtis, 17S7. Kelantan, Ridley. 
Distrib. China. Malaya. Queensland. 

Ctperus procerus, Botlb. : 



5. Chota Nagpore, alt. 2000 feet, C. B. Glarhe, 25079. 

Distrih. EndeiTsic in Ceylon and Chota Nagpore. 


I. Ci'PEKUs iJULBOSUS, VaJd ; Iloolcf. I. c. vi. 611. 
2. Baloocliistau, Frere. Sind, Dalzell. Kurrachcc, Stoclcs. 

4. Ceylon, Trimen. 

5. Mysore and Carnatic, G. Thomson, 102. Triehinopoly, 

G. Kinrj. Madras Peninsula, WigU, 1824, 1825, 1828, 
29 13 (iu lib. Berlin), Bottler, Wallich, 3317 A part, B, C 
(in lib. propr.). 

6. Aligurli, Dutlde, 7670. 

Distrib. Mediterranea. Ethiopia. Trop. Au^stralia. 



Madras I'cninsula, Wallich, 3361, Wi(jht, '. 

Gamble, 12308. Bellary, Gamble, 1777-4. 

Griffith, Kew n. 6214. Calcutta, Boxburqh. 




• »^ . 


Distrih. Meditcrranea. Ethiopia, Siam. Australia. East 
U.S. Ncotropica, 

42. Ctpkjius TKGKTTroEMTs, Eoxl. \ IIoolc^ /. FL Brit. Ind, vl. 


5. Madras, Wallicli, 3351 B. Bundclkund, Buthie, G4S7. 

6. Bengal, WaUich, 3351 A part (lib. propr.). Calcutta^ 
Kurz (hi). ITance, G193 part). Mymcnsingh, (7. B. Clarke^ 
1730S. South liengal, J. B. Hooker, 12, C. /?. Clarke, 
8194, 8203, 2003G. 

8. X^^^m^ Jenkins, G r ij/i tJf , 14iG0, Kew n. G201; Kamroop, 
alt. 500 feet, O. 7?. Clarke, 38079. Chittagong, Rook /. 
^ T. Thorns., 40, 

10, MoiilnuMii, 0. Kunize. 
Bistrib. China. Japan. 

43. Cypkkus couymuosus, Bolfb. ; Hook. /I /, c. vi. G12. 

1. Kumaon, Wallich^33ol E (hb, pmpr,, Calcutta). Nopal, 
WalUch, 3525 E pnrt (lib. propr.). 

4. Kornognlh*, Thtcaifes^ 809. 

5, Madras Peniiisuhi, Bottler. Diiidygul, Koenig, Chota 

Nagpore, llazaribagh, alt. 2000 feet, <7. 7?. Clarke, 33S20. 
^^6. V^ii\\^v\Buclimian Hamilton, 158. Bengal, Wallich, 3351 

U, JI (hl>- pi'opr,), C. i?. C/r/r.^-^, 852:^,33128. 
8. Assam, GriJUh, 1459. Sylhet, Widlieh, 3351 E (hb. 

propr.), 6\ B, Clarke, 17951. Puiidua, J. Z). Hooker, 

10. Pegu, Kurz, GG8, GGO, 2GS3. Arracan, Kurz, 667. 

Burma, Wallich, 3351 G (hb, propr.), 
Distrih, Ethiopia. Neotropica. 

Cypeuus COrLl-MBOSITS, Bottb. : 

Var. /3. PAis-ooiiEr, 6\ i?. Clarke in Rook,f. L c. vu G12. 

5. Madras Peniiisulu, Wallicli, 3351 C (hb. Keu). Tiune- 
vclli, Bidie. 

Blstrib. Nossibo. 

44. Cypeuus scaktosus, B. Br. ; Hook.f. I. c, vi. G12. 

6. Bengal, Soondreebun, C B. Clarke, 8465, 33153, 33466, 

10. Pegu, Kurz, 633, 68 1 (iu hl>. Calcutt:0. 
Vistrib, North and East Australia. 



i5. Ctperus maCEKjC. B. Clarke ; ITook.f. Fl. Brit. Lid. vi. 613. 
5. Central India: Cliuiida (near Karjeli), DutJiic, 0S37. 
8. Chittagong: 'R. TCornopliuHcc (on the rapids), C.B. Clarke^ 

10. K. Kliaboung (on tlie river-banlvs), Kurz, U71 (hb. Kew, 

Distrih. Endemic in India. 

15. CrpERUs TEOKTUM, TlooJc.f. I. c. vi. G13. 

1. ChumTia, alt. 8000 fecr, C. B. Clarice, 23GSS. Kangra, 
alt. G300 feet, G. B. Clarice, 23S00. Kuinaon, Wallich, 
3352 D (hb. propr.), alt. 5000 feet, Z>«;A/>, 4t83. Almora, 
alt. 4000 feet (cultivati'd), Madden (for mats), Strachey Sf 
Winterhoftom, 0. Nopal, TValUch, 3352 C part (bb. propr.), 

1013, 3330 (hb. Mus. Brit.). 

2. Siud, Pin will. 

3. Bombay, Cooke. Cinican, Z,nw. 

4. Ceylon, Koenirj ; not uncommon, ThwaileSy 813. 

5. Madra.s Peninsula, Wallich, 3330 part (hb. propr.), 3352 

A, B (hb. propi-.), Wifjlit, 1814. Vellore, Eottlev. Car- 


Cuddapah, alt. 1000 

feet, (7«w We, 10800. Chinglcput, G^amW^, 17184. Central 
Indi I : Chundn, Biitliic, 983G. Jubbulpore, O. Kuntze. 
Chota Nagporr, Wood, IGl, GamhU, 9103 ; alt. 700-2800 
feet, common, C. B. Clarke, 211.84, 247G3, 3419S. 
6, Bcliar, B. Stone, J, D. Hooker, 421. Bengal, Itoxlmrghy 

Walliclt, 3332 A (hb. propr., 



tegetum, Jioxb.^'), 


7. Sikkim Tcrai, alt. 500-1000 feet, J. D. 

Clarice, 10127, 3G901. 

8. Garo Hills, alt. 1000 feet, C. B. Clarke, 42983. Khasia : 
Pundiia, J. I). Hooker ; alt. 5000 feet, Hook. f. ^' 
T. Thorns. ; alt. 3000 feet, Borpaui, C. B. Clarke, 1G4G8. 

9. Muneypoor, alt. 3500 feet, C. B. Clarke, 41974. 
10. Karon Hills, Kurz, 673 (lib. Calcutta). 
Distrih. Endemic in India. 

CvPEuus TEai".TiT>r, Boxb. : 

Var. (3. A^iBiGUA, G. B. Clarke in llook.f. 1. c. vi. p. 613. 
5. Madras Peninsula, Wallich, 3330 part (hb. propr., hb. 
Calcutta), 3329 E (hb. K(i\y, not of hb. propr.). 

Disirib. Endemic in Madras. 


* I I 




3. Anamallay Mts., alt. 5500 foef, Bcddome. 

4. Ceylon, Thioaites, 807. 


7. Nejial, Wallich, 3321 
Bhotan, C. 5. CZ«r^f. 

8. Assam, Jenkins, U9G. 

<?»'i^?'/^ 1601, Kcw 

Siiddiya, Grtffitlu East Bengal, 
n. 6210. Khasia, alt. 4000 feet, 

plentiful, a B. CJarhe. T<"aga Hills, Q. i?. CZaryl'd?. 
Cachar and Comilla, C. B. Clarke. Pundua, J, X>. Jhoher, 



10 Andainans, Kurz. 

11. Penang, Belesscrt, CurlU, 1833. Malacca, G^rf/T/^// 
n. 6209. Singapore, Kurz, JlaUett, Ilarland. 

JJistrib. Tfop. Africa. Cliiiia. Malaja. Q 
48. Cypekus lonous, Linn,; Uooh.f. I. c. vJ. 014. 


3. Quctta, Hamilion (lib. Calcutta). Mt. Aboo, G. A7«y 
(lib. Calcutta). 

Bistrih. Pala^arctica. [Var. jl tenuijlora also in Etliiopia.] 

49. CTPKIirs STE^sOSTACHYTIS, Bcnth. : 

Var. /3 INDICA, a B. Clarke in Ilook.f. I. c. vi. 614. 




" India Orient " (hb, Forster) 

Bistrih. Endemic in Madras. [C. steiiostacliyus, Benth., type 
is an Australian plant, also seen from Java.] 

0. Cypeeus iiOTUNDus, Linn.; JTook.f. I. c. vi. 614. 

1. Kurrum Valley, Aitclmon, (>84. Gilgit, Wintcrhoitom, 
928 ; alt. 5500 feet, Giles, 246. Ea%vul Pindee, Aitchison, 
109, 128. KasLmir, Jacquemont, 663. Srcenuggur, alt. 
5000 feet, ScMacjiniiveit, 4226, 4475. Kislitwarr^c/iz^^- 
intweit, 5114, O. B. Clarke, 31354. Simla, Jac<iuc,wnU 


3322 D. 


4/" Win ferl) 

Wallich, 3322 E 
IVopa], Wallich 

2. Lahore, Brandis, 2615. E. Sutlcdgc, Jacquemo7it, 1102. 
Jullundur, G. B. Clarke, 2:S423. Sind, Stocks, 668. Mt! 
Aboo, G. King. 

'■■ ,. ' 


3- Poona, Jacquemont, 310, 3S2. Canara, Ilolienacker , 
Nilgiri Mt^., G. Thomson^ Foiilkesy Perroltet, 292. 

4. Ceylon; a troubleaome \vec't, Thwaifes^ SOk 

5. Madras Penin^sula, WiffJif, 32, 32 B, 1826, 1826 a, 1827, 
1828, 2808; WalUch, 3817 A part, 3329 C, E, G, H, 
3332 C, 3353 B, 3356* IVIyjsore and Caniatic, (?. Thomson^ 
102. Trauquebar, Bofller, Poudicherry, Ferrottei. 
Madras, Griffith, SO, 87. Kurnool, Gamlle, 1088G. 
Chino-leput, Gamble, 12197, 17183, E. Kistua, GamhU, 
12658. Ceiitral India, G, King. 

6. Moradabad, T, Thomson, 216. Patua, Wallich, 3329 D, 
3353 A. Monghyr, Xr^^ZZ/c/^ 3373 part. Ben^-al, 7FaZ/?c7y, 
3322 A, C; evtrywliore a weed, CK B, Clarke, Barisal,. 
J. D. Hooker^ 652. 

8. East Bungal, Griffith, Kcw d. 6193. Kha^ia, Griffith, 
142, U[)per A.^yam, Jenlcins, 203. 

9. Burma, JVallich, 33291* Anuirapoora, JiucJianau Hamiltov. 

10. Pegu, Kiirz, 682. Moulmeiii, Farish^ 264. Mcrgui, 

Griff thy Kevv n, 61.91, Hclfer^^ew n. 6194. Andaman^, 

11. Penang, Curtis, 1981, Siugapore, Kurz^ 3007, KumtleVy 

112, 72/t/76^y, 74. 
Distrib, Pala)arctica. Ethiopia. Iiido- China. Oceana. U.8. 

Var. /?. 100-FLORA, C, B. Clarke in Ilook.f. FL Brit. Ind. vL 

5, Madras Peninsuln, O. Thomson^ 25S. 

6. Mongliyr, WaUich, 3373 part (hb. propr.)* 
Bistrib. Natal and Delagoa Bay. 

51. Cti'EUus stolonifkuus, Eetz, ; IfooJc,/. I. c. vi. 615. 

2. Sind, FinwilL 

3. Gujerat, . Bombay, Jacqitcmont^ 430. Nilgiri Mte., 


4. Ceylon, Trimen. 

5. Madras Peninsula, Shitter, Wight, 1819, 1824, 31 (in hb. 

Berlin), 1825 part, 1825 B, Wallich, 3315 A, B, C (hb. 
propr.), 3309 part. Tranquebar, Klein. Carnatic, G. 
Thomson. Chingleput, Gamble^ 17195, 
10, Ins. Nicobar, . 

. \ 



11. PenanfT, Q, King. Palianj, Uidley, 1000, Singapore, 

JT^/rr, 2091, 7?^V%, 1749. 
Distrib, Mauritius. Cliina* Maluya. Nortli Australia. 

52. CrPEuus Fenzelianl's, SlaiuL ; Ilooh.f, FL Brit. Ind. vi. 615- 

5. Madras, Chingapuna, G. Thomson, 3S3. 
Distrib, Meditcrrauea, Trop. Africa. 

53. Cyperus suecapitatus, C, B, Clarke in RooJc. f, L c. vi. 


3* Nilgiri Mts., alt. 2000 feet, Gamble, 17952. 

6. Madras Peninsula, WalUcTi, JiSlG, ex licrb. Wight (in 
hb. propr., Kcw). 

Distrib. Endemic in Indian Peninsula. 

54. CrPEurs tuberosus, lioftb. ; IlooJc.f. I. c. vi, GIG 

3. Concan, Laiv. 

4, Ci^ntral Pj'ovince, Tluvailcs, 3750, 39GG. 

Wifjlii, 1828, 1S29, 1830, 32 


Cirears (?), WaUich, 3329 A (hb. propr.). 

(lib. propr.). 
Wight, 1825. 

6. Cah'utta and 24 Perguiuuihs, 0. B. Clarke, 8489, 8515, 



Distrib, Ethiopia. China. Australia. 

Cypekus ESCULK^xrs, Linn.) Ilooh.f. I, c. vi. GIG. 

1. D< bra Dhoon, DutUe. 24G0. 

2. R. Chenab, T. Thomsoii. 


3. Poou:i, Jacqnemont, 277. Nilgiri Mts., Ilohenacher, 1294. 


(hb. prop.!',). My 

aiul Caiiiatic, G. Thomson, 09. Cuddapore, alt. 4G00 feet, 
Gamble, 15l2;i. 
6. Moradabiul, T Thomson, US. Delhi, C B. C/arl-e, 233G 1 . 
Bi-^trib. Mediterranean Ethiopia. Nearctica. ISeotro^nca. 


50, CrPERus RAUiATus, Vahl ; IIooJc, f. L c. vi. G17. 

6- Agra, hb. Mnnro, North Bengal, Siligori, (7. B. Clarke, 
2G478. Daeea, J. D. Hooker, 130, £08, C B. Clarke] 
17124. Khoolua, C B, Clarke, 33459. 



8. Assam, Griffith, IGOo, Jenkins, 104-. Gowliatty, Nuttall. 
East Bengal, Griffitl, 1G07, Kew n. 614S, 6218/1. Silhet, 
WulUch, ;3;345, O. B. Clarke, G9;J8. Cliittao;ong ; Seeta- 
koondo, alt 800 feet, J. B. Hooker, 4-00, 409 part. 

10. Pogu, Kurz, G50. 

11. Penang, Curtis, 195G. 

Bistrih. Ethiopia. China. Malaya. Polynesia. Neotropica. 

i)7. Cypkiil's exaltatus, Rciz. ; Ilook.f. FL Brit. Ind. vi. G17. 

2. Beas Doab, T. Thomson. Mt. Aboo, Stocks, 223. 

3. BoHjbay, BalzelL Canara, Law, Mefz, 6G3. Nilgiri 




feet, Thwaites, 3040, Ploem, 474. Triucomalee, Thicaites, 
3788. Dambool, Beckett. 

5. Coromandelia, Belanger, 222. Mad 


(hb'. propr.), 3329 B pnrt (hb. propi-.), 3343 A, B, C, D, 
E, F, II (hb. propr.). Madj'as?, G. Thomson, 104. Cour- 
tallum, G, Thomson, 131, 135. ^Mysore, Law. Saugor, 
Vicari/. Cliofa Nagpore, alt. 1000 feet, C. B. Clarke^ 

21090, 33801. 
6. Moradabad, T. Thomson, 3G9. E. Goomtee, BiitUe, 4478. 



G153, Wi 

C (hb. 

propr.), 3328 A, B (hb. propr.), 3313 I, K (iib. propr.). 
Calcutta (C. B. Clarke), 12532, 33G23. 
8. Assam, Griffith, 1G07, Jenkins. Khasia, Rook. f. Sf- 

T. Thorns. 
Bistrih. Ethiopia. Indo-China. Australia. Neotrcipica. 


Yar. j8. ihves, C. B. Clarke in Hook 
2. Siiid, BinwilL Marwar, Butlue, 4910. 
5. Chota jS'agpori", alt. 1200 Icet, C. B. Clarke, 21090. 



8. Chittagong, Scctakoondo, alt. 800 feet, J. B. Hooker. 

409 part. 
Bistrih. Mediterranea. Ethiopia. 


58. Ctperus OAXEsir, C. B. Clarke in Hook. f. I. c. vi. 618. 

10. Thyat Myo, Gates (in hb. Calcutta, Kcw). 
Bistrih. Endemic in Pegu. 

FN [I - - ■ mt. 


Cypekus digitatus, lioxh. ; HooJc. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. vi. 618. 

1. Dohra Dliooii, Boyle, 12, 17. 

2. Sind, Pinwill. Laliore and E. Beas, T. Thomson. 

3. Pooiia, Woudroic, 204. Londa, Cooke, 198. Nilgiri Mts., 

IlolicnacJcer, 944, G. Klny, 13 IS. 

4. Ceylon, Thwaites, 3940. 

Madras Peuiiisula, lieyne, Wighf., 
Berlin). Kuriiool, Gamble, 17739. 
Moradabad. T. Thomson. 255. Bf> 


Dacca and Mynicnsiugh, C. B. Clarice, 7417, 7799. 

7. Silcltitn Tcrai, (?. Kincj. 

8. TJppei' Assfim, Jenlim, 202. East Bengal, Grijith, Kcw 
n. 6149. K. Megna, ,/. D. Ilooler, 214. 

10. Pegu, Kurz, 647, 672, 2672. Burma, Grijith, Kew 
11. 6149. Mergui, Griffith, 1046. E. Irrawaddi, WaUich, 
3438 D, E (Lb. propr.). R. Attran, Wallich, 3438 E 
(hb. Kew). 

11. Penang, JVallich, 3429, 3438 C (hb. propr.). Malacca, 


Distrih. Etliio])ia. Cliina. Malaya. Oceania. Neotropica. 
Cyi'Ekus digitatus, Roxh. : 

Var. /5. HoOKERT, C B. Clarke in Hook./. I. c. vi. 618. 

3. Nilgbcrry Mts., Schmidt; alt. 5750 feet, C. B. Clarke, 

4. Caltura, Moon-. Eambodda, Thwaites, 3043. 

5. Chota Nagpore : Sirgooja, alt. 2750 iVet, C. B. Clarke, 

8. Kbasia : JSTunklow, J. B. Hooker, 1565. Moflong, Griffith, 
Kew n. 6151 ; frequent alt. 3-5000 feet, G. B. Clarke. 
Naga Hills, alt. 3000-6000 feet, O. B. Clarke, 41030, 41981 . 
Difitrih. Endemic in East India. 




Bistrih, Malaya. Polynesia. 


Var. ?/3. MACKONux, C. JB. Clarke; SooL f. L c. vi. 018 
8. Comilla, a B. Clarhe, 14188, 
Distrih. Endemic in Assam. 


6L CvpEKUS VLy£Yvjmji.v^, Ii(rm. et Sch,] Hook. f. FL Brit. 

Ind. vi. 618. 

4, Ceylon, Walker,^2, Thwaites, \iOil. 

5. Madras Peninsula, Koenvj^ Rattier, Boxhurghy Wight, 
2870 (27 in hevK Burlin), Wallich, 3311 B part (herb. 

Distrib. Endemic in Madras and Ceylon. 

1. Martscus Deeoeakus, Knnth\ JlooJcf, he, vl. 020. 

3. Goodaloor, alt. 3000 feet, Gamble, 12011. 

4. Central Province, up to 4000 feet, Thivaites, 855, 2942. 

5, Madras Peninsula, liottler^Leschenaulf ^ Jloxburgli^ Wallich, 

3320 A, B (hb. propi\), Wight, 1S38 ; Pondiclierry, Per- 
rottett ; Mysore, (3- Thomso7i ; Kullar, 2000 feet, Oamlle, 
16990 ; Pulney Hills, BcdJome. 

6, Lower Bengal, Wallich, 3320 C (lib, propr.), 3020 (hb. 

Mus. Brit.). 

10* South Burma, ^e^r^". 

11- AVellcsley, G. King. Ins. Houton, Belesi^ert. Pcnang, 
Kunstler, 1724. Malacca, GnJ/lih, ICow n.0l72, Cuming^ 
2372. Singapore, Belessert, G, Thomson, Burhidge, 

Bistrib. Ethiopia. Borneo, 

2. Mariscus eulbosus, C. B. Clarke in Hook. f. l,c^ vi. 620. 

4. North Canara, Young. 

5. Madras Peninsula, Begne, Bottler^ Kocuiy^ Wallich^''6-^4t\a 

part (lib- propr.); from Palavaruiii to Permaoil, in the 
hills, Wigftt, 184G part, Wallich, 3435 C, most part 
(hb. propr.), 
Bistrih. Endemic in Malabar and CoroniandeL 

?, Mabiscus paniceus, Vahl ; Book. /. L c, vi, 020, 

3. Mangalore, Metz, 150. Nilyiri Mts., ff, Thomson. 

4. Ceylon, Moon, Walker, Tfnvaitas, 2878. 

5. CoromandcIia,Se7a??y^r, 237. Tranquebar, 7?o^^Zer. Madras 

Peninsula, Koenig, Wight, 134^5, 40 (hb. Berlin), Wallich, 
3433 (hb. propr,)j 3435 A a (hb. propr. and Kew part), 
3435 C part (hb. projjr.). 

6. Lower Bengal, Wallich^ 3437 B part (hb. propr.). Dacca, 

a B, Clarke, 40l6. 
Bistrib. Manritius- 

T _^ *7^T l'riT*^f" ^ ■ -I ^ 

r ■■ rt- "1 



■■■■TTrf .TFE 

O- V ^ 

^ ^' ^ 



Maeiscus paniceus, Valil : 

Var. /3. EoxiiUKGKiANA, a ^. CTfflr/ce n? Hook. /. i^Z. ^r^V. 

7j?J. vi. 621. 
1. Simla, T. Thomson. 
8435 a (hb. Berlin). 


?r« Z//e7^ 

3. Coucan, Laio. Anain;iUay Mts., alt. 2750 feet, Beddome. 



adras Peninsula, Wight, 1815 part, 1S47 (lib. Berlin), 
WaUicli, 843-1, 3435 B (hb. propr.). Pondicherry, P(??- 


6. Daccn, C. 5. Clarhe, 20081. 

7. Sikkinj I'erai, alt. 500 leet, C. i\ Clarke, 80800. 

8. East Bengal, Griffith, Kevv n. ()242 parr. 
Distrib. Java. Cochincliina. 

I ■ 

4. Makiscus cypekinus, F«A^; llooh.j. Lc vi. 021. 

1. [SimLi], Ladij Dalliousie. 

3. Nilgiri Mts., Perroftet. 

4. Ceylon, Walker, Tlnvaites, 810. 

5. Coromandclia, Moxhurgh. Madras Peiiiiisu];!, Bottler, 

Wight, 47 C (hb. Berlin), Wallich, 3481, 3435 a part, 
3430 (hb. ])r()[»r.). Mysore, Hegne. 

6. Moradabad, T, Thomson. 

10. Tempserim (or Andamans), Heifer, Kew n. 0244. 

11. Penang, Bclessert. Malacca, Grijilh, Kew n. 6243 part. 
Pahang, Bidley, 1270. Sitang, Gaudichaud, 14. Singa- 
pore, Walker, 243, Bidrichsen, 4419, O. Kuntze, 0083. 

Bistril. China. Japan. Malava. Polynesia. 

Mariscfs cypertnus, Valil: 

Var. BENGALENsis, O. B. Clarke in Hook.f. I.e. vi. 021. 

6. North Bengal, Wallich, 3137 F (hb! propr.). Dacca, 

J. B. Hooker, 0{\ J29. 

7. Sikkitn, J. B. Hooker, T. Anderson, alf. 0-5000 feet, 

C. B. Clarice, 20595, 35103. 

8. East Bengal, Gripth, 1483, Kew n. 0244 part. Ujjper 
Assam, Jenkins, 508. Khasia, Cherra, J. D. Hooker, 077. 
Sylliet, C. B. Clarke, 8402. 

Bistrib. Endemic in Bensfal and Assam. 




Var, MAXIMA, vni\ nowi: very large; bracts of iiinLel 10 or 
12j long ; rays of umbel 10, lip to 4 in. long ; vSj)ikos 1 by 
|- in, ; spikelets very numerous, densely packed^ in fruit 
sloping somcwliat uiiwards, 
[5,] East India, Roxhur(jU (lib- Delet^sert). 

Dutrih. Sumatra. 

5* Martscus pictus, Nees ; Jlook.f. FL Brit, Inch \u C2L 

3. Nilgiri Mts., G. Thomson. Mysore, Hejjne, G. Thomson. 
5. IMadras Peninsula, Wirjhf, 184G [Noes' " typo "], Wallich, 

3185 a part (lib. propr.), 3137 (lib, Mus. 13rit.) Caraatic, 
G. Thomson. 
Disfrib* Java. Polynesia. 


6. MAiascus TKXuiroLiut?, ISfees ; Jloolc.f L c. vi. 622 [Schrader 

4. Ceylon, Koenirj, Gardner^ O-'^S part., Thiuaites, 817. 

5. Madras Pniinsuhi, Heipie, Wif/hf, ISIG part. (lib. Kew), 

WallicK 3i;32a (hb. proprj, 3435c (lib- Mus. Erit.). 
Tinnevelly llilly, Beddonic. 

6. ]\Ionghir, WalUch, 3132 B (lib. propr., Kew). 
H. Malacca, Gril/llK Kcw n. 6211. 

Bisirlh. Endemic in India. 

In ticlvetmg liei barium specimens, and in casual references, it is usual 


If this 

is' stated thus it sends one lo the wrong book ; if it i^ stated Sclirader MS* 
it is rullier Avorse than (2 words) Marisciis tenuifoiius] for it gives no 
ln?lp to finding tb^i puUished description, and besides that may mislead 
0]ie into a^^suniiug the plaiit unpiihlislied. 

The ^'■round fur calling it 3/«mcz^A' ^^ww?/o//w6", Schrader, is that it is 
only jusitice to Schrader. In the present (and most timilar cases) I see 
no suilicieut proof that Schrader distinguished the plant; he may have 
noticed that the example was narrow-leaved. However this may have 
been I nf^ree witli Darwiu in his argument that all consideration of 
persons in this matter must be postponed to the convenience of science ; 
a:id I think it is most convenient to postpone all MS. names to published 
names, and to make the prima nj reference to the latter. 

7. Mahtscus SiKiiKRiANUS, JSfees ; IIooJc, f. I c. vi. 022. 

1. Gurbwab T Thomson, 272; alt, 5000 feet, BniUe, 367. 

Almora, alt. 5000 feet, Sfracheif. 
(hb. propr.). 


J p 



3. Ananiallay Mts., Beddome. 

5. Mysore, Heyne, Wight, 18^ 

Nees), J^A;', 1240, 47 E 

alt. 4000 feet, C B. Clarice, 33685. 

Chota Nagporc, 

6. Northern India, Bo^jle, 33, ScUaglntweif, 3285; TJppe 

G-angetic Plain, T. Thomson 
3437 B part. (lib. propr.). 

Lower Bengal, Wallicli 

8. East Bengal, 

1477, Jenkins. 


Wa llicli. 

Assam, Griffith^ 


alt. 3000 feet, J. B. Hooker, alt. 5000 feet, C. B. Clarice, 
43573. Naga Hills, alt. 5u00 feet, C. B. Clarice, 41G0O. 


Ifer, 307, Kew n. 6243/1 


11. Penang, Dclcssert, Curtis. Malacca, Griffith. 
Loll, liidlei/. 

Bistril^. Ethiopia. Indo-ChiiiM. Oceania. 

The above rcpreseut the Indian localities from sucli herbarium speci- 
mens as I noted when they passed through my hands. In this case (and 



of the distribution of this plant in India. I believe it to be one of the 
most abundant and most generally distributed plants of India, every- 
where in or near hills, alt. 0-5000 feet, and only absent in dry places and 
long-cultivated areas. 

The breakdown of the method of numerical tabulation here adopted 
IS not wholly the fault of the method. Firstly, few botanists (wlio 
collect) trouble to collect ao common a plant, which thus only reaches 
the great herbaria in casual collections. Secondly, in the groat herbaria, 
any example (unless it presents some marked peculiarity) is not laid in, 
any more than a Daisy from Surrey. N^ general method of tabulating 
areas from herbarium specimens would give a fair quantitative (or com- 
plete areal) distribution of the Daisy. 

Maiuscus SiEBEUiANUs, JSTees : 

Var. (3. EVOLTjTioE, G. B. Clarke in Hook. / FL Brit. Ind. 

vi. 622. 

1. Simla, Ladg BaUwusie. Gurhwal, alt. 6500 feet, Schla- 

gintwdt, SS02. 




8. Khasia, J. B. Hooker. Cachar, G. B. Clarke, 7079. 
0. Mergni, Griffith, 87 (haviug the fruiting spikelets del 
more than usual). 


Dh'trih. Ethiopia. Maluya. East U.S. Central America, 
Nortb Brasil. 

Mariscus SiEBERrANua, Necs: 

Var. y. suBCOMFOsiTA, O. B. Clarice in TTook.f. FL Brit. Ind. 
\l 622, 

1, Kumaon, alt, 5000 feet, Strachey. 
[5. Madras Peninsula?], Wallich, 3437 E (lib. propr.)- 
Distrib, Japan. Malaya. Polynesia. 

3Iakiscus SiEiiEitiAXus, I^ees: 

8. East Ben-al, OriJ/th, Kew n. 
Bistrib, Endemic in East Bcniral." 


8, Mautscus TscHTfos, (7. 7?. Clarke in Hook. f. L c. vi. G23. 
4. Nilgiri Mts. and Kuri^, G, Thomson. 
Bistrib. Mexico, AYcstern Venezuela, Colombia, 
There is one sheet only of INIalabar es:ample9 inscribed as 
ab:)ve. The specimens are good, and there can be no doubt they 
ari! 3L ischnos (Sehlecht. sub Gi/pcro), a plant with a very well 
circumscribed area, frequent in the Nortttern Andes EegiouAvith 
Mexico. I have frequently doubted w-hether the Malabar locality 
is other than a ticket wrongly posted down. 

0. Mabiscus IIookeuiaxus, C, B. Clarke in Hook. f. L c, vi, 


7- Sikkim, in liot valleys, J. B, Hooker. 

Bistrih. Endemic in Sikkfm. 

It must be understood that tlie species of Mariscus [1-8 foregoin'r] 
arc very closely allied ; probably Mr. Benthain would have called them 
all " Cyperus umhellatusy Ilence^ in order to keep the species 1-8 at all 
distinct^ it is necessary to narrow down their diagnoses. When this has 
be(m done, I find that Hooker's Sikldm-hot-valley oxaniple will not go 
into any one of the 8. It is then necessary to malce it a new species, 
M Ilookerianus, unless I attempt some new grouping for the material 
of the 8. 

10, Mariscfs squakrosus, (7. i?. Clarke in Hook, /. L c, vi. 

3. Mangalore, Metz, 823. 

4. Ceylon, Koenig. 

5. Madras PeninsuLi, Wight, 1810 A, E, Wallich, 3313 A, E, 

part, Maisor and Carnatic, G, Thomson, 


■■- ■? 

'' '^l'--: 


i^r ■ 



6. Benfral, blasters, 
10- Rangoon, Knrz, Mergiii, Griffith, IS, 337, Kew n.G203 
Distrib, Ethiopia. Cocliinchiiia. 

11, Martscus ALT5ESCEXS, GaufJ.] Iloolcf. FL Brit. Ind,Y\.G23. 
3- Bombav, CooJce. 

4. Ceylon, Koeniq \ liotter parts, Tliwaites^ 678. 
6. Quil<m, Wi^jht, 2866, WalUch, 3359 A, B (lib. propr,). 

Madras Peninsula, Wight, 30 ([ib. propr,), 1833, 
6, Nortl) Bcnga], Buchanan Hamilton^ 164. Soonclrebuny 
a B. ClarJcr, 24717. 
10* Mouhnein, Wallich^ 3359 E (bb. profsr.). Anclamansy 

11. Malay Peninsubj (?r/^/7/., Kew 71.6159. Penang, Wallich^ 
33591) part, (bb. ])ropr,), (7wr/2>, 104. Malacca, Griffith. 
Singapore, LoljJ), Ploem, 520. 

Distrib. Etbiopia. Cbina. Malaya. Oceania. 

12. Maeiscus microcepiialus, Brest 'y IlooJc.f. I, c, vi. 624. 

1. AVest ITitnalaya, Bo}jle^ 135. 

2. SincT, Pimvlll, 

3. Caiiara, Tellapore, Talhot^ 1024. 

Thomson^ 34, 

4. Ceylon, Walker, Thivaites^ 815 ; Koi 

5. Madras Peninsula, /^/yA?, 1848, 45 ( 





dapa, BedJorne. Cliola Nagpore, 1-3000 feet, common, 

G, B, ClarJce. 

6. Gaugctic Plain, Moradabad, T, Thomson, 324. Indalpur^ 
Bulhie, 4477- Upper Gangclic Pbn'n, Falconer^ 1143. 

7. Sikkim Terai, G B. Clarke, 26779, 36609, 0. Kuntze. 




T. Thorns., 28. Cacliar, Keencm. Svlliet, C. Z?. Clarke,. 
69C0. E. aoorma, J". £>. Hooker, 828. 
10. Pegu, /rwrr, 6G0, GGl ; Sittan-, 7?. ^co;'^, 397. Mcroui\ 





Singapore, IlarJaad^ 857. 





V]:. ToEULiyiuM, Desv, in Hamilt. Frod. Lid. Occident. [1825] 

p. 15. 

Rhachoola of the scvcral-nutted spikclots disarticulating iiato 
l-:autted joints ; otherwise as Mariscus. 

I. ToEULmiu.M coNFfiUTUM, ITamilton, Frod. Lid. Occid. [1825J 

p. 15. 

\Mariscus ferax, C. B. Clarke ; Hook. f. Fl. Erif. Ind. 
vi. 624.] 

6. Lower Bengal (Fiiridporo), 0. B, Clarice, 7511. 
10. PegLi, Kurz, 2G3G. Morgiii, Grifith, 315, Kew n. G143, 

Distrib. Canarica. Trop. Africa. Chin;i. Malaja. Oceania. 
"U.S. Neotropica. 

1. CouRTOisiA crPEUOiDEs, Ncd^ \ Ilooh, A /, e- vk (j25. 

5. Madras Peninsula, Ilepie^ Wir/ht^ 1853, Mysore, G. 
Thomson. Russelconda IlilLs, Beddome. Chanda, DulUe, 
98i3. Goonali, G,^ 41. Chota Na^^pore, alt. 2000 
feet, Gamble, 8732, frequent, O, B. Clarke. 

7. SIkkim, alt. 500 feet, a B. ClarJcr, SGGOS. 

8. Sudija, Griffith, Kew n. 6240. Mon^^olilye, alt, 350 feet, 
Schlagintweif., 13180. Kliasia, E* Ojigkot, J. D. Hooker^ 
234(3, frequent, GB. Clarke. Silliet, Wallich, 3537. 

;L0. Pegu, Kurz, 629, 2719. 

Distrib. Endemic in India ; a var. in South Africa and 


Eleocuaeis rL.vxTAGixEA, 72. Br. ; Hook. J. I, c. vi. G25. 
2. Sind, PinwilL 

4. Ceylouj JIacrae, 167. Sotilli Ceylon, Thwaites, 3046. 

5. Madras Peninsula, Rotiler, Wallichj 3454 A (lib. propr.), 

• 3543 (hb. Calcutta, Berlin), ?^^///^^ 1801, 190L (lib, propr.), 
72, 72 B (hb. Berliu). Chota Nagpore, nit 200 feet, C. B. 
Clarke, 33S08. 

6. Moradabad, T. Thom^^on, 351. Saharunpore, Leviann. 
Monghyr, Buchanan Hamilton, 209, Wallichj 3454 C 
(hb- propr.). Bengal, Buclianati Hamilton, 210, Wallicli, 
3454 D (hb. pri)pr.), G. B. Clarke, 8520, 17246, 3360G. 

rr-^ w "u -m~ .^i^ — ■ ------ _-^--^-r- ■■ — ■ ■- X^ ' 

T -r^-^ - '*w^ 'r-v - Trf— j-|5PTT- r^ ^ _ . . - - . - .^^^^ h^ ^" 


48 MR. C- ji, CL/VIJKE ON THE 

8. AssaiDj Simons. East Bengal, Griffith, Kew n. 6232. 
Pundua, J, D, Hooker^ 359. 

10. Pe^u, Kurz, 2715. Arracan, Akjal), /iwr^:, 2714, 
JDistrih, Ethiopia. ItkIo-CIiim;!. Oceania. 

2. Eleochakis EQUTSETiNAj Pr^sZ; Hoolc. f, FL Brit, Ind. vi. 

4. Coylon, Walker; Kornegalle, Thivaites^ 2777^ 

11. Penang, Didrichsen, 3487, 
Distrih. Luzon. New Caledoiun, 



4, Ceylon, herb. Nees, 1691, JfiTcra-?, 210, Walker, 45. South 
Ceylon and Ambagamova, Thioaites^ 3762- 

5, Madras Peiunsula, Bottler, Wallich, 3454 B part (hb, 

8. Gowhatty, Simons (hb. Calcutta). Sylhet, J". D. Hooker. 
10- Teniisscrim (or Audamans), Heifer, Kew n. 6220/1, 

n. 6223/1. 
11. Malacca, Griffith, Kew n. 6229. Pahang, i?^V/%, 1231, 

1548. Singapore, Kurz, 3014 (hb. Calcutta), Ploem, 622. 
Disfrii. China, Malaya* Polynesia, Cuba- 

4. ELEOonAHTS ocHROSTACHYs, Steud, '^ Hook,/. L c- vi, 626. 
11, Malacca, Griffith, 2864 (hb, Berlin). Singapore, Bidley, 

30, " Calcutta " ( forsan Malacca), Lemann (hb. 

Distrih. Java. Borneo. 

5. Eleocharis eistulosa, Link, Jahrl. iii. [1820] 78 ; Schultes 

[1824], Hook.f. I. c. vi. 626. 

3. Canara, Talbot, 1040. 

4. Ceylon, ilf^t?>w ; ^' hotter parts," T/i^^//^5, 3047, 3162. 

5. Madras Peninsula, Wight, 1902, 2881 (lib. propr.), 

Wallich, 3153 A, B, C (hb. propr.), Carnatic, G. 
Thomson, 43. Tinncveliy, alt. 2750 feet, Beddome. 
Chunda, Buthie^ 9855. Chota Nagpore, alt- 2000 feet, 
a B. Clarke, 20346. 

6. Moradabad, T. Thomson. 388. Purneah, Buchanan 






7. Nepaul, WalUcli, 3153 A part, B (hb. Kew), E (hb. 
propr.). -Tulpigori, V. B. Clarke, 267G9. 

8. Assam, Griffith, 15S9, IGOO, Jenkins, 21G, C. B. Clarice, 
407G8. Vm\di\XQ.,Wallich, 3451 (hb. Berlin), /. D. IlooJcer, 



10. Mcrgui, Gri/fith^ 205. Tavoy, Wallich. Tciiasserim, 

TIeIfer,Kcw n. G235. 

11. Malay Peuirmula, Griffith^ Kcw n. 6230- 
Distrih. Ethiopia. China. Malaya. Oceania. 

6. Eleochaeis spiralis^ B. Br,; Hook. f. FL Brit. Ind. vi. 


3. Bombay, Salsette Isle, Jacqncmont^ 4-16, 725 (hb. Paris). 



Madras Peninsula^ Bottler^ Wallicli^ 3154 B part (lib. 





Bistrih Mauritius. Cochinchina. 

7. Eleociiaris ATBOPUiiPUREA, Ktmth ; IlooJc.f. I. e. vi. 627. 

1. Jhelum Valley, Stewart, 784. Chumba, alt. 3000 feet, 

a B, Clarke, 23777. 

2. Sind, Pinwill*, Shalizan, AltcMson, 603. Shahjchanporc, 

Butliie, 5003. 

3. Bombay, Ilewra, Dalzell. 

4. Ceylon, Moon (lib. Mus. Brit.), LescJienault (hb. Paris), 

5. Coromandelia, Belanger, 19G, Madras Peninsula, Koenig^ 
Bottler, WigU 1899 part, Wallich, 3480 B (lib. propr.). 
Sau^or, G, King^ 46* Chunda, Diithie^ 9847. Chota 
Nagpore, alt. 2000 fcot, O. B. Ctar/ce, 21174, 21215. 

6. Moradabadj 21 Thomson^ 322. Eurruckabad, Bucliaiian 

B^amilton, 206, Bengal, WaVick^ 3480 A (hb, propr.), 

3487 part (hb. Kew), Griffith, Kew n. 6224, J. B. 


8. Assam, Griffith, 1592, 1503. 
Bistrih. Europe. Ethiopia. China. Malaya. Oceania. 
U S- Neo tropica. 



Mo. Bot. Garden, 


-r . 7 ^- - -r^ 


8. ELEOCiiAura CAPITATA, B. Br. ; IIoolc. f. Fl Brit, Ind, vi, 

2- Kurrachcc, Stocks. 

3« Canara, 6r. Thomson. 

4. Ceylon, Lesclienault. Walker \ Saffragam, j^'A^^'a^fi^^, 3039., 

5- Madras Peninsula, Wallich, 3486 A, B(lib. propr.),3487 A 

(lib. propr.), 3493 (lib. propr.), Wiyht, 1899 part, 74 (hb. 

Berlin). Central Provinces, Duthie^ 8462, Chota 

Nagpore, alt. 1000 feet, C, B. Clarke, 31203, 34288. 
6. Bebar, J. B. Hooker, 022. Bengal, Wallicli, 3480 C 

(hb. propr.), Grifdl, Kew n. 6225 (lib. Pyris). Noakbali, 

/. D. Hooker, 622. 

10. Mergui, Griffith, 287. 

11. Singapore, Ridley^ 133. 

Bistril, Mediterranca, North Trop. Africa. China. Malaya. 
Oceania. .U, S. Neotropica. 

9. Eleocharis ovata, 7?. Br. ; Ilook.f. L c. vi. 628. 
[1, West Himalaya]? WaUicJi, 3487 part (hb. Kew). 
Bistrih. Paloiarctica. Japan. Java. Nearctica. Neo- 


No example from British India has been seen, except Wallich 

3487 part. The manner in which the Wallichian collections 
were mixed before the numbers were affixed renders the Wal- 
Jichian herbarinm unless supported very unsatisfactory authority 
for localities. The distribution, however, of E, ovata^ R. Br., 
from B-ussia and Asia Minor, by the Caucasus and Dahuria to 
Amurland and Japan, renders it probable that it has been, or will 
be, collected in the Himalaya; and it was therefore included in 
the ^ Plora of British India.' 

Eleochauis PALUSTRis, R, Br. ; Hook,/. I. c. vi. 628. 

1, Kurrum Valley, Aitcliison^ 34, 235, 601. Baltisthan, alt. 
12,000 feet, d B, Clarke, 30405. Ra\vul Pindee, Ait- 
cJiisonj 558, Murrce, Fleming^ 329. Kashmir, Jacque- 
monty 444. Ladak, Sclilagintiveit^ 1082, 1446. Nubra, 
Schlagintiveit^ 2005. West Himalaya, Royle^ 62 (lib. 
propr.), 97, 100 (hb. Berlin), Chini, Jacriuemont, 1333. 
Simla, Jacquemont^ 973. Knmaon^ Wallicli^ 3449 (hb. 
propr.), Dutldc, C07l a. Nepal, Wallich, 3452 (hb. 



2< SInd, Pinicill ; Punjab, T. Thomson. 

6. Moradabad, T, Thomson, 449, Oudo, WalUch, 3455 
(lib, propr,). Lucknow, T. Anderson. Purrucltabarl, 
Buchanan Ilamilfon^ 207< Nawabgunj, Wallich^ 3450 
(hb. propr-). Bengal Plain, frequent, C, B. Clarice, 

7. Sikkhn, alt- 10,000 feet, J". D. IlooJcer, 

8- Erubmfipootra Bank, Griffith^ Kew n. 0221. Khasi 
Hills, Wallich, 8451 (hb. propr.). Sylhet, C. B. Clarice, 

Bistrih. Pala^arctica. Ethiopia. China. Japan. ISandwicb 
[sles- Nearctica, Neotropica. 

ILooTc. / 


vi. 628. 

5. Madras Peninsuln, Bottler (hb. Kew). 

Bistrih, Palocarctica. China. Japan. Nearctica. Neo- 


The single example in herb. Eottler can hardly establish the 
present species as Indian. But it grows in Central Asia, is 
abundaiit in Japan, and lias been frequently collected in China, 

even at Shanghai and Canton. 

12. Eleochaeis Ch^takta, Hocm, et Sch, ; IIooJc. f. I, c, 

vi. 629. 

3. Canara, Belanger^ 105. 

4. Ceylon, Macrae^ 207; Saflraganij Thicaitcs^ 247. 

5. Madras Peninsula, TValUch, 3415 (hb, propr.). Quilon,- 

Wi(/ht, 2031, 2S95. Chota Nagpore, alt. 2500 feet, C B. 
Clarice, 25189, 34192. 

6. Dacca, C. B. Clarice, 78S9, 

7. Siligori, O. Kuntze. Kooch Behar, in the plaiuj C, B. 

Clarke, 26780. 

8. East Bengal, Grilfith^ Kew n. 0219. Sylhet aud Cachar, 

common, G, J?. Clarice. Chittagong, J, B, Hooker, 157. 
10. Pegu, Kurz, 2708, Belanger^ 194. llangoon Lake, Kurz, 

2101. Burma, Griffith, Kew n. 6318 (hb. Berlin). 

11. Malacca, Griffith, Kew n. 0319, Gaudichaud^ 97* 
and Singapore, J^J^ Bidley. 


Bistrib, Trop. Africa. Malaya. Neotropica. 


1^'Til'^ -T-T-.T-T ^,- y -\W ' |-p-»'^r^J-"^- '1 > _- '^ 


13- Eleociiaius SUI3VIVIPABA, C, B. Clarke in IlooJc.f, FL Brit. 

Ind. vi. G29. 

8. Kliasi Ilillsj alt. 5000 feet, at several places, iu great 
quantity, (7. B. Clarke, 19227, 45G17, 4o920. 
Disirih. Central Madagascar. 

Boecl^eler gives, as the Indian habitat for this species, the Nilghirl 
Hills. 1 liavG never seen any Nilghiri examples ; and, from iny acquaint- 
ance with the Berlin Herbarium and ]^oec]{cler*s work thereon, 1 think the 
most probable explanation is that Boeckeler's (supposed) Nilghiri 
examples came from Khasia. 

14. Eleociiauis aeflata, Sf.eud. ; Ilook.f. 1. c. vi, 020. 

8. Aesam, Griffith, 15S1 ; Jenkins, 577. East Bengal, 

Grifilh, Kcw n. G225 part. Khasia, ./. D. Hooker, 1591, 
2405; up to 5500 feet, t-ominou, C. B. Clarke. Cachar, 
frequent, C. B, Clarke. 

9. Muneypoor, Watt, G311. Shan States, Colletf, 352. 
10. Burma, Griffith, Kcw u. 6223. 

Bintrib. China, Japan. MaJaya. 

15. ELEOCiTAiirs coNGESTA, Z>. Don\ Ilook.f, h c. vi. G30. 

1. Kadlimir, Budrawur, alt. G500 feet, (7, B. Clarke, 31504. 
Kumaon, alt. 7500 hot, Stracliey ^fWinicrhottom. Dhurm- 
sala, C. I?. Clarke, 2IG94. " Kedarkanta, llo^jle 57 (hb. 
propr,). Gurhwal, Buihie, G9, 5004 (with very plumose 
seta^), Nepal, Wallieh. 

2. Punjab, T. Thomson, 689. 

3. Nilu;hiri Mts., Perrottef, Schmidt', Canoor, alt. 5500 feet, 

G a mile, 1150G, 17282. 

4. Central Province, at high levels, Thwaites, 2G35. 

5. Madras Pouinsula, Wicjlit, 2882 (herb, Calcutta, a Fim- 

hrisfj/Us mixed). Chota Nagpore, alt. 1500-3000 feet, 
C, B. Clarke, 20583, 25092, 3421J9, 34302. 
Bistril. Endemic iu India, the western side * but the Chota 
Nagporc plant is hardly separate from K aj/lata; especially 
its large forms in Khasia and Japan. 

IG. Eleochaiiis texhaquetka, JVees ; Hook.f. L c. \u 630, 

1. Kumaon, Wallich, 3449 (hb. Kew), lioyle, 57* Kcdar- 

kanta, Boyle. Gurliwal, Butliie, 5004. Nepal, Wallich, 

3452 (hb. propr. & Kew). 
3. Nilghiri Mts., Ferrottcf, G75, G7G (lib. Pari^), 1195, 1214, 


1215 (Lb. Boissier) ; ah. 6500 feet, C. B. Clarice, 10D2G, 

4. Central ProFince, Eambodde, alt. 4000 feet, Tlmaitcs, 2397. 

7. Sikkim, alt. 6500-12,000 feet, J. D. Hooker, 23 ; alt. 1750 
feet, 6'. B. Clarl-e, 9448. 

8. Kliasia, alt. 4000-5000 foot, J. D. Hooker, 1552, 0. B. 

Clarke, 5196, 43554, 43571. 
10. Burma, Kiirz, 643. 

Distrih. China. Japan (abundant). Malaya. JVcw South 

1. FiMBKiSTTLis TETRAGONA, 72. Br.; Hook. /. Fl Brit. Ind. 

vi. 631. 

3. Bombay, Balzell, Jacq^uemont, 747; Careuga Island, 

Boivin, 782. Canara (and My 

Walk e I 



Vicary; Clmiula, JDuthic, 9875, 9876. Chota Nagporc, 
alt. 1000-2700 feet, common, C. B. Clarke. 

6. North Bengal, Kurz. Noakhali, C. B. Clarke, 8197. 

7. Nipal, Wallich, n. 3490 part. 

8. Khajia, Hook.f. ^- T. Thorns., n. 23 ; iii the tropical region, 
J. B. Hooker, 399. 

10. Eangoon, Wallich, 3490 F (bb. propr.), Kurz, 2693. 

Mcrgui, GriffiUi, 319, Kew n. 629G. Tavoy, Wallich, 

232 (lib. DC). 

11. Pahang, fide Ridley. 

Distrih. China. Malaya. Australia. Celebes. 

2. FiMiiiasTTLis ACUMINATA, Valil ; Hook. f. I. c. vi. 631. 

1. KuraaoD, Wallich, 3494. 

4. Ceylon, Macrae, 178, TIavaifes, 2747. 

5. [South India?], J'f^Aj', 2051. 

7. Sikkim Tcrai, iZoo/^. /, Sf T. Thorns., 58 part., Kurz, King, 
■ C. B. Clarke, 36805, 36939. 

8. Assam, Jenkins. Chitt;igong, J. B. Hooker. 

10. Arracan, Kurz. Burma, Wallich, 3494 (hb. propr.), 
3487 B 1 part (hb. propr.) ; Mergul, Qriftth, 179; 
Eangoon, MacClclland. Tenasscrim, Heifer, Kcw n.6293. 

11. Penang, Delessert, King, Bidrichsen, 3558. Malacca, 

Griffith, Kew n. 6295. Singapore, Kurz, Ridley, 1472. 
Distrih. Hongkong. Malava. Australia. 



3. FiMBRiSTYLissKTACEA, 5^/7/.; Ilook.f. FL BriL ludM. G^2. 

10. Soutli Burma, Xurz. 

11. Singapore, Kurz, Bidle^, 107. 
Blstril. Malaya* Nortli-east Au^^tralia. 

4- FiMBRTSTYLis NUTANS, Valil \ Ilooh.f, I. c. vi. 632- 

4. Ceylon, Wi^kt, Macrae, 253, Walker, 41, Tlnvaites, 832, 

Brandts^ 2485, 
8. Khasia : Nya Bungalow, alt. 2700 feet, O. B. Clarke, 


10. Mergui, Griffith, 76. Tcuasscrim, Heifer, Kew n- 6294. 

Nieobars, Kurz, Kamplwevener, 2482. 

11. Singapore, Bidley, 1SG8. 
Bistrih. China. Borneo* Australia* 


3. Bombay : Kalyan, Woodroto^ 

4. Trineouialee, Thioaifes, 3786. 

Madras " 




drcebun, plentiful, C. B. Clarice. 



6295 (lib. Paris). Mergui, 


11. Penang, Wallich, 3532 (hb. propr.). Malacca, Griffith 
Bistnb. Malaya. North Australia. 

PlMBll^STYlilS roLYTRicnoiDEs, Vahl : 

Var. HALoniiLA, C. B^ Clarke in Ilook.f. l,c. vi, 632. 
5 Nellorc, Oamhle^ 12681. 
6. Soondrccbun, Kurz. 

Bistrih, Isle of Chusan. 

8. Sylht't, C. B. Clarke, 7128. 
0- Moulmein, Ilelfer, 279 (hb 


Ifer, Kew n. 6223/1, n. 6226/1 

Dislrib. Endemic in Assam and Pegu. 

7. PXMBRTSTYLIS PAUCIFLORA, 72- Br. ; Hook. f. I. £?. vi. 633* 

10. Mergui, Griffith, 603, Kew n. 6318. 



11. Pcnang, Curt la, 17S9. "Wellcsley, Q. King: Malacca, 
Mainrjay, 3190. Perak, Wray^ 772, Singapore, Wallieh, 
3488 (hb. propr,), Kurz, 3009, Schottmueller, 114, Bid- 
richsen, 4431, liidlcy, % 40, 122, 152. 

Distrih. Malaya. Oceania. 

8. PiMBKrsTYLTS Ki^^Qii, Boeck. ; IlooJcf. FL Brit. Ind, \\. (>33. 
3. Nilghiris, alt. 6000-SOOO feet, Kiny, Ferrottet, G81, 1209, 
Schmidt, Gamlle, 11839, 12288 ; Pycara, Beddome, 7841. 
Bistrib. Endemic in the Nilghiria. 

!)• PiMBRiSTYLis 8UBTKABECULATA, C B. Clarke in IFooIc.f. L e 

vi. G33. 

3. Nilghiris, Pykara, alt. 5700 feet, Gamble, 17330. 
Bisfrib, Endemic iu the Nilghlris* 

. FiATBRisTYLis scHCENoiDEs, VaJtl ) llook. f. L c. vi. 634, 

1- Kangra, C B. Clarke, 24073- Gurhwal, all- 0000 feet, 
BulJiie, 5011- Dehra Doon, Butliic^ n. 2117. Nipal, 
Wallicli, 3487 B 1 part (hb. propn), 3490 A, B, C, D, E 
(hb. propr.). 

2. Sind, PinwilL Punjab, T, Thomson, 58- Mi. AboOj 

3. Concan, Woodrow, 

4. Ceylon, Walker, Trimen^ Thtoaites, 833. 

5. Madras Peninsula, Bottler, Wight, 2882 part, (hb, Cal- 

cutta), 1SG7, 18G8 (hb. propr.), 100, 101, 103 (hb. Berlin). 
Saugor, Vicary ; Gojiia, King; Chuuda, B iit hie, dS7 7* 
Chota Nagporc, alt. 1000-3000 Icet, common, C B. Clarke. 

6. Saharunporc, Boyle^ 70. Calcutta, (7. B. Clarke, 33597 ; 

Serhampore, Grijpth. Dacca, G. B. Clarke, 78G2, 

7- Sikkim Terai, frequent, G B, Clarke. 

8. Ui)pcr Assam, Jenkins, Mikir Hills, Simons. Kliasia, 
alt. 1200-4000 feet, ILook.f, ^ T. Thomson, 23, common, 
a B. Clarke. Sylhet, G B. Clarke, 7110; Pundua, 
J. D. Hooker, 400. Chittagong, J. B. Hooker. 

10. Pegu, Kurz, C33. Burma, Falconer, 1188 (1158 hb. 
Berlin). Moulmein, Parish^ 65- 

11. Penang, King. Singapore, Kitrz. 

Bistrib, China. Malaya. Queensland, 

- .■ 1 ■ --- - ., 



11- PiMEiifsTYLia suii-BisPiCATAj Nees :^ IlooJcf. FL Brit,Ind, 

Ml. G34 

6. Orissa, Poori, W, S. Atkinson (2L730 hb. C. B. Cl;irke), 

Distrib, China, Japan. [Var. in Bourbon, Java.] 


Var. /5. TENUissiMA, i. e. Fimb. ferrup;inca, var, ? tcnuissimay 
(7. B. Clarice in Jloolcf, J. c, vi. G39. 
4. Ceylon, Mrs. Marriott (lib, Delessert). 
Distrih. EndcHiic in Ceylon. 

12. FiMBRiSTTLis BiBSACEA, Benth.\ TLoolc, f. I.e. vi. 635. 

4. Ceylon, Lcschcnault^ Thwaites^ 668. 

5. Madras Peninsula, Wiglit, 1865, 2891 p:irt (lib. Calcutta), 

107, 107 B (hb. Berlin), G. Thomson, 330. Poudicherry, 
TcrTottet^ 372. Central India, Goona, King^ 43. 

6. Bengal, Kfsscngunjo, King, 2016. E. Mcgna, /. D. 
IlooJcery 179. North and "East Bengal, common, C. B. 

8. Kamroop, Buchanan Hamilton^ 188^ Khasia, lib. Calcutta, 
Chittagong, G* B. Clarice, 6596. 

9. Tunan, J*. Anderson. 

10. Pegu, Kurz, 620, 2700. Burma, Wallich, 3478 part, 

Griffith, Kew n. 6287. 
Bistrih. Amurland. Congo. Canton. Philippines. 

13. FiMBBiSTYLis squaehosa, Vahl ; Iloolc.f. Lc\ vi. 035. 

1. Kashmir, Jac^iicmont^ 1119. Nepal, Wallich^ 3479 D 

(hb. pro;»r.), 

2. Mt. Aboo, King. 

6. Moradabad, T. Thomson^ 491. Lower Bengal, Wallichy 
3479 A part, B, C, E (hb. propr.) ; E. Mcgna, J. D. Hooker^ 
230. Julpigori, Buchanan Hamilton^ 185. Malda and 
Pubna, G* B. Clarice. 
8- Assam, Simons. Dibroo-gnrh, G. B. Clarke, 3772 L Khasi 
HilL^ Ilooh. f. ^- T. Thorns. ComilJa, G B. Clarke, 
Chittagong, J. _D. Hooker, 287. 
9. Bbamo, J". Anderson. 
10. Burma, Wallich, 3478 C, 3517 C part. (hb. propr.), 
Bistrib. Mediterranea. Mongolia. Ethiopia. Indo-China. 
otropica. [Var. in Oceania.] 



14. FiMEitTSTYLis DiciiOTOMAj VaJil ; Uoolc, f. FL Brit. Ind. 

vi, G35. 

1. (xilgit, Winterhottnm^ 921. Kaslimir, JacAiuemonf^ 668, 

SchlaginlweU, 4530, 12947 ; alt, 5000 feet, Levingc. 
Kanaor, Jacqiiemont^ 1122. Kumaon, nit. 4000 feet, 
Stracheg Sf Winterhoitom^ 3. Kajigra, G. B, Clarke^ 24671. 
Dchra Dlioon, King^ Dutliie, 2459 ; Eulloo, Braudis^ 3322. 

2. Pcishawur, Sfeiuart^ 92. Punjab, Scltlagintweit^ 10494, 

1\ Thomson, 58, a B. Clarice, 28165. Meerut, T- Thomson, 
103. Sind, Stocks, 1204, Dahell Mt. Aboo, /f%. 

3. Bombay, Dahell, Lamhert, Concai], Slocks, Asseergurli, 

WalUch, 3511 D (lib. Calcutta). 
4* Ceylon, Thivaitcs, 3758. 

5. Madras Peninsula, Wallich, 3509 K, 3512 B (hb. propr.), 

1879 (lib. Kow), 2903, 2908 part (lib. Calcutta), 

2808 (hb. Paris), 82, 83, 1875 part (hb. Berlin). Maisor, 
G- Thomson. Central India, King, 22, 49; Saugor, Vicarg; 
Chunda, Biithie, 9801. Chota Nagpore, Wood. 

6. Saharunpore, Ragle, 45, 47, 46 (hb. Berlin). Oudh, IL 
Thompson, 361. Etawah, Buthie, 491.5. Beliar, J. D. 
Hooker, 629 ; Monghyr, Buchanan Hamilton^ 18L Ben- 
gal, common, C,B. Clarke. Lower Bengal, Wallich^SrAl 

(hb. propr.), 3515 (hb. propr.), 3517 A (hb. propr.), 
3516 B (hb. propr.). Calcuttaj Gaudichaud, 337, Buchanan 
Hamilton, 178. 

7, Nepal, Wallich, 3516, 3511 I) (hb. Kcw), 3511 E (hb. 


8, Assam, Griffith, 1464, 1473, 1585, Masters, Jenkins, 
Simons, East Bengal, Griffith^ Kow n. 6310. 

10. Pegu, Kurz, 630, 631. E. Irrawaddi, Wallich, 3517 (hb. 

Calcutta). Attran, Wallich, 3515 A, B (hb. Kew). 

Monlmein, Falconer, 6. Andamaus, Kurz* 
Distrih. Pala^arctica. Ethiopia. Indo-China. Oceania. 

4 « 

]5. Ftmbhtsttlis DiniTLLA, Vahl\ Hook. f. L c. vi, 63ij. 

1. Kashmir, Jacquemout, 1390 ; alt. 6700 feet. Lcvinge (hb. 
C. B. Clarke, 24180), Atkinson (hb. C. B. Clarke, 24185); 
Chumba, alt. 3000 metr., (7. B. Clarke, Simla, alt. 5000 
feet, Gamble, 4824. Gurbwal, alt. 6000 feet, Buthie, 5013. 
Dehra Dhoon, Yicary, King, Buthie^ 2112. Kumaon, 
King, Buthie, 9. 

I ^w 1 1 - r T^ - -v- ' t 




2. Sind, Finwill, ^cldarjinticeit, 114G5. TJmritsur, G. B. 
Clarle, 22221. Mt. Aboo, King. 

3. Canara, Talbot, GOl. Nilgiri Mts., Ilohenaclcer, 941, 
Tcrrottel, 1207, 083. Canoor, Maclvor, 78. Auumallay 
Hills, Beddome. 

4. Ceylon, Lcschcnault, Tlnvailes, 838, 839, 840, 841, 3232, 
3757, Wichura, 2(592, iVom, 479. 

5. Madras Peninsula, Wight, 1871 part, 1872 part, 1873, 

1874, 1874 6, 1875, 187G (hb. propr.), 2901 (bb. Paris, 
Berlin), 91, 9(5 (hb. Berlin), Wallich, 3506 C part, 3507 
A, B, 3509 A, B, C, D, F, 3512 B, 3521 B, 3525 A part, 
(bb. propr.). Pondicherry, Perrottet, 529. Central India ; 
Goona, King ; Chunda, DiitUe, 9SG3, 9SG4, 98G7. Chota 
Nagpore, common, C. B. Clarice. 

6. Moradabad, T. Thomson, 320. 'S,Qi\<^dl, Buchanan Ilmnilton, 
ISO, Wallich. 3501, 3508 (lib. propr.), Grijtth, Kew n. G321 
(lib. Berlin), common, Q, B. Clarhe. Orissa, Atkinson, 
21735 (hb. C. B. Cbirlcc). 

7. Sikkim, alt. 0-5500 feet, 7'. Anderson, 1339, 1340; comuion, 

a B. Clarice. 

.8. Assam, GriJUh, 14G3, Kew n. G312 (hb. Berlin); Sudiya, 
Grijpth, Kew n. G334 ; Koliima, alt. 4G00 feet, G. B. 
Clarice, 41225. Kliasia, common, G. B. Clarke. Sylhet, 
Wallich, 3503 C part (lib. propr.) . Chittagong, C B. 
Clarke, 1977G. 

9. Ava, Wallich, 3513. 

10. Pegu, Kurz, 024, G25, G32, 087. Arraoan, Kurz. Burma, 

Grijpth, Kew n. 03 12. Mcrgui, Grijlth, 153, Kew 
n. G350. Andaman^, Kurz. Nicobar.-*, Kurz, 25977 
(hb. C. B. Clarke). 

11. Penaiig, Belessert, King. Perak, Wray, G04. Malacca, 

Grijlth, Kew n. 0322, G345. Singapore, Gaudichaud, 

117, Jagor, SO, Ridley, 29. 

Bisirih. Pala^arctica. Ethiojjia. Indo-China. Oceania. U.S. 


Var. /3. NiLAGiiiiCA, G. B. Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 
vi. 637. 

3. Kilghiri Mts, Pykara, King. 

Bistrib. Endemic in Nilchiris. 



16. riMBRLSTYLis sTOLONiFEitA, C, B, Glarlcc in Rook. /- -F/, 

Brit* Jnd. vi. G37. 

8. Khasia, alt, 2000-GOOO feet, J. D. Iloolcer, 1312, 1488, 

O.B. ClarJce, 7315, 3S348, 38975, 43207. "^''epal vel 
Bengal" (an Kha^ia? G. B. Clarice), Wallich, 3503 A, 
B, C pari (lib, propr.). 

9, Muncypoor, Watt. 

Bistrih, Endemic in Khasia and Muneypoor. 


Var. /3* LUDENs, C. B, Clarice in Hoolc.f, L c. vi, G37. 
8. Khasia, alt. 2000 feet, C. B. Clarke, 43292. 
Bistrib. Endemic In Khasia, 

17. FiMBEiSTYLis ^STivALis, VaJil \ IlooJcf, L C. Vl. 687. 

3. Mabibaria, Stocks, Law, Bombay, BalzelL Canara, 
Talhot, 551, Wyiiaad, Lcvinge (n. 34503 berl). C. J?. 
Clarl.'c). Ni]<,diiri Mts., Pykara, alt. G900 feet, Gamhle, 


4. Cevlon, Thivai/es, 3943. 

5. Madras Peninsula, Bottler^ Wi 

Chunda, Dutlile, 9858, 9859. 

Central India, 


(hb. propr.). Julpigori, Buchanan R 


\milto7i^ 187, 
)r.\ Kissen- 

gunj, T. Anderson, 2036. Dacca, common, G. B. ClarJce. 
Eeiigal, Wallicli, 3517 «, E, C part, D, E (hb. propr.). 
7. Nipu], f^«//^c'7^ 3510 A (hb. propr.). Sikldm, ./. D.IIooJccr, 

Siligori, C. B. Clarice, 264.51. 

8. As.-iain, Grifitli. 15b2, 1595 ; Seebsagur, JcnJchis, 1585 ; 
Tczporo, a B. CJarh', 37658. East Bengal, Grijith, 
Kew n. 6310, 6382, 0333. Cliitta<iong, Lhter. 
10. Pegu, Falconer, 13, Kurz, 630, Belanyer, 209. Mer 

ijlih, Kew 11. 0331. Moulinein, Ilelfi 


bb. DC). Tavoy, Wi 

3517 C, E (lib. Berlin). 

Tciuisserim, Ilelfer, Kew n. 6309, 6333 ; E. Kimb;), 


Kunsllcr, 349, 399. 
11. Perak, Isle Sambilunj;, Kamphoevener. Malacca, 

Kew n. 6311, Pabaiig, Bidley, 43, 12G8. 
Disfrib, China, Japan. Malaya. Australia, Polynesia. 
[The Brasilian F. Hmosa, Knnth, is very near F. aestivalis, 
and might be regarded as a var. of it,] 




18. FiMBRiSTYLis scABiiERiMA, Necs ; IIooJc. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 

vi. 637. 

8. Sylhct, WnUieli, .3507 C (herb, propr., Mue. Brit., Kew, 
Pari^, Berlin, Calcutta). 
Distrib. Endemic in Syllict. (Probably only once collected.) 


Necs ; IIoolc. f. 

5. Cbota Nagporc, C. B. CJarJcc, 2081S, 20S50, 33815. 

6. Sabarunporc, Eoi/le, 72, Lemann (hb. Boissier), Kawn- 
pore, DidUe, 7G71. Dacca, C. B. Clarice, 7G00, 1720G. 

7. Sikbim Terai, C. B. CJarJcr, 309SG. 

8. East Benp;al, Walllch, 3521 A mainly. 3319 part fbb. 



Assam, Jenkins, 213. Kliasin, IIoolc. /. ^- T. Thorns., 
llann, 155 part. 

Disfrih. Hongkong. Java. Ins. Marianne. Eio .Janeiro ? 

20. PiMBiiisTTLTS TusciNUX, C. B. Clarke iji IIoolc. f. I. c. vi. 


6. Moradabad, T. Thomson, 205. 

7. Sibkim Terai : near Dulkajbar, C. B. Clarice, 11G57, 36747, 

Disfrih, Endemic in Moradabad and Sikkim Terai. 

21. FiMBKTSTYLis ALBOYiiiiDis, C. B, Clurlce in Ilook.f. I. c. vi 


8. East Bengal, Grijlth, Kew d. 6313 (bb. Calcutta) 
Upper Assam, Jenlcins, 212 (lib. Kew, Calcutta). E 
Megna, J. D. Iloolcer, 230, 203. 
Disfrih. Endemic in Assam. 


22. PlMBHI&TTLIS FERKUOI.VEA, VaJll ; Ilook. f. L C, VI. G38. 

1. Rawul Piudcc, Aitchison^ 242. ^ 

2. Punjab, Schlarjintweit, 2726, 11957, Ilook.f. ^1\ Thorns., 

58. Peshawur, Stewart, 299. Sind, PinwilL Mt. Aboo, 
King. Miirwar, Dulhie^ 4916. 

3. Malabaria, StocJcs, Law, Bombay, Balzell^ Jacqucment^ 

412, Uali^li. Cotican, Talhot, 528, Pooiia, Woodrow, 131^ 


4. Ceylon, LcscJienaidt ; ICokoolc Corlc, Gardner {Thwaites^ 

11, 848). 


H 1 

' I 

m I 


5. Tranquobar, Uoftler, 224, G41. Madras Peninsula, Wiglit, 
07, 98, 99 (iib. Berlin), 1S09 (hb. prop.-,), 2897 part (hb. 
Calcutta), Itottler, 87,575 (lib. DC), WalUch, 3506 A, 
B part, C part, D (hb. propr.), 3522, 3521 (hb. Calcutta). 
Chingleput, Gamhlf, 17190. Saugor, Vicar!/. Gooaa, 



6. Gangetic Phain, common near tlie sea, C. B. GlarJcc. 


10. Pegu, Kurz, G25 b, G33, 610, 2694, 2710. Arracan, Xurz. 
Burma, Grifclli, Kew n. 6346, 6347. Mergui, Grijith, 
152, Kew n. 6347. Aiidainans, Kurz, Nicobars, Kurz. 
Amherst, WaUiclt, 3527 (lib. pr.ipr.). 

11. Penang, Bidrichsen, 3477. Malacca, Griffith, Kew 

n. 6346. Singapore, Kmz. Kelantan, Uidleij. 

Bistrih. Mcditerranea. Etliiopia. China. Malaya. Oceania. 
Bahamas. Js'"eotropica. 

23. PiMBRisTiLTs coMPRESSA, BoecJc. ; RooTc. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 

vi. 639. 

5. Madras Peninsul;), Roxlurgh, Wir/ht, 2385, 2902. 

10. Mergui, Griffith, 293, Kew. n. 6313. Tenasserim, Heifer, 
Kew n. 6814/3. 

Distrih, Endemic in Madras and Pejru. 

24, FlMBKISTTLIS LOXOISPICA, Sfcud, ; Ilook.f. L C. VI. C39. 

11. Pahang, Ridley, 1549, 

Bistrih. China- Japan. [The American F. spadicea, A^ahl, 
is hardly distiucfc as a species from this.] 

25. Fi:mj3iusttlts liiGinuLA, Nees-^ Ilook.f. Lc. vi\ 640. 

1. West Himalaya, Jac^tumonf, 902. Dhargoun, Jloyle^ 53 
(hb- propr,). Kunawur, Rotjle, 60 (hb. propr.). Muy- 
soorie, King, Simla, alt. 5000 feet, GamUe, 4512, 4513. 
Chyal, alt. 5500 feet, Brandts, 1454; in valle Jumna, 
Jacqticmonf, 70h Kuutagong, T. T/^oy;;^^/?, 205. Kuniaon, 
alt, 5700 feet, Stracliei/ Sf Winterhotlom, 4i, T. Thomson 
11G6. Nepal, WalUch, 351G A (lib. Delessert), 351<j 

[):u't (Kb. propr.j Mus. Brit.). 

6. Saharunpore, Boi/le, 74. Dacca, C. B. Clarke, 8445, 

] 6984. 

9. Muneypoor, Watt, 7414. Sliaa ITills, alt. 5500 feel, 
CoIIetf, 397. 
Distrib. China. Piiilippinc^. 

rf -■ J " ^' 


VT^ "?■ 




26. FlMEKJSTTLIS SPATITACEA, liotJl ; Ilook, / J"?- i?n7. Jwc^- 

vi. 640. 
2. Sind, PimvilL Marwar, BatUe, 4920. 
4. Ceylon, Iteynaud\ Trincomalec, BedJomc^ Tlnvaites^ 3759, 
5- Tranqucbar, Bottler, 220, Didncksen, 3845. Madras 

Penlu8ulii, WalUclt, 8809, JF/r/A/, 1S72, 1872 i (hb. propr. ), 

1874 h (hb- Ke-.v), 94 (lik Berlin). Madras, /S/iw/er. 

IS'ellore, GamUe, 12782. 
6. Oriasa, Poori, W. S. Atkinson. 

10. Andamans, Kampliocvcner^ GG8, GG9. 

11. Singapore, Sch oil mueller, 4^57. 

Bistrih. Ethiopia* Arabia. China. Malaya. Neotropica. 

4. Ceylon, Leschenault^ ThwaUes^ 2877- 

5. Coromandeliaj Bdlanger, 214. Madr 



3483 (lib. propr.), Wi(jht, 1878 (hb. propr.), 77 (hi. 
Berlin), 2876 (hb. Paris, Calcutta), Bottler, 3r. Madra?, 



e^ T. Thorns., 2^. Tricliinopoly, O.King. Pondicherrj, 

Perroitet. Cuddapab, Bcddome. 
Vuthie, 981-0, 9SG0. 


6. Lower 33enj^a], Kurz, 




Bistrih. Endemic in India, ^roi^ai/^ ; Boeckcler says it inhabits 

where, hoAVCverj it is unknown to Baker. But it ia 

likely to grow in Mauritius, or to be carried thither. 

28. FlKBRISTYLlS ALBICANS, NeCS \ Iloolc.f. he, VI. G41. 

5. Madras Peninsula, Wight, 1877 (hb. propr.), Wallicl^ 
3482 (hb. propr.), Ileyne (hb. Copenhagen). 
Bistrih. Endemic in Madras. (Probably only two coUectiona 
Wight's and HeyneV.) 

29. PiiinRisTTT.TS HooKKHiANA, Boeck. ; Ilook.f. I. e. vi. G41. 
5. Chota Nagporc ; Gurbma (in Lohardugga), alt. 2000 feet, 

a B. Clarke, 389SL 
8. Khasia, alt. 1800-4500 feet, Griffith, 26, 307, Kew 
n, 6320, J. T). Hooker, 2040, common, 0, B. Clarke. 
Bistrih, Endemic in Chuta Nagpore and Khasfa. 


30. FlMBRISTYLIS SEKTCEA, R. Bt, ; TlooJc. /. FL Brit, lud. 

vi. G41. 

5. Ganjam, Lawson. 

6. Orisaa, Poori, W. S, Atkinson, 
11. Singapore, lUdlej/, 4. 

DistriJ). China. Japan. Muhija. North Australia. 

31, FlMBRISTTLIS TEN-ERA, Socm. et Sch. : 

Var. fl. oxYLEPis, C. B. Clarke in Tlook.f. I. c. vi. 612. 

2. Lahore, E. Chenab, and the Boas Doab, T. Thomson. 

Sind, Pinwill, Ajmere, Jacfiucmont^ 209. 

3. Mangalore, Metz, 131 «. 

5. Coromaudelia, Belanger, 201. Bellary, alt. 1000 feet, 

Gamble^ 177G3. Central India, G-ooiia, Kinff. Chota 
Nagpore, alt. 2000 feet, a B. Clarke, 21238. 

6. Saharunpore, Lemann ( lib* Boissier ). Moradabad, T. 

Thomson. Mongliyr, Buclianan Hamilton^ 183, Wallieh, 
3514 B, E part (hb. propr.). Bengal, Wallich, 8531 
(hb. propr.). Calcutta, J. B. Hooker^ Kutz\ Serampore, 
Griffith, Mjmeusingb, C. B. Clarke, 7945. 
8. Assam, GriJ/ifh (hb, Boissier). East Bengal, Grijlth, 
Xcw n. 6329 part (hb. Berlin). 

Distrih. Endemic in India (^. e. Var. /3 is endemic ; the species 
F. tenera gro\\'S in Trop* Africa and Socotra). 

ElMBRTSTrLTS TENEUA, Roem, et Sell, ; 

Yar- y. OBTTJSATA, Ridley ; Hook.f. I. c. vi. G12. 

6. Lower Bengal, Wallich, Kurz- 

11. Pcuang, Didrichsen, 3455. Singapore, Ridley^ 83, 1740a. 
Distrih. Borneo. 

. FlMBRISTTLIS MONTicoLA, Steud, ; Ilook.f. L C. VI. 642. 

3. Bombay, Sbelarwadi, Woodroiv, 10. Nilghiri Mts., Ilohe- 

nacker, 940- Anamallay Mts,, alt. 4250 feet, Beddome, 
Cannanore, Gamjphell. ' Pnlney Hills, Beddome, 

4. Cvylou, Beddome \ Ambagamowa Diwtriet, Thivaites, 3780. 
6. Madras Peninsula, Wallich, 3514 A (iib. propr,). 

Distrih, Endemic in (Southern) India. (Wallicli 3514 A 
me nerhaps from Malabar la,^ 


1 r 


> - 1 "i^ 


1 1 

fi . -— 1 

r -' 



33. PiMBnrsTTLis j.iJiUGUENSis, O. 2]. Clarice in Hook. f. Fl. 

Brit. Inch vi. 012. 
10. Mergiii, Orijitli, ,^S4, Xcw n. G330. Tenasserim, Ilelfer, 
3S4, Kcv 11. G330. 

Distrib. Endemic iu Tenasserim. (Possibly only once col- 

84. FiJinnisT\-Lrs PiicnoTir, Miq. ; Iloolc.f. I. c. vi. G12. 

1. Simla, alt. 7500 feet, T. Thomson; alt. 4500 feet, Gamble, 
4513 C. KumaoD, alt. 0000 feet, Duthie, G087, GOSS. 
Dislrib. Japan. 

35. Arnottiana, Hoec/c; Hoolc.f. I c. vi. G43. 

5. CaunanoJ-e, Camplell. [Madras Peninsula, Wight, 1881, 
right-hand example (hb. propr.), and hb. Mus. Brit.] 
Distrih. Cannauorc, once collected, i. e. in this case there is 
reason to believe tliat the material in Wight's herbarium 
all came from Campbell. The very large quantity of examples of 
the " Madras Herb." without further locality are referred gener- 
ally to " Coromaudclia " ; but perhaps 10 per cent, of them came 
from "- Malabaria " ; and not a few came from the Malay 

I. PiMBHKSTVLis riLiFOLTA, i?oec7f.; Jlooh.f. I. c. vi. 643. 

7. Sikkim Teiai, Dulkajhar, alt. 500 feet, C. J3. Clarke, 
3G731, 3G950. 

8. Khasia, Cherra, alt. 4000 feet, J. Z>. Uoolcer^ 1067, C. B. 

Clarice, 7285. 

JDistrih. Endemic in Sikkim and Khasia. 

37. FiMimisTTLis ASPERPvTMA, BoccJc. ; Ilook.f. I. c. vi. 643. 

4. Ceylon, Leschcnault, Thwaites^ 837. 

10. Tavoy, Wnllich, 35U2 B part (hb. propr., DC), 3525 

E part (lib. propr.). 

11. Pcnang, Curtis, 1505; Kioistler, I49S B; alt. 2500 feet, 

Eink. Perak, Wraij, 841. Malacca, Grijfith, Kew 
n. G349. Singapore, lUdleij, 1793. 
Distrih, Malay Islands, 

38. FlilBEISTTLIS QUINQUANGTTLAlfTS, Kunth \ Ilook. / I. C, vi. 

1. Delira Dhoon, Eoijle, 67 (hb. propr.), 43 (hb. propr.). 



Njaee Tal, Davidson. Nepal, WallicTi, 3499 A, B, C 
(hb. propr.), 3199 B, C (hb. Kcw, Calcutta malaly), 
3500 F (hb. Kcw), 3512 A, C, D (lib. propr.). 

2. Punjab, T. Thomson. Umritsur, C. B. ClarJce, 22218. 

3. Bombay, Bolvin, 987. Coiican, Laio. 


Ceylon, Lesclenault ; not uucommon, Thwaites, 838. 

5. Tinuevelly, Beddome. Madras Peninsula, Wight, 1881 
(137 hb. Berlin), Walllch, 3517 (hb. Munro). Madras, 
G.Thomson, 4^^^. Central India : Sanger, Vicar y ; Groona, 


Cliunda, Buthie, 9SC8, 9SG9. Chota Nagpore, 

J. D. Hooker, 628 ; common, O. B. Clarice. 

6. Saharunpore, Lemattn ; Delhi, 0. B. Clarice, 23383. 
Monghyr, Buchanan Hamilton, 176. Bengal, Wallich, 
3515 part (hb. Calcutta) ; Burisau), BucJiaiian Hamil- 
ton, 177; common, C. B. Clarice. 

7. E. Tambur (Nepal), J". Z>. Hooker. 




n. 6310. Sylhet, C. B. Clarke, 7099. Chfttagong, J. D. 


9. Muneypoor, alt. 3800 feet, G. B. Clarke, 41973. 
Bistrih. Ethiopia (one or two exam[)los seen, perhaps intro- 
duced). Ningpo Mts. (China). Malaya. Queensland. Guiana 
(perhaps introduced with rice).— This plant, so .superabundant 
in rice in Indiii, would appear (from colleciions in herbaria in 
Europe) to be extraordinarily rare everywhere ebe. 


Var. j3. CBASSA, O. B. Clarke in Hook. f. FL Brit. Ind. vi. 611. 

3. Nilgiri Mts,, Hohenacker, 1296 : alt. 7500 feet, (7. B. Clarke, 

10910, King; alt. 5000 fert, Gamble, 11307, 1240S, 17273! 
Anamallay Mts., alt. 40U0 leet, Beddome, 

4. Ceylon, Walker, Thwaites, 823 part. 
Bistrib. Java (frequent). 

39. EiMBEiSTTLis MiLTACEA, Vahl ; Hook. f. I. c. vJ. 644. 

1. West Himalaya, Bogle, 43, 45 (hb. propr.), 79 (hi). 
Berlin). Kashmir, alt. 6000 feet, Schlagintwcit, 13175 
Levinge. Kangra, alt. 3000 feet, C. B. Clarke. Nepal, 
Wallich, 3500 (3499 part in iK'rb. ' 

Illflf. JOUEN. — BOTANY, TOL. SXXIY. ■£ 

-n- 1-^ -TTTT r-T" - " j. - -^ ^ H 

' \ I 

rrrir-"T ^rn-E^TiB- ■ "r— "t-i 

r "^1 

. J 




2. Punjab, T. Thomson ; Sind, Pinwill 

3. Malabaria, ^S'/oJrs, Zfl?y', Belanc/er, 208. Bombay, Effm'^^r^ ; 

Travancoro, Wiffhf, 1276 (herb. lierbn). 

4. Ceylon, Walker, LesclenauU, Watson, 129, Macrae, 23] ; 
very abunrifint, Thwaitcn, 836. 

5. Tranquebar, Bottler, Didrichsen, 3889. Madras Peninsula, 

TF?^^;', 1883, 3524, 88 (herb. Bcrol.), 2900 (herb. Calcutta), 
2898 (herb. Boissier), WalUcJi, 3524 (herb, propr.). 
Pondicherry, Terrottet, 516, Beynaud. Chingleput, 
Gamhle, 17188. Chota Nagpore, alt. 1200-2000 feet, 
common, C. B. Clarice. 

6. Morndabad, T, Thomson, 281. Bengal, common, C B. 

Clarice ; Wallich, 3500 E. Behar, J. -D. Hooker. Cal- 

cutta, Gaudichaud, 336. 



Masters, 267, Simo?}S, 416. East Bengal, 
n. 6314 part, n. 6324. Kliasia, alt. 5000 

feet, C. B. Clarke, 19152. Chittagong, J. D. Hooker. 
9. Ava, Wallich, 3500 G. 
10. Pegu, Kurz, 626, 627. Moulmoin, 0. Kuntze, 6293. 



269, Kew n. 6314, 6315, 6344. Tavoy, Wallich. Anda- 
man s, Kurz ; Nicobart*, Kurz. 
11. Penang, Curtis, 1792. Malacca, Grijfdh, Kew n. 6314. 

Singapore, Gaudichaud, 116, Wichura, 694, Jagor, 158, 

i£/J?<>^, 30, 38. 
Distrih. Ethiopia. South Persia. China. Japan. Malaya. 

Australia. Polynesia. Neotropica. 

40. FiMBElSTTLis GLOBULOSA, Kunth ] JTook. f. Fl. Brit. Jnd. 

vi. 644. 

3. Bombay, Cooke. 

4. Ceylon, Macrae, 174, Walker, Thwaites, 842. 

6. Bengal, Griffith, Kew n. 6316. Jheels, J, D. Hooker. 

Dacca, frequent, C. B. Clarke. 

7. Nepal, Wallich, 3517. 

8. Assam, Griffith, 148!5, Jenkins, 210, 213. Gowhatty, 

Simons, 422. Seeb^agur, C. B. Clarke, 40766. 

9. Shan Hills, alt. 2000 feet, Colleft. 

10. Pegu, .Z'wr^, 634. Eangoon, Wallich, 3529 (herb, propr.). 

Mergui, Griffith, Kew n. 6317. Tenasserim (or Anda- 

i J 



mans?), TIelfer, Kew n. 6314/1, 6314/2, 6316, 6317, 

11. Penaug, WaU'tch, 3j18 (herb, propr.), Belesserf, King. 


Malacca, Griffith, Kew n. 6348, Bclessert^ Jagor. 288. 
Singapore, Wichura^ 695, Kurz, O, Kuntze, 
Distrii, China. ]\ra]aya. Marianne Isles, 

Fim:betsttlis gloBulosa, Kunth : 

Van /3. ToRRESiA^TA, C B, Clarice in HooJc.f. FL Brit. Ind. 

vi, 645. 

6. Bengal, E, Megna, J. J), Ilooher. 

8* Assam, Masters. 
Distrih, Japan. Marianne Isles. 


Var. y. ViCARYi, C. B. Glarhe in Tlooh.f. L c. vi. 645* 

1. Delira Dhoon, Vicary, 


2. Purijal), on the banks of the Chenab, T. Thomson. 
Distrih, Endemic in !N'orth-west India* 

41. FiMBBiSTTLis iKsiGNis, Thwaites \ Hooh. f, Z. c, vi. 645, 

3. Anamallay Mts., Beddome. 

4. Between Nefj;ombo and Kornegallej Thivaites^ 3317. 

5. Cu'ddapah, Beddome. 
Distrih. Canton. Tonkin* Borneo, 


4. Ceylon, Gardner, 959 ; up to GOOO feet alt. (Wewera Elba, 
&c.), Thwaites, 823 part, 843. 

5. Madras Peninsula, Wight, 2904 part (herb. Calcutta). 
Distrih, Endemic in South India. 


1. Mussooree, Bogle^ 44. 

2- Sind, PinwilL 

3. Poona, Cooke. AYynaad, Bottler. 


5* Madras 

Wight, 1882 6, 2899 (herb. Calcutta, 



D, F (herb, propr.). Kurnool, alt. 

17741. Central India, Chunda, Duthie, 9862, 9865. 

6. Saharunpore, Lemann ; 

ijfiih^ Kew 



part. 8oondreebun, Buchanan Uamilton, 174, common, 

C. B. Clarke. 



T -if 

' Lrf . 




8, Assam, Mann^ 384, Khasia, Qriffith^ J. D. Hoolcer^ 1933 ; 

frequent, C. B. Clarice, 

9. Muneypoor, alt- 3300 feet, G. B, Glarhe, 42024, 

10. Burmaj Brandts^ Knrz^ 2688, 2692. Tavoy and Attran, 

WalUch, 3502 A, B part (herb, propr.). Moulmein, 0. 
Kuntze, 6783 h, Nicobars, Kurz. 

11. Penang, King. 

Bistrih. Ethiopia. Indo- China. Oceania. NeotrojDica. 


Var. /3. MICKOCAKPA, C. B. Glarhe in HooTc, f. FL Brit, Ind. vi. 

1. Kumaon, alt. 7000 feet, StracJiey Sf Winterlottom^ 2. 

3. Bombay, Hewra, BalzelL 

7. Sikkim, alt. 10,000 feet, J". B, HooJcer. 
Bisfrib. China. Japan. Australia. 


Var. y. Kraussiana, G B. Clarice in B^ook,J\ L e, vi. 646. 

4. Ceylon, Gardner^ 963. Maturatta District, Thwaites^ 

Bistrih, Cape. Madagascar. China. Japan. 


Var. S. rEKESTBATA, G, B. Clarice in Soolc. f. I. c. vi. 646. 

5. Madras Peninsula: Palinicotta, Wight, 2899 (herb. Kevv, 

Paris), 1882 (lierb- Berlin). 
Bistrih. Endemic (probably only once collected at Palimcotta). 

*43. EiMBBiSTTLTS "WooBBOWT, sp. nova. 

Glabra, gracilis. Eadices fibroeae. Culmi 3-4 unc. longi, 
ca^spitosi. Eolia cum |-| parte culmi aequilonga, -^jj unc. lata, 
plana. Umbella -i- unc. in diam., snb-eomposita, 8-18-stachya ; 
tractese 2-3, ima nmbellam saspe superans. Spiculse (sfBpe 
geminatse) 1- unc. longee, -Jj unc. latse, teretes, 20-flor3e, pallide 
ferrugiiicse. Glumse spiraliter sitae, arctius imbricatie, ovat^e, 

fernigineo-bruneae carina viridi. Stamen (sa3pe) 1. 


IcnguSj glabcr, deciduus ; styli-basis pyramidalis, in nuce ci^n- 
stricta, cum stylo deciduus nee coloratus ; sty li. rami 3, longi. 
Nux cum I parte gluma? a?quilonga, anguste. obovoidea, tri- 
quetra, straminea, longitudinaliter costata, inter costas hori- 
zontaliter trabeculata, interdum minute pauoi-tuberculata. 
3. Bhandalla (Bombay), Woodrow. 

Only known by "Woodrow's specimens. 

J B 



44. FiMBRTSTYLis TiioMSON^ii, JSoeck. ; Hook. /. FL Brit. Ind. 

vi. 646. 
5. Cliota N"agpore: Parasnatli, alt. 4300 feet, C. B, Clarke, 
13999, 34784, 34805. 

7. Sikkim, T. Anderson ; Elncliimpoong, Bemij, 145. Buxa, 

Gamble, 6852 C. 

8. Assam, Griffith,Yie\\ n. 6336, Jenkins, Simons; N" 

G. B. Clarke, 43203. Khasia, alt. 500-4200 feet, 
4- T. Thorns., Wallich, 3525 F part (herb. Berlin 
Clarke, 7254, 37546, 3S090, 3S121, 43290, 43769. 

9. Shan Hills, alt. 4000 feet, Colletf, 753. 


10. Pegu, K\ 

Brandis, lOlS bis. Burma, 


Kew n. 6322. Martab 
Kurz, 637. 

Distrih. China. Tonkin. 



KareQ Hills, 

Hook. f. 


herb. DC), 3199 C (herb. Berlin, not lierh. propr.). 
Khasia, Bemann (herb. Grriflith). 

10. Amherst, Wallich, 3527 (herb. DC). 
Distrih. North Australia. 

46. PiNrBEisTrLis leptoclada, Benth. ; Hook.f. 1. c. y\. 647. 

4. Ceylon, Thivaifes, 3047 (herb. Mus. Brit.) ; near Galle, 
Thwaites, 3760. 

11. Malacca, Grijfith, Kew n. 6351. 
Distrih, South China. Borneo. 

47. FrMBRisTTLTs PAUPERCULA, Boeck. ; Hook. f. I. c. vi. 647. 

3. Pulney Mta., Wight, 2896 in herb. Paris, Berlin (left-hand 
example in herb. Calcutta). 
Distrih. Endemic in the Pulneys. 

1. Kashmir, C. B. Clarke, 28140. M 



Gurhwal, Jacquemont, 582 ; alt. 4000 feet, Duthie, 72. 

4- Wi 



2. Hazara, Stewart. Lahore, T. Thomson. Sind, Pinwill. 
5. Madras Peninsula, Wight, 1886, 1871 part (89 herb. 
Berlin), Wallich, 3520. Cuddapah, Beddome. Central 

i: ^YT- 

k k 


India; Saiigor, Vicary\ Chunda, Dutliie^ 9870. Chota 
Nagpore, alt. 2000 feet, 0. B. Clarke, 33991. 
6. Saharunpore, Boyle, 41 (herb, propr.), 54 (herb. Berlin), 
Moradabad, T. TJwmson, 205. Delhi, a B. Clarke, 
23405. Behar, a B. Clarke, 27354 ; Monghyr, Buchanan 
Hamilton, 179, Bengal, ^r/^^A, Kew n. 6327, 6335; 
common, G, B, Clarke. 
8. Afsam, WalJich ^ Griffith, Simons, Griffith, 1584. 

10, Pegu, Kurz, 2688, 2G89. Burma, Wallich, 3520 E. 

Bidrib. Manila. 

Ftmbtiistylis JUNCiFOitMTS, Kunth : 

Var. /3. ABBREYiATA, C. B. Clarke in Hook*/. FL Brit. Ind, 
vi. 648. 

3. Anamallay Mts., Beddome. 

4. Ceylon, Gardner^ 960 ; abundant among grass, Thtvaites, 
970, 837 (herb. Calcutta). 

5. Madras Peninsula, WaJlick, 3520 A part. 
Distrih. Endemic in South India. 

FiMBUiSTYLis Ju^'CI^OIlM^s, Kunth i 


4. Cevlon. Wi 

5. Madras Peninisula, Wiyht, 1885, 1887 (herb, propr.), 
84 (herb. Berlin), 3498 (herb, propr.). Courtallum, 
G. Thomson, 98. Chingleput, Gamble, 17192. 
Bistrih. Endemic in South India. 

49. EiMBEiSTTLis NiGKOBuuKNEA, Thivaites ; Sooh.f, I, c, vi. 648. 

4. Ceylon, Fraser,S2, Jonville; Matelle East, J^rotf/e j south 

of the island, rery abundant, Thivaites^ 3779. 

5. Courtallum, Wiyhf, 1007, 2365 (herb. Berlin). 

"8. Khasia, alt. 3000-5000 feet, common, C B. Clarke, 
Griffith, Kew n. 6338, 6352, Wallich, 3523, J. B, Booker, 

603, 134U 
9. Muneypoor, alt. 3600 feet, Watt, 6813. 

10. Nicobars, (herb. Mus. Bnt.). 

Bistrih, Cambodia. 

50. FlMBEISTTLia ULIGTNOSA, Sleiid.] Hook.f. 7. c. vi. 648. 

3. Nilgiri Mts., llochstctter, 12S9, Foulkes, Adam, Schinidt, 

Berrottet, 682, Wight, 2896 (herb. Copenhagen); alt. 
6500 feet, Gamble, 14309, 14541. 

Bistrih. Endemic in the Nilghiris. 


? . 



51. PmBTiisTYLis DiaiTATA, BoBcJc. ; JIooJc. /, Fl. Brit. Jnd. 

vi. 648. 

3. Bombay, Dalzell; Canara, Law, Young; Belekern, Talhot, 


Distrib. Endemic in Malabaria. 

Hassle. : HooJc. f. 


2. Chenab Doab, T. Thomson. Siud, Finwill. 

3. Bombay, Dalzell. Poona, Jac^juemonf, 411. 

Ta^&o^, 560. 

J^ilf^iri Mts., Foulkes. Anamallay Mts., 

4. Ce^'lon, Thwaites, 3231, 852 (herb. Paris) 

5. Coromandelia, Belar.ger, 197. Madras P 
1853, 2305 



E. Kis^tua, C/a/^J/^, 12738. Pondiclierry, Perrottet. 
Vizagapatam, Campbell, 834. Ceiitral India: Goona, 

King; Chunda, -D«M/e, 9880. 

North Bengal, Buchanan 
, Wallich, 3401, Qrllflth, 

51, Kew n. 6z93 j througliout Bengal, frequent, V. B 


8. Assjni, Simons. 

9. Upper Burma, Collett, 846. 

10. Tenast-erim, Relfer, Kew n. 6293. 

Dis^r»&. Etliiopia. Indo-China. Oceania. Florida. Neo- 



4. Ceylon, north oi the island, Gardner, Thwaites, 852. 
Coromandelia, Belanger, 198. ^ ^ ' ■" 



1864, 2905 (i06 herb. Berlin), Didrichsen, 3838. Tran- 

Carnatic, ff. Thomson. 

Nellore, Gamble, 12783. Chiugleput, 6;«?HiZ^, 17186. 
Bistrih. Trop. Airica. 

54. PiMBiasTYLis rusCA, Benth. ^ Hook. f. ; Hook. f. I. c. vi. 


6. Bengal, Wallich, 3487 C part (herb. Calcutta). Biirrakar, 


7. Nepal, Wullich, 353C (herb, propr.). 



10. Pegu, Xurz, 2720 part, 2687; Tontyeghat, Kurz, 623. 

Nicobars, KampTioevener, 2484. 

11. Penang, alt. 2800 feet, Kunstler, 1690. 
Disirih. South China. Malaya. Moluccas. 

55. PiMBRiSTTLis FULTESCENS, Tliwaites ; HooJc. f. Fl, Brit 

Ind. Ti. 650. 

4. Ceylon, TF«/^er, 34 (lierb. Dele^^Gvt), Bed dome-, common 
in the Southern and Central Provinces up to 4000 feet, 
Thtcaiies, 679. 
Disirih. Endemic in Ceylon. 


Var. ^. ciNNAMOMETORTJM, C. B. Clarice in Koolc.f. I. c vi. 

3. Anam allay Mts., Bed dome. 

4. Ceylon, Koenifj. Wall^er, Macrae, 158, LeschenmiU, 

Thwaites, 2752, Wight, 2032 (herb. Delessert). 
10. Pegu, Kurz, 623, 2690 (herb. Calcutia). 
Bisfrih. Canton. 

57. PiMBRiSTTLTs AcxmoscHfENFS, C. B. Clarice in Hooh. / 

Z. e. vi. 650. 

4. Ceylon, alt. 5500 feet, Becl-ett, 1038 ; Carawitta Kanda 

near Eatnapoora, and Dolosbage District, Thcaites 

BIstrih. Endemic in Ceylon. 

ErMBRTSTTLTs AcTiNoscnajjfFs, 0. B. Clarl-e -. 

Var. /3. CHiNKFSTS, a B. Clarice in RooJc.f. 1. e. vi. 651. 

11. Perak, alt. 7000 feet, TFra?^,354; alt. 1000 feet, Kunstler, 


Bistrih. Honffkonir. 

Man gal 

Nook. f. 

10. Moulmein, Farisl, 67 part. Mergui, Qrimth 


llelfer, Kow n. 6143/1 
Bistrih. Cochinchina. 

Tenasserim (vel Andamans), 

VT"' ^ ' ^ . 




Fimbhtstvlis disticha, Boeclc : 

Var, /3. KuHZii, <7. B, Clarl-e in Hool\f. FL Brit. Ind, vi. 651. 

6. North Bengal, Titaliya, Kurz, 
Distrib, Endemic at Titaliya. 

1. BULBOSTYLTS EARBATA, Kutltll '^ Rooh.f. I, C, VI. 651. 

1. Kashmir, 1500-4000 feet, C, B. Clarke, 21909, 24327, 
24331,31449. (lurhwal, 5000 feet, Z>^/^7^/^, 369. Kumaon, 

Strachey ^^ Wi 

3, Ki 

Nepal, Walli 

2. Punjab, Dutltie, 5006. Sind, Pinwilh 
3- Bombay, Dalzell, Canara, Talbot^ 


^Vlan galore, 

Metz, 269. Nilgiri Mts,, G. Thomson, WifjU^ 1893 
(herb, propr,), 1160 (herb. Paris), Kurz, G. Thomson. 

4- Ceylon, Burmann^ Belessert^ Leschenaidf^ Thicaifcs, 834. 

5- Coromandclia, Leschenaulf^ 635. Madras Peninsula, 

WaUich, 3497, Bottler, 218, Dindygul and Trichinopoly, 

<7. King. Pondicherry, Bej/nancL Covimerson^ Berrottet, 

520,526,528. Nellore, (9^w57^, 12240, 12386. E. Kistna, 
Oamhle^Vl^^l . Central India : Saugor, Vicary \ Goona, 
King\ Khandwa, Duthie, 8453; Chunda, Duthie, 9848, 
9851, Chota Nagpore, 750-2000 feet, C, B Clarke, 
20415, 20512, 20543, 21151, 25246, 33646; Para^nath, 
4000 feet, <7. B. Clarke, 21087. Sontl>al Perguunabs, 

Gamble, 10676. 

6- Sabarunpore, Royle^ 50, 69 (49 in herb, Berlin). Ben^^ial, 

Wallich, 3481, C. B, Clarke, 8530, 11633, 11639, 26496. 
IVTonghyr, Buchanan Hamilton, 195* 

7. Sikkim, alt, 500 feet, King, C, B. Clarke, 36934. 

8. Assam, Jenkins, Buchanan Hamilton^ 203. Chittagong, 

e/". B. Hooker, 334. 

9. Arn, WalUch, 

10. Pegu, Oates. Arracan, Kurz, Tenasserim, Heifer, Kew 
n. 6286 ; Wellesley, King. 

11. Penang, 7)^Zf:'5S^r#. Malacca, J[/i3!//?_y^//, 3192. Singapore, 
Kurz, 3002. 

JDistrtb, Ethiopia. Cabul. Indo-China. Oceania. 


Yar. /3. PiTLcnELTiA, C. B. Clarke in Hook,/, he, vi. 652. 
4. Ceylon, Walker^ 35, Thwaites, 829, 3761; Trincomalce, 
Glennie ; Colombo, Macrae, 376. 

I ; 

.l-r,^-- . .-». 7-.' \r_-.:v\-^ - " ■ ".■' 


I -' a^r- 

r T-J- 

TT-p-TT — ri" 

■ ^« P" 1 

> - "^ 




5. Madras PeQinsula, Wallich, 3480 B. Tuticorin, IFz>A/, 
2891. Pondicherry, P(9rTOi!/(?^ Madras, G. Tlomson, l-lS. 
Distrib. Endemic in Cevlon and Coromandel. 

BuLEOSTTLis SUBSPINESCENS, 0. B. Clarke in Hook, f* F 
Brit, Ind. vi. 652. 

6. OriBsa, Poori, W. S. Atkinson (bb. C, B, Clarke, 21724). 
Bistrib, Endemic (one collection only). 


Var. TBiFiDA, (7. B. Clarke in Hooh.f. h c 
1. AVe&t Himalaya, 8500 feet, Brandis^ 



Waltich, 3415 D (in lib. Berlin) ; Simla, Gamble, 5159 F ; 

Gurhwal, 6000 feet, Buthie, 5005 ; Dalhousie, 6200 feet, 

a B, Clarke] Chini, T. Thomson, 1931. ^^epal, Wallich, 

2. Mt. Aboo, King. 
3- Nilghiri Mty., Perrottet, 701, 703, 1185, Holenacker, 939, 

Selmidt; Ooty, 8000 feet, Gamble, 13161, King, 1090. 

4. Cejlon, Gardner^ 964 ; Central Province, Thwaites^ 851. 

5. Madras Peninsula, Wight, 2029, 1892 5 (hb. Delessert). 

Pulney Mts., Wight, 2892. Chota Nagpore, Parasnatb, 
4200 feet, G. B. Clarke, 21071, 21082, 33706. 

6. Lower Bengal, Wallich, 3514, 3487 C part, (in hb. 


7. Sikkim, Gamble, 6997, King, 3039, 5026 ; 10,000 feet, 

J. D. Hooker ; 1000-7500 feet, frequent, G B. Clarke, 

8. East Bengal, Griffith, K^w n, 6328, 6329. Khasia, 

4000-6000 feet, Wallich, 3476 (hb. propr,), Griffith, 572, 
J. D. Hooker, 582, Gallatly, 484, G. Mann, 401 ; comtnon, 
a 5. Clarke. Kohima, 6500 feet, C. B. Clarke, 41179, 

Bistrib. (of A^ar. trijida only). Caucasus. Ethiopia. Indo- 
China. Queensland. Timor. 

[-B. capillaris, the type^ i^ abundant from Canada to Argentina 

not known in the Old World.] 

4, BiTLBOSTTLis PUBEEULA, Kuntk ; Hook, f, L c. vi. 652. 

4. C<'3loi!, Thivaites, 834 ; common in the warmer parts of the 
i:<landj fide Thwaites. 

f I F 

T >■ 





5. Coromandelia, Belanger^ 199. Madras Peuinsula, Wight^ 
1892, 2890. 

10. Mergui, Griffith, Kew n. G353. 

11. Malacca, ^^^/is^Zer, 35, 36. Singa^^ove^ Ridley ^4i4ijBurbidje. 
Distrih. Malaja. 

1. SciRPus FLUiTAT^s, Linn. ; IlooJc.f. FL Brit. Ind. vi. 653. 

3. Nilgiri Mta., BerrottcU 1206, Schmidt, 54. 

4. Ceylon, Moon, 20, Walker; Central Province, common, 

Thwaites, S35, 2634.. 

5. Madras Peninsula, Wight ^ 70. 

8. East Bengal, Griffith, Kew n. 6226, 6227. Khasia, 
Griffith, 25 ; 3000-0000 feet, J". I). Rooker, 1416 ; fre- 
quent, C.B. Clarke. 
Bistrih. Pala^arctica. Ethiopia. Malaya. Oceania. 

2. SciRPUS STJBMERSUS, C Wright] IlooJc.f, L e, vi. 653. 
[Though published in Sauvalle, I believe this species to b 

wholly of C» Wright/ 

4. Ceylou, Thwaites, 3936; Colombo, Beckett, 2495 (hb. 

Bistrib. Madagascar. Java- Caroliua. Ncotropica. 

3. SciRPUS PAUCiFLORUs, Light/,; Hook,/. L c. vi. 654. 

1. Kashmir, 8500 feet, a J5.CT«rAr^, 29523. Vit\^ T. Thomson. 

Distrib. Palsearctica. Nearctica. 

SciRPUS PUMiLus, Vahl ', Hook,/ Lc. vi, 654. 
1. Kashmir: Gilgit, Giles^ 64; Skardo and Hanle, 15,000 ftct, 
T, Thomson*, Guraip, Winterhottom^ 551. 
Bistrib, Pal^earctica. Nearctica. 

5. SciRPUS SKTACEUS, Linn. ; Hook./ I. e. vi. 654. 

1. Kashmir, Jacqitcmont, 477, 1726, 1909, Falconer, 1159; 
Grulmurg, Stewart, 799, Aitchison^ 157 ; Sonamurg, 
11,000 feet, e. B. Clarke, 24206. Kurrum Valley, 
Aitchison,dG5. West Tibet, 13,000 ftet, T Thomson] 
Skardo, 8000 feet, C. B. Clarke, 30028. Balti, Schla- 
gintweit, 5S67. Aster, Schlagintiveit, 6414. Gurhwal, 
9500 leet, Buthic^ 76. Kunawur, Jacquemont^ 1726, 1909. 
Kumaon, Bogle, 63; 12,000 feet, Buthie, 7; 13,000 fe.t, 
Stracheg, 1067. West Nepal, 1200 feet, Buthie, 3465. 
7. Sikkim, 13,000 feet, J\ D. Hooker, 
Bistrib. Palaeurctica. Ethiopia, (A var. (?) in Australia.) 

'^ r-T"^! ■^ 

.- r^ . . ■- . -■ '- '^. r- 



6. SciRPUs HoLOscncENus, Linn.; IIool\ f. FL Brit. Ind. \i 


2. Hazara, 5500 feel, Stewart (lib, Calcutta). Sind, Pinwill 
Distrib. Palsearctica (with a Var. in JSoutb Africa). 

r- SciRPUs SUPINUS, Linn. ; Kool\f, L c, vi. 655. 

1. West Himalaya, Jacq^uemont, 161, 743, Boyle^ 58, 71; 

Kangra, 3000 feet, C, B. Clarke, 23779. 

2. Sind, PinwilL 

3. Bombay, Dahelh Concan, Law. 

4. Ceylon, Thicaites, 3233. 

5. Tranquebar, liottler^ 21Q. Madras Peninsula, Wight, 

1889 A, 2893 (lib. Calcutta), Wallich, 3161 A, B, C (hb. 
propr.), 3193 (lib- Calcutta), 3158 part. (hb. Delessert)* 
Central India : Chunda, Duthie, 9826, 9827, 9838. Chota 
Nagporc, Gamhle, 8730; 9041, 1000-2000 feet, common, 

(7. B. Clarke. 

6. Gano;etic Plain, TFaJUch^ 3461. Hindoostban, Buthie^ 
5017. Moradabad, T. Thoinson^ 352 ; Gajpoor, Buchanan 
Bamilton^ 192. Purnea, Buchanan Hamilton^ 193, Wal- 

lich, 3461 D (lib, propr.). Bengal, Wallich, 3461 E 
(Lb. propr.), Griffith^ Kew n, 6288 part., J. D. Hooker^ 
401, 609, common, C, B, Clarke. Calcutta, GauJichauJ^ 

8. Sylhct, WalUch, 3468 (bb, Calcutta). Chittagong, C. B. 

Clarke, 6597. 

10. Akyab, Kurz, 644. Merguf, Grijith, 292. 

11. Penang and Malacca, fide Ridley. 

Bistrih, Pala?arctiea. Ethiopia. China. Malaya. Australia. 
[Yar, in U.S.] 

SciRPUs SUPINUS, Linn, : 

Var. UNixonis, C. _B. Clarke in ITooh.f, h c. vi. 656* 

2. Sind, Piniciil. 

4. Ceylon, -Macrae, 1052, Leschenauli. 

5. Coromandelia, Roxhurgh. Madras Peninsula, Wifjht^2893 

(hb. Parin), 1SS9 (hb. Berlin). Goomsur, Beddome. 

6. Benoal, Wallich, 3461 E (hb. DC, Mua. Brit.), L D. 

Bistrib. Ethiopia. Java. Queensland. 

l^t ■ 

r- T 



8. SctBPTJS ERECTUS, Poir, ; ffook.f, FL Brit. Ind, vi. 656, 

1. Kiimaon, T. Thomson, 12;J9. ^nnvLV^tiT, Jacquemont^llZl ^ 
T, Thomson, IS ; Kangra, 8000 feefc, C. B. Clarhe, 23783. 
Nepal, Walllch, 3469 C (hb. propr,)- 

3. Nilgiri Mts., G. Thomson. 

4. CeyloDj Moon^ 504; abundant, Thwaites^ 850. 

5. Madras Peninsula, Wallich^ 34G9 A, B (hb. propr,). 

6. Sabarunpore, Hoyle-j 


Bengal, Wallich, 3i62, 34G9 

(hb. propr-), Buchanan Hamilton^ 197, Griffith^ Kew 
n. 6260 (hb. DC), 6261, 6314 part., J. D. UooJcer, 305, 

commoHj C. B, Clarice, 

7. Sikkim, Darjeeling, Griffith^ Kew n. 6260 ; Lachcn, 

8000 feet, J". B. Ilooher. 

8. Assam, Griffith^ 1485, 1591, Schlaginiwelt^X^^ld^ Masters^ 
215. Khasi 11111=', 7500-6000 feet, common, G. B. Clarice. 
Cacbar, (7. B. Clarke, 1S546. Sylhet, Wallich, 3468 
(hb. propr., DC), 3469 D (hb. propr.). Chlttagong Hill«, 

Gamble, 7951. 
9. Ava, Wallich^ 4471 ; Bhamo, Griffith, J", Anderson. 

10. Pegu, Scott, 432. Arracau, Kurz, 645. Mergui, Griffith^ 
292, Kew n. 6288 part. 

11. Perak, Kunstler^ 1948. PeraTv and Malacca, fide Ridley, 
Bistrih, Orient. Mascarenia, ludo-China. Australia. Timor. 

Canada. U.S. Orient. 

2. Sind, PlnivilL 

\mn. ; Hook.f. Z. c. vi. 656. 
Wallich, 3457 E, H (hb. propr.) 
var, King. 

3. Bombay, iat^. Canara, Law^ 

4. Ceylon, common, Thwaite.^, 846. 

6- Coromandelia, Belanger^ 200, 201. Madras Peninsula, 
Wallich, 3457 A, B (hb. propr.), TT/y/ii, 1890, 1891 (hb. 

Kew), 62, 63 (lib, Berlin), 2889 (hb. Calcutta). Mysoie, 
G, Thomson. Jubbulpore, Kuntze, 75, Chunda, Buthie, 
9853. Chota Nagpore, Gamble, 9075 ; 500-1500 feet, 
frequent, C. B. Clarice, 
6. Hindoosthan, Royle, 151. Oudh, 7?. Thomj)son. North 

Behar,7r«//^cA, 3457 C, D (hb 
ira?nilton, 199, 200, Griffith 

Beni^a], Buchanan 


a B. Clarke. 


Chittagong, Kurz. 

r I T ■ - J P-^l -V 

r ^'•Ti 


9. Segain, WaUich, 3457 G (lib. propr.)- 
10. Moulmein, Wallieh, 3456 (hb. propr.). 
Distrib. Mediterranea. Ethiopia. Philippines. Australia* 

10. SciRPTTs QUiNQirEFARTUS, Boecl\ ; Hook.f, FL Brit, Ind. r\. 


1, Kunaop, Jacquemont. Choor, Boyle, 31 (bb. propr.)- 

Eavvul Pindee, Aitchlson, 259. 

2, Punjab, T. Thomson. Sind, PinwilL Cutcb, Sfoliczka. 

Marwar, King. 

3, Goojerat, Hove. Pooua, Cooke. 
5. Central Indiflj King^ 44* 

6- Saliarunpore, RoyJe, 9, 48 (hb. propr.). Luckiio\\% T. 
Anderson, 003, Aligurh, Buthie, 4917 a. Furruckabad, 
Snchanan IfamiUon, 1Q8. Bengal: Baneegunj, T. Anderson^ 
12 ; Nawabgunj, Wallich, 34G5 (hb, propr.) ; Beauleah, 

<7. J5. Clarhc, 31862, 
8, Assam, TTaZ/^cA 6f Griffith (hb. Calcutta). 

Distrib. CabuL Turkestan. Ethiopia. 

11, SciRPTJs MUCKONATirSj Linn. ; HooJc,/. I. c. vi. 657. 

1, Kashmir, Jacquemont, 667, 1133, 2294, (7. B. Clarke,24202 ; 

Chumba, 3000 feet, C. B. Clarke, 24307 ; Kishtwar, 
Schlagintweit, 5115 ; Kawul Pindee, Aitchison, 559. 
Gurhwal, 6000 feet, Duthie, 70, 5007- Kumaon, Jacque- 
mont^ 1133, 2294 ; Baignatli, Strachey Sf Winterhottom, 
1914, Boyle, 52. Nepal, Wallich, 3467 (hb. propr., 


2. Punjab, Stewart^ 790; E. Chenab, T. Thomson. 

3. Concan, Zrt^t^. Canara, Talbot^ 588. Sirumallays, 5^i/^off?^. 

Nilgiri Mts., Ilohenacker, 947, Schmidt, Ferrottet, 674, 
6500 feet, Gamble, 12131, 7500 feet, King, C. B. Clarke,. 


4, Ceylon, Macrae, 195, 256 ; very common, Thwaites, 41. 

5. Madras Peninsula, Wight, 2885, 2050 (hb. Delessert), 

Wallich, 3467 A (hb. propr.). Saugor, Vicarg -, Goom, 
King. Chota ISTagpore, 2000 feet, common, <7. B. Clarke. 

6, Moradabnd, T. Thomson^ 192. Oudh, B. Thompson. 

Goruckpore, Buchanan Hamilton^ 202. Monghyr, Wal- 
lich, 3467 E (hb. propr.). Bengal, Wallich, 3467 B, C 
(hb. propr,, DC. Calcutta), Griffith, Kew n. 6260 part, 

i 4' 



7, Siklam, 8000 feet, Kin^ ; Lachen, 9000 feet, J, D, IToolcer ; 

Toksun, 6000 feet, C. B. Clarice, 25404, 1750 feet, 
a B. Clarke, 9442. 

8. Assam, Griffith^ 1489; Kamroop, Buchanan IlamiUon, 201 ; 

Seebsagur, (7. B. Clarke^ 38064 ; Luckimpoor, C,B, Clarke, 
37853. Khasia,//ooA:er/. Sf T. Thomson, 4000-5500 feet, 
frequent, C. B. Clarke. Sylhet, Wallich, 3467 F (hb. 

10. Burma, Griffith, Kew n. 6258. iVfartaban, Kurz^ 642. 

11. Malacca, Griifith, Kew n. 6258. Singapore, Kurz, 2996, 
Hallett, 239, Bidley, 1723, Wichura, 691 (umbella 1- 

Distrih, Europe. Mediterranea. Mascarenia. Indo-Malaya. 

12. SciRPUS coRYMBOSus, Both ; Booh Fh Brit, Ind. vi. 657. 
2. Sind, BinwilL Mt. A boo, King. 

5. Madras Peninsula, Wallich^ 3471 (hb, propr.), Wight^ 
2376; Bangalore, ]Fa?//c^, 3464 (hb. propr.); Hyderabad, 
CamphelL Jubbulpore, Beddome, Groonah, King, 

6. Patna, Buchanan Hamilton, 191, WalUeh,3i72 (hb. propr.). 
Distrih. Egypt. Ethiopia. 

13- SciHPUS TRTQUETER, Linn.\ Hook, f. I. c. vi, 658. 

1. Kashmir, Jacquemont, 667; 6000 feet, T. Thomson, TT, S. 
Atkinson, Baltisthan, Schlaginttoeit, 5421; 8500 feet, 

a B. Clarke, 29957, 30023, 30487. 

2. Sind, BinwilL 

Bisfrib. Palaearetica. Cape- China. Japan. 


Var. SEGBEGATA, C B. Clarke] Hook./. L c. vi. 658. 
6. Lower Bengal, Soondreebun, C, B, Clarke, 16941, 16959, 
16966, 33402, 33403, 33448, 33519, Wallich, 795 (bb. 
Mus. Brit.). 

Bistrib, New Gruinea. 

14. SciRPTis LACUSTEis, Liun.] C B. Clarke in Hook.f. h c, vi. 


1. Kashmir, Stewart, 789, 7500 feet, G. B. Clarke, 29070- 

Ladak, Schlagintweit^ 1631. Kurrum Valley, Aitchison, 

312, 465, 689. Kumaon, T Thomson, 686. Bljeem Tal, 

6000 feet, Strachey ^ Winterhofto?n, 3. 

r L 

1 ■>!■ 


^ „^ 


I -^ I j^ T— ^>^ . ^ — - a: Tf ' ■ ^ ■ r^ ^:^ 


9. Muneypoor, Watt, 7412. 
Bistrih. Paleearctica. Ethiopia. Japan. Oceania. JSV 

arctica. Central America* 

15. SciEPUS MAEiTiMUS, Linu. ; Rooh.f. FL Brit, Ind. ri. 658. 

1. AVcst Himalaya, Boyle, 99 (herb. Berlin). Kashmir, 

Jacquemonf^ 95, 357* 

2. Punjab, 2^. Thomson, Stewart, 86, 298, 391. Sind, Da/^^/Z ; 

Merwar, Z)«Mi^, 4918. Neemuch, Jacg^uemont^ 98. 

3. Malabaria, Law, 

5. Madras Peninsula, Wight, 1897, 2897 (bb. Boissier), 1527 
(hb. Berlin), Bottler. Mysore, Heyne. Kurnoolj Beddome, 

Chunda, Duihie, 9852. 
Moradabad, T. Tkomsoi 

Goruckpore and Eurruck- 

abad, Buchanan Hamilton, 189, 190, Oudh, Wallich, 
3504, 3505 (hb. propr., Kew). Lucknow, T\ Anderson. 
Bistrih, Palsearctica. Ethiopia. China. Japan. (Varieties 
in Oceania, America.) 

SciBPTJ3 MAiiiTiMUS, Linn, : 

Var. AFFiJSis, C. B. Clarice ; Roolcf. L c. vi. 659. 

2. Sind, StocJcs, 82, PinwilL Punjab, T. Thomson. 

3. Bombay, Law. Nassik, Coolce, 4. Asseergurh, Wallich^ 

3463 B (hb. propr., Kew, DC)- 

5. Khundwa, Buthie, 8450. Bundelkund, Edgeicorth. 

6. Saliarunpore, Boyle, 42 (hb. propr,), Jacquemont, 502. 
Oudh, jS. Thompson, 359. Delhi, i^o^Z^, 65, 66 (hb. 
propr.). Monghyr, Wallich, 3463 A (hb. propr.), 
Buchanan Ilainilion, 204. Beauleah, J. D. Boolcer, 
Pubna, (7.-B. CTar/.^^, 8352. Mooislitdabad, (7. 5. Clarice, 
26203, 26258. E. Pudma, common, C ^. Clarice. 

7. Sikkim, Tonglo, alt. 10,000-12,000 feet, Schlagintweit, 

14721 (I think erroneous, C.B.C.). 

8. Assam, QriJJith, 1175. Ea^^t Bengal, Griffith, Kew n. 

10, Pegu, Kurz, 2710. Burma, Scott. 

Bistrih. Mongolia, Cbefoo. 

16. SciBPUS LiTTOEALis, Schrad. ; HooTcf, L c. yi. 659. 

1. Kashmir, Eajaori, 3300 feet, C. B, Clarice, 28198. 

2. Smd, Balzell. Punjab, Clarice, 14. Hazara, Stewart, 85. 

Dehra Ismail Khan, hb. Buthie^ 7214» Campbelpoor, 


V ■ 




Sieicart, 31, 82. Loodiaua, T. Thomson, 1603. Marwar 


Metz. Yena- 

mallays, Gamhic, 17710, 
4. Colombo, Thwaites, 831. 

'as Peuinsula, Wiglt 


T. . 

\ 1895, 71 (lib. Berlin), 2897 
(lib. Berlin), WalUcIi, 350G B. Saugor, Vicary. Khundwa, 

Buthie, 8455. Cliunda, Butliiey 9845. Bundelkund, 

6. Saliarunporc, -Roy?^, 56. Calcutta, Kurz, 0. j5. Clarice, 


10. Nicobar Islands, fide Miqurl. 
Bistrih, Palsearctica. Ethiopia. Oceania. 

17. SciRPUs GBOssus, Linn.', IIool\f. FL Brit. Ind. vi. 659. 

3. Malabaria, Lnio ; Canara, Belanger, 212. 

4. Ceylon, TFaZ/jc?-, Fraser^ lOS, Tlnvaites, 847. 

5. Coromandclia, Belanger^ 210, 211. Pondiclicrry, Perrottet, 
52:?. Madras Peninsula, /^^/>7^f, 69 (hb. Berlin), WalUch, 
3470 A, C (hb- propr.). Saugor, Vicary. Chunda, Butliie^ 
9871. Chota Naspore, 2000 feet, 0. B. Clarice, 2510G. 

6. Bengal Plain, OriJJlth, Kew n, 62GS, Wallich, 3470 (lib. 
propr.), J". Z). Hooker; coinuion, C. 5. Clm^Jce. 

7. Nepal, Wallich, ^ 170 D (hb. propr,, Calcutta). 

8. Assam, Buchanrtn UamiUon^ 172. Gowliatty, Simons, 

9. Muneypoor, 2500 feet, a J?. CZ^^r^e, 42104, 

10. Burma, GrlJIth^ Kew n. G2G9, Falconer, 1179. Mergui, 

GriJJith, 3S2, Kew n. 62G8. Moulmein, 0. Kuntze, 

11. Malay Peninsula, hb. King, 302* Penang, Curtis^ 350. 
Malacca, Grljfilli^ Kew n. 6270^ Lemann. 

Bisirih. Malaya. 

SciRPiTs anossus^ Lijin. : 

Var. Kysoou, 0. ^- Clarice in IlooJc.f. I c- vi. GGO. 
3. Bombay, Balzell^ GooJce. 

5. Chota Nagporc, 2000 feel, G B. Clarice, 34210, 31211, 

6. Purnea, BitcTin^ian IIamillo?7jl7S. Bengal Plain, Wallich^ 



'-r ^Tr_T^T^_ 






■ d 




58G (lib. Mus. Erii), GriJ/Ith, J. B. IToolcer, C. B. OlarJce, 
14225, 2G80n, 2CS2G, 34485. 
8. Upper A^Farp, Jenhins^ 2] 4. 
Disfril. Endenric* 

. SciKPUs Cakicis, Hetz. ; HooJc.f, FL Brit. Imh vi. 660, 
1. Kashmir, 8000-12,000 f(^et, frequent, CB, Clarice. Tibet, 


Lob, 13,000 feet. 

StoUczlca, Dras, Schlaginhveit^ 64C7, G670. Kumaon, 

9000-12,000 feet, ScJiIapntweit, 7064, Dnlhie, G0G7y 6070. 
KimawTir, Jacquemont^ 1-356, 1852. 

7. Pbarcc, hb. G. King. 
Bistrih. PaliTarctica. 

SciRPUs Cakicis, Betz. : 

Var. ft. linr.TTFOLTA, C, U. Glarl:e in HooJcf. h c vi. 660. 

L CIrni, J«cg^^ew^o^^^ 1332, Tilet, Jircr/z^cwo?^/, 1852, 10,000- 

14,000 feet, SioUczJca. 

Bistrih, Endemic, 

SciRrus Caktcis, Befz. : 

Var. y STKKJMENSis, G. B. Glarlce in Ilooh.f. h c, vi. 661. 

7- Sikkim, Lacbcn, 9000 feet, J". B. Hooler. 
Bistrih. Endemic. 

SCTRPUS CAlilClS, Betz. : 

Var. ?. inssiTA, (7. i>\ Clarke in Ilook.f. L c, vi. 661. 

1. Kumaoii, Ktitti, 13,500 fctt, ButMe, 3460- 
Bisfrib, Turkestan. 

19. SciprtJB itiJFUS, ScJirach ; Hook,/. I, c, vi. 061. 
1. West Tibet, T. Thom.wn. 

Bisirib. Cooler Europe. Mongolia. Canada. Chile. 

20. SciBPUs suECAPiTATUS, Thwaites \ Hooh.f. L c. vi, 661. 

3. Niluiri Mt&., Gardner. 

4. ]S'c^^■er:l ELia, Thioaites^ 300. Blackpool, T. Afnderson. 

5. MadnjB Penicsula, Wight, 2913- 
Bistrib. Cbina. Sumatra, Borneo. 

21. SciKPUS EiaOPHORUM, Mich.i Boole. J\ I. c. vi. 661. 

7. East Himalaya, Griffdl^, 249, 765, Kcw n. 6266. 

8. Apsam, Jenkins. Klia&iia, 2500-6000 feet, Voigfj J*- i?< 
IloJcer, 1 450, G- il/^?i?7, 336, 383, common, C. B. Clarke. 

Bisfrih. Cbina. Japan. Nearctica. Mexico* 

' I 

^" ■ 



22. Sciiipus TERXATENsis, Miq, FL Incl BaL iii. [1855J 307. ' 

Munro [185 7J • UooJc.f, FL BHt. Ind. vi. 662.] 

1. Chunihn, hb. Calcutta ; KuniMon, 5G00 

Win te 


Pattudoou, Brandis (hb. Saliarun- 

7. Sikkim, Liiclieri, GOOO feet, J. B. HooJcer. Sikkim, 1000- 
4000 feet, T. Anderson, 2G2, JGng, Kurz, G. B. Clarice, 

11995, 27G.51. 


8. Assam, Je«H?7s. Gow\\iittj, J. D. IfooJcer, Simons. Kliasia^ 

r. Cachar, Keenan. Chittagong 


Hills, Gcmhle, 7848. 
Mutieypoor, 5000 feet, Wi 

10. Burua, 

iJRth, Kevv n. G2G5. Martab 


3404 A, F (hb. Kew), 3404 F (hb. Calcutta). 

Distrib. China. Malaya. 

23. SciRPUs KTLTiTNaioiDEs, BoecJc. ; IJooJc.f. I. c vi. 6G2. 
1. Dhoon, Vicary. 

3. Mt. Aboo, 300 feet, King. 

3. Canara, Youtkj. 

5. Hjdrabad, Campbell. Saugor, Vioary. Groona, King. 
Distrih. Tropical Africa. 

24. SciHPus MrcHEMANUs, Linn. ; Rook.f. I. c. vi. GG2, 

1. Kashmir, T. Thomson. 
3. Bombay, CooJce. 


5. Chunda, Duthie, 0842. Khaiidwa, Duthie, 8459. 

6. Delhi, Boyle, 92. Etawah, BulUe. Ben-^al, 

3484 A, C part (hb. projir.), J, B. Hooker ; common, C. B. 
Clarke, 8158, 2G174, 20193, 26278, 26279. 
8. Assam, BucTianan Hamilton, 205, Masters, 204, Grijfitli, 

(Mus. ] 


10. Pegu, Scott, 399. Burma, Griffith 

Tenasserim, Gallatly, 631. 

Bistrih. Palacarctica. Indo-China, 





Nagpore, 2000 feet, O. B. Clarice, 34190. 

6. Behar, J. B. IlooJcer, 177. 
Bistrib. Ethiopia. 



^ifi lT 1 .r- 

'iT'- —'1^ 

r n- f-r ITT F- ^ ■ I ^ T 

r. t— i^i^ -*- ■ ^ . -n I . 

■^ . . TV - —a- 



26. SciitPTJS SQUAREOSTTS, i2««. ; 7foo/<:./. ^/. Srit. Tnd. vi. 603. 

1. Gurliwal, 6000 feet, DutJiie, 50L8. Dehra Dhoon, DiUhe, 


2. Punjab, T. Thomson. Sind, PimvilL 

4. Ceylon, y/*«'«tVes, 854. ^rth Ceylon. (?ari«t?r ; Colombo, 

?/Jc^, 3177 part, 3478, 



Madras Peninsula, Bottler, 
WljJit, 1888, 1SS8 h (lib. propr.), 67, 67 B, 68 C (hb. 
Berlin). Kyd-Vabad, Camphell Central India : Goona, 
Xinff ; Khandwa, Dutlde, 8451 ; Cbunda, DiifJde, 9849. 
Chota Nagi)ore, 1000-2000 feet, 0. B. Clarice, 21095, 
21139, 21178, 24792, 25035, 338S9. 
Gangctic Plain, Wallkli, 3477, 3478 B (hb. propr.), 1137. 

Mongbyr, Buchanan naniilton, 194, 19G. Bengal, common, 

a b" Clarice, 3710, 7593, 8032, 20151, 33603. 

7. Sikkim Terai, C. B. Chrlce. 

8. As^am, Wallich S, Griffith 


L I 

n. 6287 part. 



Bistrib. Ethiopia. China. Java. 


. Eetophorum ScHEUcnzERi, Hoppe; Iloolc.f. I. c. vi. 664. 
1. Kashmir, Lance, 287 ; 13,500 feet, C. B. Clarice, 30674. 
Distrih. Palajarctica. Japan. Nearctica. 

Wallieli; Hoolc.f. 

1. West 

Boyle, 79, 80 (1 


Jhelnm Valley, Griffith, Kew n. 

6283, C. B. Clarice, 


_7353 ; Budrawur, 0500 feet, Stoliczlca ; Bhimbur, 3000 
feet, Stetvart, 785 ; Kishtwar, 4000 feet, C. B. Clarice, 
31439; Eajaori, Jacqucmonf, 1357, 6500 feet, ScMa- 
gintweit, 12210; Chungas, 2500 feet, C B. Clarice, 


Sreenuggur, Sclilagintweif, 4000; Chumbn, 
4000 feet, O. B. Clarice, 23754 ; Jamu, T. Thomson ; 
Dalhousie, 6000 feet, O. B. Clarice, 22102, 22770. Mas- 
soorce, EoyJe, 148 (hb. propr.), G. King, 3000-5000 feet, 
Brandts, 2998, 3323. Kumaon, 3000-5000 feet, Strache>f 
^ Wmterlottom, 1, 2. Almora, 6000 feet, Madden. 
Simla, Madden ; 6000 feet, Gamlle, 4859. Kulu, Schalch. 

Kaleedongec, T. Tli 


Giirhwal, 5000 feet, 

\ . . _-■'=-* ■ 

M ■ ■ ^ 



Duihie, 210S. Dolira Dlioon, THnr/^ Vlcary^ Jacquemoni^ 
322. Nex3Eil, Wallkli, 34 IG, 3417 (lib. propr.)- 
2, Hazara, 3300 feet^ Stewart^ Falconer^ 1137- Ilurroo, 
3300 feet, Stewart^ 290. Camjjbclpore, Stewart* Pe- 
shawufj Schlagintiveity 25S8, Pathankote, 1500 feet, 
C. jS. (7/ffrZ;.?, 21971. Punjab, ^z7(?Zt/A*o?^, 316, JuUundur, 
1000 feet, 0. i?. 0/rtr^r, 23350. Sind, PlnwilL Assocr- 

ghur, Ilobson, 
5. Saugor, Vicary\ Gooua, King \ Khaudwa, Dutkie^ 8149. 

7. East Himalaya, GriJJith, Kow n. G2S2 part. 


Buchanan IIamilton\ E. Tambur, J". 7). Iloolcer, Sikldm, 
500-2000 feet, /. D. Hooker, King, 2415 ; Titaliya, 
Kurz\ Si\^oko» Gamhle^ 3178; Choonbuttce, 3000 feet, 
O. 5. Cfer/i?^, 2G511. Bhotan, OnJIth, G283. 
8- Assari), Simons, Kidding. Brahmakoondo, GriJ/ith 

Chittagoiij, J. D. Iloolcer, 589. 
9. Paghaine^\^ Wallidi, 3418 A. 
11. Penang, Wallich, 3418 A. 
Distrib. China. Tonkin. 

3* ERioriTouuM MiCEOSTACUTUM, BoccJc, ; Iloo/c.f. Fl Brit. Ind. 

vi. 6G4. 

1. Wtst Himalaya, Bogle^ 78- Chinese Tartary, 16,000 feet, 
hb. ITunro. Jumna Source, Jfacquemont, 762. Nynee 

Tal, T. Thomsony 646, 

7- Bhotan, Chupclia, 8000 feet, Griffith^ 2GGS, Kew n. G2S2 
Distrih. Endemic. 

1, FuiHKNA ruBEscE>^S5 Kitutli \ Hook.f, h c. vi. 665. 
3, Punjab, T. Thomson (hb. Mas. Brit., C. Melville). 

Bistrib. Mediterranea- Ethiopia. 


2. PuiifENA AVALLTcniAyA, Ktiuth ; IlooJc.f. I, c. vi. 665. 

1. Hurdwar, Wallich, 3515. Sutlcdgc Valley, T. Thomson, 

3, 'Bomhnj, LamhertyBahell ; 'Bhiwii^ Coolce ; F oonh, Jacque- 

mont, 413. 
5. Central India, /iz^yj 18, 51 ; Goona, X/??y, 47 ; Khandwa, 

Bitthicy 8454. 
Bistrib. Endemic. 


■J- l-. 

-T -T-TT - ■ T I 'iJ*r I 


FuiRENA Walltchiaita, KliUlh : 

Var, EvoiUTA, C i?. Clarice in Jlook,/. FL Brit. Ind. vi. 66G. 

2. Marwar, Bullae, 4919 (lib. Kew). 
Distrih, Endemic, 

8. FuijaENA GLOMEitATA, Lam. I Ilook.f. I. c. vi- G66. 

1- West Himalaya, Hoyle, 75 (hb. propr.), 

3. Concan, Law, CaBara, IlohenacJccr^ 194, Talbot^ 779, 

1032, Jb«??y. 

4. Ceylon, TJtimiies, 2748, Fraser, 72. 

6* Madras Peninsula, ^oe;z/c/, m>/i;^, 18G2, 2886 (hb. Berlin), 
Wallich, 3544 A part, B, C (hi), propr.), Belanger^ 181, 
182. Mysore, Jiottler. Cuddapore, Beddome, Central 
India, Vicurxj^ 188 ; Chuiida, Duihie^ 9857. Chota 
Nagporo, V. Ball, 1000-2000 feet, common, C. _B. Clarke, 

6. Behar, ./. Z). Hooker, ^.25. Burdwan, C. B. Clarke, 25287. 
MynieiJtoinyli, C. B. Clarke, 8094* Beauloa't, C. i?, Clarke^ 

31870. Burisal, C 5. 0/ar^^, 8185. 
8, Assam, Maulers. Noaldiali, J. D, Hooker, 91, G. B* 
Clarke, 8197. Chittagong, Hooker f. ^ T. Thomson. 

10. Akyab, Kurz, G22. Burma, Griffith, 316, Kew n. 6280. 
Pronie, Wallicli, 3544 B, C. Kangoon, TTwrz, 2712, 
Morguf, Orilfiih, 317, Kcw n. G2S0, Griffith, 289, Kcw 
n. 6278. Tavoy, Wallich, Farish, 154. 

11, Pernk,/^^/?^A*/Z6^r, 2451- Malacca ^^ 8lnga[)0Ye^Jidellidlc^. 
Bisiril. Ethiopia. Indo-China. Oceania. 

4. FuiHENA UNCiNATA, Knnth \ Ilook.f. I, c. vi. 666. 

3. Canara, Dr, Thomson. Nilgiri Mts- and Kurg, G. Thom- 
son, 12G. 

4. Ceylon, Moon, Walker, Macrae, 279 ; very abundant, 

Thwaitcs, 3038. 

5. Madras Peninyula, WaUich, 3544 A part, D (hb. propr.), 
Mottlcr^ Kocnig^ Belanger, 192, Wight, I860 (hb. propr.). 

Distrih. Endemic. 

5, FuiRE>A TitJi^ouiiEs, C B. Clarke in llook-f. L c. vi- 666. 
6- Seciinderabad, Wight, 21G (hb. prupr,). Hyderabad, 

Cam^hell (hb. Mu.s. Brit.). 
Disfrih. Endemic. [It ia not improbable that AVight got Lis 
example from Campbell; and that this t^pecies has been only 
once collected.] 



> '. 

6. FuiRENA UiiBfeLLATA,* liotlb. ; IlooJc.f, FL Brit, Ind* vi. 666. 

4. Ceylon, Macrae, 206, 271 ; common, Thiuaites, 3229, 


5. Madras Peninsula, Wight, 18G1, 2384 (2888, 2910 lib. 


Calcutta), Wallkh, 3543 (lib* propr,), Belanger^ 183. 
TranquebaPj SoUler, Cudda^)ore, Beddome. Central 
India, Clmtida, Dulhie^ 9850. 
6- Dinajpore, C. B, Clarice, 26441- Mymensingh, O. B, 

Cla rJi 

ce, 7 


7. Sikkim Terai, J, 1). Iloolcer, C B. Clarice, 36972, 37037. 

8. Assam, GnJJith, 1484, 1013, Jenlcins^ Simons. Khasi 
Hilla, Mann, 344 ; 3000 feet, G. B. Clarke, 38127- Sillct, 
Wallich, 354:i (hb- propr.). Chittagong, J. D, Iloolcer^ 


9. Muneypoor, 1000 feet, Watt, 6U33. 

10. Pegu, KttrZy 271L Arracan, Kitrz, Burtna, GriJJith^ 
Kew n. 6276. Mergui, Griffith, 447, Kew n. G279. 
Tena^serim, Paelcman, Heifer, Kew n. 6277. Nicobars, 
Kurz, 25986, 

11. Peuaug, King. Malacca, Griffith, Singapore, Lohb^ T. 
Anderson^ 205, Ploem^ 518, Wichitra, ^jdij. 

Distrih. Etliiopia, Indo-China. Oceania. Ncotropica. 

1, LiPOCARPHA AIlGE^'TEA, i?. Br. ] Hoolc.f. Z, c. vi. 607- 

1. Dhurmsala, 4000feet,ai?. CTrrr;^-^, 2k!97i Dehra Dhoon, 
Vicary^ Duihie, 2400. Almora, 5000 feet, Strachey Sf 
Winterhottom. Kumaon, WaUich^ 3445 Gr (lib. propr.), 
Kinff, 3300 leet, Biithie, 2, 3164. (Sf^urliwal, 6000 feet, 
Duthie, 5015. Nepal, WaUicli, 3445 F (lib. propr.). 

3. Nilgiri Mty., Ilohenaelcer, 940; Pjkara and Ooty, ^7?zy ; 
Ooty, 8000 feet, Gamble, 12483. Caiioor, 7000 feet, 
a B. Clarice, 10925. 

4- Ceylon, ^0^?? (7, Moon, Gardner, 967; O-3000 feet, common, 
Thwaites, 819. 

5. Madras Peninsnia, Wight, 218, 2907- Chota Nagpore, 
2000 feet, a B. Clarke, 21216. 

7. Sikkim, J, J). IlooJcer, Kurz. Darjeoh'ng, Griffith, Kew 

Kungait, 1500 feet, C. B. Clarke, 9440. 



Dulkajbar, 500 feet, C B. Clarke, 30913. 

8. Assam, Simons, Jenkins, 217- 

Khasia, 0-4500 feet, 

Wallich ^' Griffith, Hooker f ^ T, Thomson, Oldham, 

^ ^_ — -^I.-W- - -m- - ^ - -. - r ^T ^ ' JP ■* ^ " . " ■ ' T Ti^ --m^-- ","~--", ^.--^.-^|_ j-w , J . 1_ ■!■■■- * _ 1 -- ■ ■ 1 




88 MR. C. B. CLAllKE ON THK 

Mann, 231, G'r^/;?//^ Kew n. G2OT, C. 5. Clarice, 5127, 

14560, 15730, 188G4; 3S410, 44352, 45859. Cacliai-, 

JCeenan. Sillet, JVallich, 3445 II (lib. propr.), C. B. 

Clarice, 7161. Pundua, J. D, Jlooker^ 357, Cbittagong^ 

= Lister. ■ '. ' t. 

9. Muneypoor, 4000 feet, Watt, 715G. 

11. PeBaiig, King. Singapore, lutrz, 3020, Kumtler^ 109^ 

■ mV/a^ra, G92, i2^J/ry, 58, 
Distrih, Ethiopia, Indo-Malaya. Queensland. 

2. LiPOCARPHA TEICEPS, JS^ees in Wiglit Conirih. [1834] 92, 

[i. e, LipocarpKa sphacclata, Kitnlli (1837); Hook. f. FL Brit. 

•X ■ ■ : r -i 

4. Doombera District, Thioailes^ 375G. 

5. Coromandelia, Belanger, 193. Courtallum^ Wight^ 2906. 
Madras Peninsula, WaUich, 3402 B, 3444 A, C (hb, 
prbpr.), T7'2>//^f, 1857, 1S58. Tranqnebar, 7?o/#fe\ Saugor,. 
Vicary^ Chun da, Didhie^ 9874. Cbota Nagpore, 750- 
2000 feet, common, C. B. Clarke, 

6. "West Bengal, lioxlurgh^ Kurz. Burdwan, 500 feet^ 
' C,B, Clarice. 

7. Nepal, Wallich, 323 (hb. Btrliu). 

8. Assam, Masters, 218< East Bengal, GriJ/ith, Kew n. 6297 
inbb. DC. 

10. Pegu,ir^^r^, 605, 635- Proiiie, TFdZ//^^, 3444 B (lib, propr.). 
Distrih. Trop. Africa. Neotropica. 

-. ■- 


3, LiPOCA-RpnA MiCRocEPJivL^, Kiintli \ Hooh.f. I. €. vi. 668. 

11. Singapore, Ridley, 1722. 
Distrih, China. Japan. Oceania* 

1. Etkciiospoka Wallichian-a, C. B. Clarice in Hooh.f. I. c. 

vi. 6G8. 

ia, Wight. 
Wallich. \ 

up to 4000 feet, Thwaites, 2746. 
6. Madras Peninsula, Wirjht, 1903 part (bb. propr.). 

6. Beugal, Wallich, 3421. Mjmensingh, (7. B. Clarke, 


7. Nepal, WaUich, 3422 A part (bb. propr.). 

< I 

Uich, 3422 A part (bb. propr.). Siklclm Terai, 
C. B. Clarice, 3G971. Coocb Bebar, Buchanan Ilamiltony 
216. ,, . 

-P E 




8. Assam, Masters, 220. Kohitna, G500 feet, Q. B, Cla^Jcey 
41300- Khasi Hilb, 4000-5500 feet, GriJUlt, Kew 
n, (5301, J, D. Ilool-er, 1579 ; frequent, C. B. Clarice, 
10. Pegu, Kurz, 021, 2700. Burma, WaUich, 3422. Mergui, 

Griffith, Kcw n. G301. Nicobar?, Kitrz^ Kami^lioevener, 

24S6. • 
11. Malacca, Griffith. 
Dlstrih. Ethiopia. Indo-Ciiina. Oceania. 


2. Ey>'Ciiospoua WianrtAXA, 0, B. Clarice in Ilooh.f. FL Brit. 

Ind. vi. GG9. 

3. lslvi\tihwc\ix^ Stoclcs.Laiv. Conaxn^ DahclJ. Pooua, Jacq^ue- 
onont, G49. Cauara, Metz, 827, Talbot, 980. Caunanore, 
Caviphcll (lib* AVight, propr. n. 1903 part). 

4. Co}lon, Tliwaites, 274G }:art (in hb. DC.)- 

5. Quilon, Wijht, 2911 (hb. Kew). Central India, Cliunda, 

DutJiie, 9873. 
Distrib. Cochiu China. (A var-? in Erasil.) ■ 

3. Rykchospoua LONGisETis, C. B. Clarice in Hook, f, L c. vi. 

10. Pegu,_ffwr2, nOO. Proiiie, TFa/Z^.-/^, 3i23, Karen Country, 

Kurz. Nummayau, li. Scott, 
Distrib, North Anstralia. 

4- Eyxciiospoha malasica, C, B. Clarice in Hook. f> L c. vi- 

11. Malacca, Griffith, Kow n. 6358. Singapore, Iiidle)j, 80. 

Distrib, Borneo. 



1028, 1015 

4. Ceylon, Burman, 45. Colombo, Bottler. Caltura, 
Macrae^ 232, Batangoda, Thioaites, 199. 


5, Madras Peninsula, Wallich, 3371. 
7- Sikkim Terai, Kiirz. 

8. Assam, Simons, 80, 291, 293, Scldagintweif, 13495, 
Masters, 222, JenHns, 96 ; frequent, <7. B. Clarice. 
S^lhet, G. B. Clarice, 7108, 17946,17994. Chittagong, 

Hooker, 416, C . 




i4 ' 


' \ 



> i -^. 

/T T ■, 





Malacca, Gaudi- 
L19, Kurz. 3006. 

chaud, 93. Singapore, Oaudichaud, 
Kunstler, 131, Wichura, G97, Jagor, 32. 
Bistrih. Ethiopia. China. Malaya. Oceania. JNTeotropica. 

6. Eya'ciiospoea tkiploua, Vald; Rook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. vi. 


4. Ceylon, Macrae, 252. Saffragam District, Thvaites, 3036. 
Bistrib. Cuba. North Brasil. 

7. Eyxciiospoka Hookeei, C. B. Clarke in Rook. /. /. c. vi. 




6. North Bengal, Nathpur, Wallich, 

a B, Clarice, 7700, 7780, 7788. 

7. Cooch Behar, Buchanan Ramilton, 215. 

8. Assam, Jenkins. Scebsagur, C. B. Clarke, 40748. Sylhet, 
Pundua, J. B. Rocker, 3S9. 

Bistrih. Endemic. 


KxNcnospoiiA GKACiLLMA, 6'. B. Clarke in Rook.f. I. 

4. South Ceylon, Thwaites, 3818. 

5. Tiiinevclly .Hills, Beddome. 
8. Khasia, J. B. Hooker. 

10. Nicobart^, Kurz (hb. Calcutta), Kampliocvener, 2483. 
Bistrih. Hongkong. 


Rook, f. 

11883, 11884; frequent, C. B. Clarke, Pykara, 7fmy. 
4. Ceylon, 71/007?, 455 ; 4000-GOOO feet, abundant, Thwaites, 


5- Madrus I^enin^ula, Wight, 2904. 

7. Nepal, Wallich, 3421, 

8. Kliasia, 4000-0400 feet, common, ■ C, i?. (7ZarZ:<?, 38349, 

38497, 38800. 



Algeria. 'Ethiopia. 

Japan. Malaya, Australia. 

Eynchospoea glauca, Vahli 
Yar- cniNENsis. C. B, Clm 


I, - 

J _ ^ 

\ . 

J • 



4- Ce}'lon, Gardner, 051, Macrae^ 144; south of the island, 

ThivaitcSy G77. 
10. Tenaaaerim, Ilelfer, Kew n. G303 (0279 ia hb, Calcutta). 

Mergui, Griffith, 137, Kew n. 6802. 
Distrih. Mascareiiia. Indo-China* Sandwich. 


vi. 672. 


8. Assam, Griffith, 1588. East Bengal, Griffith, Kcvv u. 
6303. Kha^ia, J. D. Hooher (hb. Kcvv) 5 alt. 4200 feet, 
a B. Clarice, 5206, 14G56, 15818, 15824, 18U28, 45790. 
Disfrib. Endemic in Assam, 

Hynchospoea Geiffituji, Boeclc: 

Hook. /! 


feet, J". B. IlooJcer, 
Disirib, Endcinic in Sikkirn. 

11. Ktnceospoha siKKiMKKtsis, C. B. Clarice in Boole, f. L c 



7. Sikkim : Lake Catsui^crri, 7500 feet, J. D. Hooker. 
Bisftib. Endemic. (A single collection.) 

1. ScntEiSTs wxoRiCANS, Linn, ; Hook.f. L c. vi. 673. 

2. Kurrum Valley, AilvUsoHy 358. Bind, FlnwilL 

Bi^trib, Palccarctica. Ciipe. JS'earcticu. 

2. ScHtENUS CALOST.\cnYUs, Poir,\ Ilooh^f. l,c. vi. 673. 
11. Singapore, Bidlty, 1397, 1724. 

Bistrib, Borneo. A ULstralia. Polynesia, 

!• jamaicejn'se^ Cranfz, Instil, i. [176GJ 362, 

[C. Mariscus, It. Br, ; Hook, f- 1. c. vi. 673.J 

I. Kashmir: City Lake, Jacgiiemont^ 645, Levinge^ C 5. 

Clarke, 27352, 29075. 
Bisirih, Pala^arutiea, EtLiopia. Indo-China. Oceania. East 

U.S. Neotropiea. 

2. Cladium Maikoati, Bidleij in Journ. Singapore Asiat* Soc. 

n. 23 [1891] p. 16 ; Jlook.f. L c. vl 674. 

II. Mt. Ojjhir (near Malacca), near top, alt* 4000-4500 feet, 
Griffith, Kew n. 6304, T. Lohb, Gitmlng, 2379, Maingaij, 
1725, 2735, Hullett, 870, Bidley, 3140. 

Bisirib. North Celebes. 

--.■^ ^" 

/ ■ ■ ' * 

r-r ■■ -^ i 

rf.'^-jw' V -^ 



c 3i Cladium undulatuMj Thwailcs ; Hoolc.f, FL Brit, Inch vi. 674, 

t r 

4. Cc^'lon, Hoitler, Walher^ Macrae^ 1050 ; South Ceylon, 

Thivailes, 3226. 
11, Pahangj Ridley ^ 2. 
Dlslrih. Sumatra, ]3orneo. North Australia. 

4* Cladittm HTPAiiiTJjvr, Benth. : 

Var< cnASSA, (7. 5. Clarice in llook.f, X, c. vi* G75. 
4. Ambagainowa District, Thwaites^ 815. 
6. Bengal ; Soondreebun (Lower Burisal), (7. .7?. Clarice^ 1G92G, 
8. Shillong (Station), alt. 5000 feet (in the lakes), C B. Clarice, 
Bistrih. Endemic in India. (The ty2)ical (7. rijjariitm grows 
in South-west Australia.) 

5. Cladium OLOMEEA.TUivr, B, Br.; Hoolc.f, I.e. vi. 675- 
11. Singapore, Bidlcy. 
Bistrih, Hongkong* Nagasaki. Australia. New Zealand. 

1. MiCEOScncENUS DuTHiEi, C. B, Clarice in Hoolc* /. L c. vi. 


1. Gurhwal, Tihri, alt 15,500 feet, Bulhie, 132. 
Bistrih. Endemic. (Only once collected.) 

1. LEnnosPEEMA cniNENSE, H'ees; Hook,/, L c. vi. 676- 

11. Mt. O^Air (near Malacca), Griffilh, Kevv n. Qll^^Bidley^ 

Bistrih. Cliina- 

1. Gaitnia teistis, Nees in Linncjea^ ix. [1S34] 301, Sf in Ilooh, 

et Arn, Beecliey Voij. p^ 228. 

11. Singapore, Kurz^ Murton^ Ilullclt^ 54, Wichura^ 698, 
Bidley, 1723 a. 
Bistrih. Cbina. Borneo. 

2. Gahnia javanica, Moritzi : 

Var. PEXANGENsis, C B, Clarke in IIool\f. I. c, vi. 677, 
11. Penang, 2500 ieet, hb. King, 1750. Perak, 7000 feet, 
Wray, 887. Malacca, Punnus, 2500 feet, Griffith, Kew 
• n. 6305 ; Mt. Ophir, 2000 feet, Ridley, 3142. 
Bisfrib. Endemic. (The type (?. javanica extends from 
Sumatra to the Piiilipjdnes, Viti and New Caledonia.) 




3. Canara, Talhot, 5-32. 

4. Ceylon, mc^e, 200; U^xv^., Gardner, Thwaites,rM2l . 

Madras Peninsula, IF}>/ii, 1851, ^f/^JcZ 

Mergui, Grijtlh 
mans), Heifer, 

Tcnasseriin (vel Anda- 
Nicobars, Kurz. 

ijith, M 

Dlstrib. Ethiopia. China. Malaya. Oceania. Neotropica 

1. Hypolttrum LATiroLiUM, L. a Bii-h. ; Roolc. f. I c. vi. 



3000 I'eet, Thwalles, 210. 
5. Tranqncbar, Boilhr. Tinnivelly Hills, Beddomo. 

7. Sikkim Tcrai, 500 feet, C. B. C/«r/c., 2^800^0 802. 

8. Assam, JenUns. East Bengal, G/""'" 

ijfith, Kew n. G272. 

a 5. Clarice, 14327. SiUet, fTa/ 

C?«ryte, 7137, S3S4, 8110, 17078. 

koond, J. n. liooJccr, 3S4 ; Kasalong, Gamlle, 7789. 





n. 6271, Kurz, 2717. Moulmeiu, 




Martaban, and Amherst, WalUch. Tcnasscrim, Paclcman. 
An.lau.ans,X«r.^. WiOoUv,, Kurz, JdhteJc, 22G. Mergm 


11. Pcnang, Wallic^ 
Perak, KunsUer. 



3403, Kunsiler, 1312, 1378. 

■/77//i, Kcw n. 6271. Mi 


31S0'. Fahnng,' Bidley, 1219. Singapore, T. ^«^er.o;2, 


JDistrib. China. Malaya. Q 

Pol) nesia. 


[lYPorA-TUTJM WiGnTi.v>-uir, Boecl: ; Jlooh.f. 

3. Canara, Dalzell (hh. Calcutta, Kcw) 
Malabar (or Concau), SlocJcs (hh. 
Wynaad: Gooaaloor, King, 1187 a, J 
Kuttru. hb. GaUaita, 868. Madras Pt 

1850 (,hb. propr.). 
10. Nicobar?, Kurz (lib. C. B. Clarke, 2G010). 

Katgal, Cooke. 

Ke w) . 




T J ; . r •^- i 




Ind. vi. G79. 

TTook. f. 

4. Central Province, 3000 feet, Thwaites, 3, Bcddome. 
Distrih. Endemic. 

i. HTPOLYTJiF.M pkj^a>gi:nse, C. B. Clarke in ITooh. f. I. c. vi. 


11. Pennng, Maingaij, 2254 (lib. Kew, 1720). 
Distrih. Eiideniic. 




Bistrib. Only tliis example knowti. It is of course a mere 
guess locating tliis in the Malay Peninsula. 

6. Htpolytkum PuoLiFERUM, Bocok. ; HooJc.f. I. c. vi. 679. 

11. Singapore, Wichura, 693, Ridlei/, 1716. 
Distrih. Borneo. 

7. Htpolytkum LONGiRosTKE, Thwaites; Iloo/c.f, I.e. vi. 679. 

4. Ceylon, Beddome ; Hiuidoon Corle, Thwaites, 34G8. 

Distrih, Endemic. 

Malacca, Griffith 
1063, 1105.' Sir 


; ^oo/i:. / Z. c. vi. 680. 
6357. Pahang, Ridley, 

3404 (hb. propr.; part, Qatidichaiid, 118, 7?/^/%, 82, 124 
166, 168. 
Distrih. Eanglia. Borneo. 

Thoracostacityum sancanum, Kurz: 

Malacca, Griffith 

Hook. f. 


Distrih. Endemic. (Only one collection.) 


I. c. vi. 680. 
11. Johorc, liidlcy, 4093. 


Distrih. Queensland. New Guinea. 

Hook. f\ 

1. l\rAPA>^TA siLiiETEiisis, O. B. ClarJce in Uooh.f, I <?. vi. 681. 
8. Assam, JenJcins^, Luckimporo, 350 feet, a B. Clarice, 
S7922. Sylliet, Wallieh, 4474. 

Distrih. ETi(]emic. 



2. Mapakia palustrts, Benfh, ; Ilooh.f, FL Brit. Ind. vi. C81. 
11. Malay Peninsula, GriffitJi^ Kow n. G355. Malacca, Griffith 

(lib. Wiglit). Sin-apore, BidUy, 1712, 1715. 
Distrih, Java. Bornon. 

Mapania KuRzir, C. B. Clarke in Hook.f. L c. vi. 681. 

11. Malacca, Griffith, Kew ]u mm. Perak, 1750 feet, hb. 
King^ 28G4, Wray, 1852. Penan g, Government Hill, 
Maimjmj, 2275 ; 1750 feet, lib, Xing, 1587* 

Distrih. Endemic. 

4. Mapania andamakica, G, B. Glarhe in HooJc.f. Z. c. vi. 681. 


10. Andaman^, Kurz^ Heifer^ Kew n. 6298. 
Distrih. Endemic. 

5. Mapakta multispicata, Bidley in Journ, Singapore Asiat. 

Soc. n. 23 [1891] p. 15; Ilook.f. I c. vi. 682. 
11. Singapore, Bidley^ 1714 
Distrib. Java. 

6. Mapais^ia WALLicirTT, C j5. Clarke in Ilook.f, I. c. vi, 682. 
11. Singapore, WalUchy 3541, 
Distrib. Endemic (a var. in Eonico). 

7. Mapania zetlanica, C, B, Clarke in Hook,/. I, a* vi. 682. 
4. Kokoole Corle, Pittigalakanda, Thtcaites^ S029. *' Indian 

Peninsula," Bottler, 

Bistrih. Borneo. 

8. Mapania immersa, G B. Clarke in Hook,/. Lc, vi. 682. 
4. Singbe-rajab Porcst, Thwaites^ 3819. 
Bidrih, Endemic. (One collection only.) 

9. Mapat^ia tknuiscapa, G B. Clarke in Hook,f. L c. vi. 683 
11, Malacca, Griffith, Kew n. 6299, Jobore, liiclhg, 4094. 
Bisfrib, Sumatra. 

10. MAPA:?rrA lois^ga, lUdley in Journ. Singajjore Asiat. Sac. n. 23 

[1891] p. 14; ITooh.f. L c. vi. 683. 
11. Singapore, Bidley^ 109. 
Bistrih. Borneo- 

J p 


r - e-» 

T| L- 

^. -■ ■ - 

.-rT-,jv^.,.r-^ . 

^ T H 


1 ..J- 

■ T 

^ ' 




Soolc. f. 

vi, 683. 

11. Peiiang, Curtis, 287. Malacca, GriffitJi, Kcw n. G300, 
Hervey, Perak, 2500 feet, hb. King^ 2554. Singapore, 
Ridley, 1713. 

Bisiril). JMalava. 

1. ScTltPODENDIiOJT COSTATUM, KllTZ ; IIooTc. f. h C> VI. 684. 

4. Colombo^ Koeniy^ Trimcn, 
11. PenanfT, WalUch, 3538. Malacca, Grijlth, Kcw n. 6134. 

Singapore, Wallich (hb. Calcutta), Ridley. 
Distrih. Java. Queensland. Samoa. 

1. Lepironia muckoxata, Z, C. Rich,] RooJc.f. Lc, vi. 68L 
4. Cevlon, Macrae, 151, Walker \ Caltura, Tliioaites, 3228. 

11. Malacca, OriJJlth, Kew ii. 6307, Gaudicliaudy 98. 

pore, Zo?;&, Ridley^ 54. 
DistrilK Mascarenia, Malaya. Australia, Viti. 


1. SCLERIA PEEGHACILTS, Klintll ; IIoolc. f, I. C. Vl. 685. 

1, Kumaon, Edgeivorth ; Almora, 


feet, Stracliey Sf 


Winferlotlom, Gurhwal, 6000 feet^ Biiilde* 

Wallich, 3106 C. 
4, Ccjlon, TJnvaites, 827; Soutb Ceylon, Gardner. 
6. Madras Peuinsula, Wiyht, 2914 (lib. Calcutta), Chota 

T^agporc, Hazaribagb, 7\ Anderson. ■ 

6- Beliar, Gya, Kurz. 
8. Sylhet, Wallich, 3106, 
Distrih. Nortli Trop. Africa. 

2. ScLEKiA. LiTirosPEKMA, Swartz ; IIooh,f. I. c> vi. 685- 

3. Canara, Talbot, 5G2. 

4. Ceylon, Walker, Koenig, Macrae, 1064. 

J5. Madras PcuiDsu]a, fTi^yZ?/, 113, 114 (lib. Berlin). Mysore, 
(?. Thomson. Cciitial Tnclia : Chunda, DutMe, 9881. 
■ Cliota Na<,rpore, 1750-3000 feet, G. B. Clarice, 21195, 
34121, 34239. 


8. Khasia, 2800 Icet, C. 5. CZar/^-e, 42800. 
10. Pegu and Karen Hills, Kurz, 611. Andamans, Kurz. 
Nicobars, Kurz (hb. C. B. Clarke, 25975). 

Sikkim, 2000 feet, a 7?. ClarTce, 3547G. 



11. Peaang, WalUch, 3116. Malacca, Griffith, Kew n, 6129. 

Pahaag, Jtidley^ 1461. 
Dtstrib, Ethiopia- Cbiua. Malaya. Oceania* South-east 

U.S. I^J^eotropica- 


Var. (i, (RoxBUuaiiii), Thwaites ; IIooJc. f, FL Brit- Ind. 

Vu 686. 

4. Ceylon, DescJiamjis ; common, Thwaifes, 826, 2627. 

5. Madras Peninsula, WiffJU, 1907, 2308, 2915, WalUcl, 
3418, 3419 (hb. Mas. Brit.), G^. Thomson, 

Disfrib, Endemic. 

3. ScLEBiA CORTMBOSA, Boxh.) Hook, f, L c. vi- 686, 
3* Bel gaum, Ritchie, 869 part. 

4. Eeigam Corle, Thwaites^ 3319. 

5, Madras Peninsula, Roxburgh^ 175 part, Wight^ 1908, 

WalUch,^^\2, Bottler. 
8. Khasia, tropical, «/• D. Hooker Sf T, Thomson, Sillet, hb. 
Boxhurgh. Soorma E. (plant 10 feet high), J. D. Hooker. 
Chittagong, Seetakoondo, /. 7). Hooker^ 385. 

10. Pegu, Kurz, 2704, 2706. 

11. Penang, Curtis^ 490. Malacca, Griffith^ Kew n- 6116, 

Goping, King, 1092. 
Distrih. Eademic- 

4. ScLERiA EiDLEYi, C, B, Clarke in Hook.f, h c. vi, 686. 
11, Singapore, Bidleg, 1641 (hb. Kew). 

Bistrib, Hongkong, 

5. ScLERTA TESSELLATA, WiUd, ; Hook.f. L c. vi. 686. 

2. Mt Aboo, Duthie, 6716. 

3. Canara^ Talbot^ 1025. Poona, Jacquemont^ 513- Nilgiri 

Mts„ Metz, 1295, Schmidt. Quilon, Wight, 2916. 

4. Ceylon, Gardner^ 952 ; G-alle, Thwaites^ 3033. 

5. Madras Peninsula, JVight^ 2030, Central India: Goona, 

King, Chota Nagpore : Parasnath, ^wr^, 

7. Nepal, WaUich.MOoX (but not B). Sikkim, Griffith-^ 

up to 9000 feet (Lachoong), J, B. Hooker. 

8. G-owKatty, Griffith, 1625, 300 feet (hb. Kurz). Khasia, 
2000-6200 feet, Griffith, Kew n. 6125, J. B. Hooker • 
common, O. B, Clarke, 


-I _ ■ 1 I 


9. Muneypoor, 8000 feet, <7. S. Clarke, 42071. 

10. Pegu, Xurz, 2703. 

Distrib. China. Japan. (A Tar. in Queensland.) 

6. ScLERTA liiPLORAj Roxl). ; Hooh. f, Fl. Brit. Ind. vi. 687. 

4. Ceylon, Walke7\ Macrae^ 1061 ; Ambagamowa and SatTra- 

gam Districts, ThwaileSy 3031. 
6. Lower Bengal, Roxburgh, Wallieh^ 3405 B ; Serbanipore, 

Voigt^, Calcutta, G B. Clarke, 3843; Mndhopoor, C. B. 

Clarke, 7781. 
8. Cachar, Keenan^ 

11. Penan g, 'Didriclisetiy 3460. 
Bistrib, Malaya. Hongkong, 

7. ScLERiA Stockstana, BoecJc, ; HooTc.f, I. c, vi. 687. 

3. Bombay, Baw (2 sheets in bb, Kew, 1 in bb. Berlin, 1 in 
hb. Calcutta). Poona, Woodrow, 76, 78. 
Bistrib. Endemic in Bombay. 

8. SCLEBTA AKNTJLARTS, Kunth ; JIooTc.f. Z. <?. Vl. 687. 

3, Concan and Canara, Baw. 

5. Mysore, i^^^^. Central India : Chunda, Di;M?.i?. 

6. North-west India, Boyle, 105. Bengal, Bemann, Wallich, 

Bistrib. China (Ichang). 

HooJc. f. 

4. Ceylon, abundant in southern province, Thwaites, 3318, 
3796, 3797. 

10. Kicobars, Kurz (25966, hb. C. B. Clarke). Tenssserim, 

Heifer^ Kew n. 6133/1. 

11. Singapore, fide Ridley, 
Bistrib. Borneo. Amboyna. 



10. Pegu, Kurz, 2 
Distrih. Endemic. 

11. ScLEEiA CAEiciNA, Benth.] HooJc.f. I. e. vi. 688. 

- 3. Quilon, Wight, 2028, 2918 (in herb. Calcutta, 1360). 

4. Ceylon, Koenig, Macrae^ 159, 1057 ; common, Thwaites, 

5. Madras Peninsula, Ileyne. 


h ■■ 

-. t 



7. Sikkim Terai, 500 feet, C. B. Clarice, 36787 ; TItaliya, 


8. Gowhatty, Grifitli, 1351, 135-3, Simons, 99. SylLet, 

WalUcJi, 3540, j; D. Jlooher. Chittagong, J. D. Hooker, 


6114. Arraean, Kurz. Tenasserim (or 

Andamans, Kurz. 

10. Pegu, Kurz^ 

Andamans), Heifer, Kew n. 6114. 

Nicobars, Kamphoevener, 2479. 
11. Singapore, Sidlei/, 53. 
Distrib. China. Maiaya. Queensland. 

12. ScLERiA Neesii, ii:««M ; Rook,/. Fl. Brit. Ind. vi. 68S. 

4. Caltura, Macrae, 118, 1072 ; Bentotte, T. Anderson ; 
common, Thwaites, 3037. 
Distrib. Endemic (a var. in Borneo). 

13. iHcLEitiA HiiiBECAiiPA, JS^ees ; Iloolc.f. I. c. vi. 689. 

3. Malabar (or Concan), Stocks. Anamallay Mta., Beddome. 

4. Ce.vlon, Macrae, 10G5 ; Central Province (Allagalla), 
3000 feet, Thwaites, 3031, 3763. 

5. Madras Peninsula, Wight, 2378. Chota IN'agpore, 1000 - 
2000 feet, O. B. Clarke, 34103, 31117. Kajmabl, Waliich, 

3417 part. 

6. Dacca, a B. Clarke, 468G, 7632, 17104. 

7. East Himalaya, QriJJith, Kew n. 6126. Sikkim, 500-1250 
feet, Oamble, 861 B, G. B. Clarke, 26796, 35140, 36963. 

8. Khasia, 4000-5000 leet, C. B. Clarke, 40052, 40224. 

10. Pegu, Kurz, 608; 609, 610. Arracan, Kurz. Moulmein, 

TraUich,Ml5. Mergui, GriJ/ith. Teuasserim (or Anda- 
mans), Heifer, Kew n. 6117. 

11. Penang, Curtis, 1795. 
Distrib. Indo-China. Oceania. 


Yar. jS. PUBESCENS, C. B. Clarke in Hook.f. l. c. vi. 689, 
5. Chota Nagpore, 1750 feet, C B. Clarke, 33843. 

7. Sikkim, 1000-3000 feet, C. B. Clarice, 11892, 11893, 
24924, 25084, 36237, 36239. 

8. Upper Assam, Jenkins, 209 ; 350 feet, C. B. Clarke, 40742. 

Naga Hills, 5500 feet, C. B. Clarke, 41553. Khasia, 
2000 3000 feet, C. B. Clarke, 40619, 44773. 

10. Burma, Waliich, 3414. 

Distrib. Cliina. Malaya. 




^ r 

^_ "l^ 

■ -t 



14. SCLERIA ''. 

vi. 689. 

Hook. f. 

8. Khasia, alt. 0-1^000 feet, /. I). IlooJcer, 2214, C. i?. CZar^-e, 

158G1, 17521, 45080. 

9. Muneypoor, 2750 feet, C. B. Clarke 42053. 

Distrih. Endemic. 

15. SCLEKTA ALTA, Bocclc. ; Ilook.f. I. C. vi. 690. 

6. N.E. Bengal, Mudhopoor, C. B. Clarke, 7779. 
pore, Voijt. 


8. East Bengal, Lema?m, Griffith ; Pundua, J. D. Hooker, 

BUtrib. Endemic. 

16. ScLEETA ELATA, Thwaites, partly; Ilook.f. I. c. vi. 690. 

3. Anamallay Mts., Beddome. Pulney Ililln, WigJit, 2917. 

4. Ceylon, up to 5000 feet, Thwaites, 3030. 

7. Nepal, WaUich, 3408 A, C. Sikkitn, liot Talleys, J. D. 
Hooker; Kolbong, T. Anderson, 1346 j Dulkajhar, 000 
feet, C. B. Clarke, 35110. Darjeeling, Griffith, Kew 

n. 6119. 

8. Assam, Griffith, Kew n. 6121, common, G. B. Clarke; 

(very hairy), Masters, 223. East Bengal, Griffith, Kew 

n. 6122. Khasia, 2750-5000 feet, common, C. B. Clarke, 

44757. Caehar, J. D. Hooker, Keenan. Sylhet, in the 

jheels, J. D. Hooker. Chiitagong, 50 feet, C. B. Clarke, 

10. Burma, Griffith, Kew n. 6131. Mergui, Griffiith, 88. 

Distrih. Java. New Gruinea. 

SCLEKIA ELATA, Thwuites '. 

Var. j3. LATIOE, C. B. Clarke in Hook.f. I. c. vi. 690. 

7. Sikkim, 750-2000 feet, C. B. Clarke, 35110, 35115, 36218, 

36774, 37042. Duphla Hills, 2800 feet, Lister, 286. 

8. Assam, 500-2000 feet, C. B. Clarke, 36726, 37133, 38087, 

l!3'^74. Upper Assam, Jenkins. Naga Hills, 
Kewn. 6127; 600 feet, C. B. Clarke, 40778. 
Caehar, C. B. Clarke, 7073. E. Soorma, J. D. Hooker, 



Distrih. Java. (Also hb. King 


■ [ 



Var. I. DECOLuEANS, C. B, Clarke in Hooh.f.Fh Brit. Ind.\u 

7. Darjeeling, 5500 feet, (7. B. Clarke, 248il, 

8. Khasia, Griffith, Kew n. 6123, J. D, Hooker, 752; 4000- 
5000 feet, common, C. B, Clarke, 5250, 14291, 15127, 

18993, 41822, 4560L 

9. Muneypoor, 6000 feet, Watt, 5907. 
11. Penang, 2500 feet, Rink, 
Bistrih. China. 

17* ScLEHiA ciiiNENSis, Xunth ] C B, Clarke in Hook,/, L c. 

vi. 090. 
11- Singapore, Bidley, n. 1556. 
Bistrib. China. Malaya, ^'orth Australia. 


Var. /3. BIAURICULATA, 0. J5, Clarke in Hook, f, Z. c. vi. 

4. Ceylon, Thiaaitcs, 825 (lib. Kew, Mus. Bnt.), 3031 (hh. 

DC, Berlin), 3032 (hb. Mug. Brit.), 

Bistrih. Endemic, 

18. ScLERiA Radula, Ilance \ Ilook.f, I. c, vi, 691. 
11, Perak, 350 feet, hb. King, 1929. 

Bistrib, China, 

19. ScLERiA psiLOEnnizA, <7. B, Clarke in Hook. f. /. c, Yi. 

11, Malay Peninsula, hb. Keiv. 
Bistrib. Cambodia. (Tbe habitat Malay Peninsula is merely 



Koenia, Wi 

common in South Ceylon, Thwaites, 828. 




lick, 3539. 

Malacca, Griffith^ Kew n. 6130, Gaudichaudj 9 

Kunstler, 1+13. 

(rilK Mozambique, Mulaya. Xorth Australia. 

Tra 1 i g, 


■fjcrp^ 1 . " r" -J i^ij. r--w*^ 

' 102 Mlt. C. B. CLARKE ON THE 

21. ScLEBiA HooKKiuANA, BoecJc. ; IIooTc.f. Fl. Brit. Ind.yi. 


8. Khasia, J. D. Koolcer, G. Mann, Gallatly, 461 ; 4250- 
6000 feet, common on the north face, C. B. Clarice, 38448, 
38451, 3S598, 38618, 38851, 40096, 40576, 431^54, 4i603, 
44623, 45719. Naga Hills, 5000 feet, O. B. Clarke, 


9. Muneypoor, 4500 feet, Watt, 7139, 7153. 

Disfrib. Endemic. 

22. ScTERiA KiiASlANA, C. B. Clarke in Ilooh.f. I. c. vi. 692. 

8. Khasia, 4500-6000 feet, frequent, 0. B. Clarke, 40052, 

44613, 44683, 44798. 
Disfrib. Endemic. 

23. Si leria JuisrciFORMis, Thwaiies ; IIooTc.f . I. c. vi. 692. 

4. Ceylon, Macrae, 1062; Caltura, Moon; Keigam Corle 

Thwaites, 3225. 
Distrib. Endemic in Ceylon. 

24. ScnERiA melakostoma, BoecTc. ; IlooJc.f. I.e. vi. 692. 

5. Madras Peninsula, Wight, 2377, lib. B-rlin (not 2377 in 

hb. Kew). Courtallum, Wight, 958, 1002. 

8. Ea^t Bengal, Griffith, Kew n. 6120, J. D. Hooker, C. B. 
Clarke, 18226, 45517. 
Distrih. Java. 

25. ScLERiA bancaka, Miq.; Hook.f. I. c. vi. 693. 

10. Mergui, Kurz. Tenasserim (or i^ndamans), Heifer, Kew 

n. 6118. 

11. Malacca, Gaudichaud^ 91, GriJJllh, Siiigaporo, WallicJi^ 
3409, Kurz, ;}02G, Ilullett, 75, Bidley, 160, 155G, 

Distrih, Malaya, Oceania, 

2G. SCLERIA MITLTIFOLTATA, Soecl. ; JIool\ f, L C. vL G93. 

10, Rangoon, WallicJi, 3411 \ art, Tavoy, Wallich, 3407 part, 

3411 part. Mergui Archipelago, J, Anderson, Tena?-- 
perim or Andamana, Ilelfer, Kew n. 6132 Penang, Wal- 
lich, 3410 part, Curtis, 2? ; 2000 feet, Kunstler, 1544 part. 

11, Penarg, W^flZ/fV^j 3410part. Malacca, Gaudichaud^ 92 his, 

Griffith (hb. Bance n, 9307). Singapore, Walker, 242^ 
Pahang, Ridley, Pulo Bisaar, Griffith^ Kew n. 6117 part. 
Distrih, Malaya. Timor Laut. 




Var. PILOSULA, C. B. Clarke in Hook. f. FL Brit. Ind, vi. 693* 
11. Penang, Stoliczka, Kunsfler, 1511 part, bb. A7?7y, 1657* 
Distrib. Java* 


Var. OPiiiujRNSis, C. B. Clarke in Ilook.f* L c. vi. 693- 
11, Malacca, Mt. Opbir, 5000 feet, nullett,8G9. 

Bistrih, Eudemic. 

27. SCLERTA STJMATRENSia, Jletz.\ Hook.f, Lc. VI. G93. 

3. Travancore, Wallieh, 3408 B ; Quilon, Wallich, 3413 part. 

4. Ceylon, i/"«(?TO(?, 160, 10G3, Walker^ 22; Ambagamowa, 

Thwaites, 3783. 
6. Lower Bengal, ruritlpore, G, B, Clarke^ 7482 ; Burisal, 


Sjlhet, Wallich, 3420 part. Cbittagong, Boxhurgh, 23, 
J. D, Hooker^ 419; Eungamuttia, (7. B, Clarke, 19554; 
Demasri, Lister^ 302. 



bars, Kurz, 
11. Penang, Wallich 

])art. Perak, Kun 

Malacca, Delesserf^ Griffith 

pore, Wallich, 3407, I". J?z^ 

Bidley, 25. 
r/S. M'llava. 



28. ScLEUiA LEVIS, Uetz, ; Ilook.f. I.e. vi. 691. 

4. Ceylon, Fraser^ 110, Burmann, 37, Thwaites, 2745- 
8. Assam, Masters. Kbiisia, Pundiia, 200 feet, e/", Z). Hooker^ 
368. Cliittagong, Seetakoondo, 1000 feet, J. i>. Hooker^ 


10. Pegu, ^wr^r, 607- Rangoon, Wallich, 3411 part. Moul- 

meiii, Falconer, 12, JVicobars, A^wr^. 

11. Penan fT, Wallich, 3410 part. Malacca, Gaudichaud, 92, 

Griffith, Singapore, ^wr-?. Jobore, Bidley, 1719. 
Pahang, i2/^%, 1479. Pulo Bis^ar, Griffith. 
Bistrib, Hongkong. Malaya. 


Var. /3. ASSAMiCA, C. B, Clarke in Hook.f. L c, vi. 694, 
8. Assam, Masters (bb. Kew), 

. - ■ ■ y 



Distrih. Endemic (/. e. tlie Var. /3. The type S. Iraeteata is 
abundant in all tropical America). 

1. KoBRESiA SETicrLMTS, J&0(?f^. ; Hook. f. FL B?it, Ind. y\. (j95, 
7. Sikkim, 13,000 feet, Laclien and Momav, J, D, Hooker, 
Distrih, Endemic. 

2. KOBRESTA HOOKERT, Bo€cli\ ; IlooJc^f. I. c. \i, 095, 

7. Sikkim, 11,000-13,000 feet, Laclien, J. B. Kooler. Singa- 
lelah, a B. Clarke, 2561-8, 
Bistrib. Endemic* 


Var. ? /3. niOTCA, C. B, Clarke in Hook.f, I, c. vl 695, 

7. Sikkim, 13,000 feet, Namdee, Bantling. 
BLtrih. Endemic. 

3. KoBEESiA ANGUSTA, C. B. Clarke in Ilook.f. I. e. vi. 695. 

7. Sikkim, 12,000 feet, Sundukplioo, C B. Clarke, 31991, 

Bistrih. Endemic, 

4. KoBRESiA TAGINOSA, G. B. Clarke in Book,/. L c. vi. 695. 

7. Sikkim, 15,000 ft et, Momay, J. i*. Hooker. 
Bistrih, Endemic. 

5. KoBRESTA TRixERvis, Boeck. ; Ilook.f. L c, vi. 695. 

1. Gurhwal, 13,000 feel", Stracley 4' Winterhoitom, 19. 

Nepal, Boyle, 138. 
Bistrib. Endemic. 

G. KoBRESTA roLiosA, C B, Clarke in Hook.f. h c, vi. 690. 
1. Gurhwal, 11,000-13,000 feet, Buthie, 57, 4494* 
Bisfrib. Endemic. 

7. KoBRESTA EissiGLUMis, C. B. Clarke in Ilook.f. L e, vi, 096. 
1. Nepal, 12,500 feet, Nampa Gadh, Buthie, 6092. 

Bisfrib. Endemic. 

Hook, f. 

000-15,000 feet, T, Thomson. KimaviUT.Jacgue' 

rnonf, 1783, 


Hooker. Pharee* hb* Ki 

Disirib. Endemic. 




9. KoBKESiA riLiciNA, C. JB. Clarhe in IlooJc.f. FJ. Brit. Ind. 

vi. 696. 
1. Simla, 10,000 feet, Fagu, T. Thomson. Kumaon, Ealum 

Valley, BufJiie, 3463. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

10. KoBRESiA DuiniET, C. B. Clarke in Hoolc.f. I. c. vi. 697. 

1. KumaoD, 11,000-15,000 feet, Buthie, 3461, 6093, 6094. 
Grurhwal, Duthle., 5016. 
Distrib. Endemic. 

11. KoTJEESiA CAPiLLiFOLiA, C. B. ClurJce iti IIoolc. f. I. e. vi. 

1. Kurrum Valley, 9000-12,000 fee^, AitcMson, 230, 410, 
745. Kashmir, 9000-11,000 feet, Butliie, frequent, C. B. 
Clarice, Zanskar, T. Thomson. Spiti, ScMapntioeit, 2472. 
Kunawur, Jacquemont, 1598. Eongdu, Winterbottom, 
790. Gurhwal, 12,500 feet, Duthie, 66. 

Distrib. Endemic. 


1. KurruiQ Valley, Aitchison, 301. Ladak, Scldagintweif, 
1421. Kashmir, 13,000 feet, C B. Clarke, 31069. Lahuul, 
JaescJike. Upper Indus, T. Thomson. JS'ubra, Schla- 
ginticeit, 2085. Kunawur, Jacquemonf, 1542, 1596. Gurh- 
wal, 12,000 feet, Duthie, 67, 372. Kumaon, 16,000 feet, 
Strachey Sf Winterholtom. 

7. Sikkim, 15,000 feet, J. D. Hooker. 
Disfrib. Caucasua. Siberia. Alatau. Tarkand. 

13. KoBRF.siA NiTENS, C. B. Clarke ; Hook.f. I. c. vi. 697. 
1. G-ilgit, Duihie. Kashmir, C. B. Clarke, 28918 bis, 29697 
29840. Gurhwal, Duthie, 370. Kumaon, Duthie, 3462. 

Distrib. Endemic. 


1. West Himalaya, Boyle, 109, 149. Nubra, T. Thomson. 
Kashmir, 9,000-11,000 feet, C B. Clarke, 28863, 28870. 
Kunawur, T. Thomson. Leh, 13,000 feet, Stoliczka. 

Kumaou, 15,000 feet, Dtithie, 6069. West Nepal, 
10,000 feet, Duthie, GOGH. 
7. Sikkim, 16,000, Samding, J. D. Hooker. 
Distrib. Cabul. Alatau. Yarkand. 

-1 - J ^ I ^ -T ■■ r^ r ' 

"T^ "T*" 

■ -I r — ^ — ^ 

■- f - — — r T 1 ^- 



15. KoDEESiA UNCr.voiDES, 0. B. Clarice in IIooJc. f. Fl. Brit. 

Ind. vi. 608. 

7. Sikkitn, 10,000-14,000 feet, /. Z). Ilooher, frc-queut, C. B. 
Clarice. Bhotan, Griffith, 61.5, Kew n. 6074. 

Distrib. Lhassa. 

Hook. f. 

1. West Himalaya, BoyJc, 81, 102, frequent, T. Thomson. 
Baltiisthan, ScUagintweit. Gil^nt, Giles. Skardo and 
Dras, a B. Clarice. Kashmir, 6500-10,000 feet, frequent, 
C, B. Clarice. Eiv. Kisliaguiiga, Winterhuttom, 574. 
Gurhwal, Duihie, 74, 75. Kuinaon, T. Anderson. West 
^■epal, Duthie, 6090. 


Dislrib. Endetiuc. 

17. KoBREsiA uuRViuosiHLS, C. B. Clarke in Hook. f. 1. c. vi 

7. Sikkiin, 14,000 feet, Tungu, J. D. Uooker. 

Distrib, Endemic. 

18. KoBRESiA FiLiFOLiA, C. B. Clarke in Journ. Linn. Soc. xi. 

[1883], p. 381. 

[K. macrantha, Boeck. Gyp. Novae, Heft 1 [1888], 30 ; Houk.f. 
FI. Brit. Ind. vi. 699.] 

1. T^ubra, ScUagintweit, 2018, 2420. Ladak, ScUagintweit, 

Distrib. Dahuria 

Lijj/htf.; Ilook.f. 

1. Kunawur, alt. 18,300 feet, Jacquemont, 1785. North 
Kashmir to Karakortim, 12,000-16,000 feet (Zaaskar, 
Parang Valley, Piti, Nubra), T. Thomson. 
Distrib. Europe. Asia. North and Alpine South America. 

2. Carex STENOPHrLLA, Wahlenh.; Ilook.f. I. c. vi. 700. 

1. Le, Nubra, aud Piti, T. Thomson. Lahoul, Jaeschke, 127. 

Waklian, Giles, ^5, 96. Gilgit, 9000-10,000 feet, Duthie, 
12, 435. Karakoruin, 11,500 feef, C. B. Clarke, 30419. 

2. Kuraru Valley, 7000-10,000 feet, Aitchison, 92, 194, 493. 
Distrib. Pala^arctica. Nearctica. 

3. Carkx DiTiSA, Iluds. ; Ilook.f. I.e. vi. 701. 
2. Kuram, 10,000 feet, Aitchison, 818. 

Distrib. Pala^arctica. Ciipe. 




Cakkx vulpinahis, Nees; Ilooh.f. FL Brit. Ind. vi. 702. 

1. Kashmir, Jacquemont, 338, 3G2. Liihoul, ScJdagintu^eif, 
2813, Kunawur, 4000 feet, Jacquemont, 1G05, Boyle, 73. 
Simla, Munroe, 2il7. Tihri-Gurhwal, 11,000-12,000 teet, 

Duthie^ 55. 

Distrih. Eudeniic. 

Caeex curaica, Kunfh ; Jlnoh.f. I. c. vl. 702. 
1. Devil's Plains, 10,500-14,500 feet, C B. Clarke, 29G2G, 
29842. Lower Karakash, 14,000 feet, Henderson, 367. 

Distrib. Mongolia. 

Cakex nueigena, B. Don ; Ilooh.f. I. c. vi. 702. 

1. West Himalaya, £oi/Je, 107, 127, 132, 133, 135 part. 
Budrawur, GOOO-8000 feet, T. Thomson. Kajaori, Jacquc- 
mont,lS53. Simla, 5000-7000 feet, ilZw«w,242G; Muiidali, 
Jfmiro, 2425. Tongrid<,^e, 7000-8000 feet, Edgcworth. 

Chini, T. Thomson. Nynee Tal, T. Thomson, 583. Gurh- 
wal, Jacqnemont, 591. Kumaon, 8000 feet, Sirachey 

Sf Winterhotto. 

Buthie, 68. 
2. Sindb, Binwill. 

Tihri-Gurhwal, 10,000-11,000 feet, 

Wight. Anamallaya, Beddome. 




Sikkim, GOOO-12,000 feet, Lacheti 



n. G088. 



4000-GOOO feet. Cherra to Nunklow, J. D. Hooker, 4000- 
6000 feet. Maophlang io Jowye, C. B. Clarke, 38227,44820. 

Bistrih. Cabul. Indo-Chiiia. 


1. Kashmir, Alibad, 9000 feet, C. B. Clarke, 286i4. Eamoo, 

6000 feet, (7. B. Clarke, 28533. 

2. Kuram, Shahzan, Aitchison, 670* 

Bistrih. Europe. North and Central Asia. Temperate and 
Friend North America. 

Caeex murtcata, Linn. : 


West Himalaya, Bogle, lOG, 12G, 129, Mrs, Wi 


-^'-^--,i-^'-j' -H|.-^M ,- ^ 4'."i."'i|". -fTi 


^?owfj 505. Nynee Tji], T. Thomson^ 638. Kumaon, 

Dwz^AiV, 3466. 
2. SindL, Pinwill' 

Sf Wi 

Wight, 80. Puluey Hills, WigJit 



'^fitJi, Kew n. 0067, Cherra, 4000 feet, J. D. 


Disfrih, Endemic. 

[C Henning sill ana ^ Boeck. MS. in Schlagiutweit n. 3098 was 
this plant,] 

8. Carex Thomsoxt, Boott-^ Ilooh^f. FL Brit. Ind. vi. 703. 
1. West Himalaya, COOO-8000 feet, T, Thomson. Kumaon, 

T. Thomson, io81. 
7- Nepal, i{. Tambur, /. B, Hooker. Sikkim, Great Eungait, 
J. B. Hooker. Little Eungait, 1000-2000 feet, J, B. 
Hooker. Bhotan, NuttalL 
8. Upper Assam, E. Diliong, Griffith, Kew n. G073. Khasia, 
Upper Boga Pani, 4500 feet, J. B. Hooker, C. B. Clarke. 
Bistrih. Tonkin. 

9. Carex fluyiatilts, Boott ; Hook^f. I. c. vi. 703. 
9. Hookhoom, Wullaboom, Griffith, Kew^ n. 6103 
Bistrih, China. Japan. 

10. Carex teretiuscula, Gooden, ; Hook.f, h c. vi. 703. 

1, Kashmir, Sind Valley (April), 6000-7000 feet, T Thomson. 
7. Bhotan, Griffith, 2063, Kew n, 6104. 
Bistrih. Europe. North Asia. N, America. 

The Kashmir plant is C\ mitis^ Boeck.j put by Boott in his hh» propr. 
■uatli C. teretiuscula. The Bhotan plant is named hy Boott " C tereti" 
uscula, Boott {C\ Ehrartianaj Hoppe)," 

11. Carex longtpes, B, Bon ; Hook.f. 7. c. vi. 704, 
3. Nilgiri Mts,, Wight, 7, 11. 

7. Nepal, Wallich, 3388 part. Sikkim, 7000 i'eet, J. B. 

Booker. Lachen^ J. B* Hooker. 

8. Khasia, Mairung, 6000 feet, J. B. Hooker. Syong, J. B. 


Bistrih. China. 



Cauex LoyaiPES, D, Don \ 

^ Var. /5. NEPALENSis, Boott] IlooJcf. Fl. Brit* Ind. vL 704. 
7. Nepal, WalUch, 3388 part, SIkkim, 7000 feet, /. D, 
Hooker. Lachen, 7000 feet, J". Z>. Ilooher,) 

Disfrih, Endemic. 

Carex lonqipes, D. Don : 

Mts., Wigh 

; Kooh.f, ?. c. vi, 705. 

Cauoor, 6000-7000 feet, C. 

B. Clarke, 10992, 11029, 11077. Aiiamallays, Beddome. 
8. Khasia, Shillong, 5500-6000 feet, a B, Clarke, 43393, 

Distrib. China. 

12. Carex brtjnnea, Thunb,] IIool\f. Lc. vi. 705. 

1. West Himalaya, Falconer, Bankhote, Fleminfj^ 371. Dal- 
houaie, 4500 feet, C B. Clarke, 23193. Mussoorie, Bo^jle, 
103. Nepal, WalUcK 3379 part. 

2. Siiid, Pin will. 

3. Nilgiri Mts., Wirfkf, 5 part; Canoor, 7000 feet, G, B. 

Clarke, 10962, 

4. Ceylon, Thwaites, 2632. 

8- East Bengal, Griffith, 1026, Kew n. 6081. 
9. Muneypoor, 3750 feet, C. B. Clarke, 41995. 
Distrih, Mascarenia. Japan. Australia. Sandwich l.sles. 

Carex TETNOGYNA, Boott \ Kook.f. \ 
8. Khasia, alt. 4000-6000 feet, M 

iffith, Kew 

Hooker f. & T, Thomson \ Pomrang, 

J, D. Hooker, 2035 
9. Taondong, Wallich 

(But the specimen has no 

ntricles and the determination doubtful.) 
Distrih. Endemic. 

Nees ; Hook.f. 

Kishtwar, 4000 feet, G, B^ 

1. "West Himalaya, Boyle, 93. 

Clarke, 31434, Simla, 8000 feet, T. Thomson. 

3. Nilgiri Mts., Wight, 1918. 

4. Neuera Ellia, Th wattes, 2749. 


Distrih. Endemic. 


^^ n 



p . 


15. Cakex remota, Linn. : 

Var. /3. EocHEBEUNi, 0. B. Clarke in HooJc. f, FL Brit. Ind. 

vi. 706. 
1. West Himalaya, Boyle, 139, 140, 144. Binsur, 7400 feet, 
Madden. Serain, 9000-10,000 feot, Edgeworth. Kashmir, 
7000 feet, C. B. Clarice, 28577. Simla, 8000 feet, T. 


7. Sikkim, 9000-12,000 feet (Tonglo, Lachen), J. D. HooJcer. 

8. Khasia, 4500 feet (Vale of Eocks), C. B. Clarke, 43G89. 
Bistrih. of tbis Var, /3. — China. Japan. 

16. Catiex CAKEscEis^s, Linn.; Iloolcf. he. vi* 70G. 

1. K;ashmir,10,500feet(Barzi]),(7.J?.(7/arA^^, 29G30; 12,000 

fcet(Palgam), 0. B, Clarke, 31072, 
Bistrih. Cool parts of Europe, Asia, and North America ; 
also in the extremity of South America, 

17. Cabfx alta, Booit : Ilooh.f. I, c, vi, 707. 

8. Khasia, 5800 feet (Molim), C B. Clarke, 43G22. 

9, Muneypoor, 5000-6000 feet, Watt, G309, GS07. 
Bistrih. Java. 

18. Cahex cooptanda, C _S. Clarke in Hook' f. Z. e. vi. 707- 
8. Khasia, Grijitli, 

Bistrib, Endemic. (Three pieces, one collection, laid in hb. 
Kew, ^^ith note by IBoott.) 

19. Cauex pr^lonqa, C B. Clarke in IIook,f. I. c. vi. 707. 

7. Sikkim, 7500 feet (Dikecling), C. B. Clarke, 27858, 27879 ; 

9000 feet (Tonglo), C. B. Clarke, 35038. 

Bistrih. Endemic. 

This species is C. longispicata^ Boeck. MS. in Schlagintweit, 

n. 1469, but I have not discovered this name pubhshed. 


Carex PRiELONGA, (7, B . Clarke : 

Var. /3, ANQUSTiOR, C B. Clarke in Hook./. L c. vi. 707. 

8. Khasia, 5000 feet (Shillong), C. B. Clarke, 43410 j 4500 
feet (Vale of Eocks), C B. Clarke, 43677, 43G90. 

9. Shan Hills, 5000 feet, Colletf, 646. 
Bistrih. Endemic. 

20. Carex teres, Booit \ Hook.f. I. c. vi. 707* 

7. Sikkim, 8000-9000 feet (Sinchul), J, B. Hooker ; Tonglo, 
<7. B. Clarke, 35636 ; Sundukphoo, C, B. Clarke, 35667. 
Bistrih, Endemic. 



21, Cabex sikkimensis, G. £. Clarke in Hook.f. FL Brit. Ind. 

vi. 708. 
7. Silildm : Jongrl, 12,000-13,000 feet, a B, Clar'ke, 25047, 
26080, 26139. 
Bistrih. Endemic. 

22. Cahex cerkita, Boott\ HooJc.f, L c. vi. 708. 
8. Near Stidija, GriJitJi, n. 1489, Kew n, 6099. 
Bistrih. Tonkin, Japan. 

23. Carex phacota, Spreng. ; HooTcf, L c* yL 708. 

1. Gurhwal, Jacquemont, 642. Nipal, Wallich, 3394 part, 
3395 part. 

3. Nilgiri Mts., JVigJif, Metz, 1292. Pulney Mts., Wight, 


4. Ceylon, Gardner^ 944, Walker^ Thwaites^ 2965. 

5. Central India : Pachmarhi, ButJde^ 10590. 

7. Slkkim, 6000-7000 feet (Lachoong), J. D. Hooker. 

8. Assam, Jenkins^ 714. Khasia, Griffith, Kew n. 6075: 

6000 feet (Shillong), a B. Clarice, 43384, 43430. Cachar, 

Keen an. 

9. Patkoye Mts. and [North Burma, Griffith, Kew n. 6075. 
Bistrih. China. Malaya. Japan. South Africa. 

24. Carex pruinosa, Boott\ Hook,/, I. c. vi. 709. 

8. Khasia, Griffith, Kew n. 6106 ; 4200 feet (Cherra Coalhill), 
a B. Clarke, 43847. 
Bistrib. Java* 

25. Carex Arnottiana, Brejer; Ilook.f, he, vi. 709. 
4. Ceylon, 6000 feet, Walker, 268, Thwaites, 3219. 
Bistrib, Endemic. 

26. Carex notha, Xunth] Hook,/. Lc. vi. 709. 

1. West Himalaya, Bogle, 110, 145. Kunawur, Bogle, 125, 
Jacquemont, 1345 ; Karh, 5000-8000 feet, Bdgeworth. 
Chargaou, 50OO feet, Munro, 2432. Padooka TaoteiJ, 
T. Thomson. Tiliri-Gurhwal, 9000-11,000 feet, Buthie, 

53, 54, Gurhwa], T. Thomson, 1112. 
7. Upper Sikkim, Bantling ; Natong, Bonghoo. Bbotan, 
Griffith, 2664, Kew n. 6070. 
Bistrib. Endemic. 


-m _ ' 1 Y 


27. Carex fuscatAj (7. 5. Clarice in Hook. f. 

Boon, MS, 

000 feet CLaclienl J, B. Hoolc 

Disfrib. Endetiuc. (Once collected apparently.) 

28, Carex rubro-beunnea, C. B. Clarke in ILook.f. FL Brit, 

Ind. vi. 710. 

8. Khasia : Bofra Pani, 2000 feet, (7, B. Clarke, 7210 ; 4500- 

5500 feet, A^ale of Eocks, Mairung, Suilloug, C, B. Clarke^ 
43465, 436G7, 44071. 

9. Muneypoor, WatL 
Bisfrib, Endemic. 

29. Carkx Prescottiana, Booit; Jlook.f. Lc. vi. 710. 

8- Khasia: Mairung, J", D. Hooker, 1518 ; Nungklow, J> J). 
Hooker, (?) Wallich, n. 3386. 

I 7 

JDistrib. Japati. 

30. Carex c^spititia, Nees ; Hook,/. I. c. vi. 710, 

8. Sylhet, Wallich, 3392; Companigniij, 200 feet, C.B, Clarke, 
14350, 42735, 42739. 
Bistrib. Endemic. (WallicK's collection probably came from 


31. Carex biotda, Gooden,; Hook.f, Lc. vi. 711. 

1. West Himalaya, Boyle, Tibetj Pike) Lupte], 14,500 feet, 
Stracliey ^ Winterhottom, 537. Kurram, IVinferlotfom, 
675, Wakhan, 9000 feet, Giles, 87. Karakorum, 13,000 
feet, a B. Clarke, 30342. Barzil, 10,500 feet, C B. 
Clarke, 29623. Lahoul, Jaeschke, 122, Kunawur, 
Jacquemont, 1763. 

7. Sikkim : Lachen, 12,000 feet, J". B. Hooker, 
Bistrih. Cool parts of the Northern Hemisphere. Chile. 
\_G, cydocystis, Boeck. Cyp. Novae, Heft 1 [1888] p. 47, was 
this species.] 

32. Carex ytiLaARis, Fries ; Hook.f. h c, vi. 711. 

1. Kashmir : Barzil, 10,000-12,000 feet, C, B. Clarke, 29012, 
29614, 29711 ; Deosai, 13,000 feet, G B. Clarke, 29825, 
Tibet, 14,000-16,000 feet, T. Thomson ^ Leptil, 15,000 
feet, Strachey ^ WinterboUom, 12; Gilgit, Giles, 197, 
Lahoul, JaescJike, 122 a, 

Bistrib. Cool parts of the Nortliern Hemispliere. 



Carex VTTLaATiTS, Fries : 

Var, /3, DiSTUAci-A, C. B. Clarke in Ilooh.f. FL Brit, Ind. vi. 

1. Kashmir: G-urals, 8000 feet, C. B. Clarhe, 29188. 
Distrib. Endeniic. 

y;3. Carex erostrata, C. B. Clarke iit Hook. f. L c. vi. 711 ; 

Booff MS. 
1. Kumaou : Barji Kaiig 
Winterboftom, 22. 
Distrib, Endemic, 

Pass, 14,500 feet, Strachey ^ 

31. Carex irrcROGLOCHiN", Wahlenb. ; Ilooh.f. ?. c, vi. 711 (mis- 
spelt Wall, there). 

!• Tibet, 15,000-16,000 feet, T. Thomson. Ladak, T. Thom- 
son. Draa, Schla(jinticeit^ G-1G7. Kashmir ; Musjid Vale, 
12,000-13,000 feet, Duthie, 13203; Deosai, 13,000 feet, 
C B. Clarke, 2982G ; Tilail, 12,250 feet, C B. Clarke, 
30653. BalListhaii, 13,000-14,000 feet, Buthie, 11, 073, 
Eondu, Strachey ^ Wi7iterbottom, Jaunsar, 11,000 feet, 
Bayers. Kunawur, Jacquemont, 9. 

Distrib. Cool parts of the Norlli Ilemiaphere. 

35. Carex parta, N^ees ; IIook,f. L c. vi. 712. 

1, Kashmir: Barzil, Winterbottom^ Q'io. Kunawur, Jacque- 
mont, 1752. Mouru, Boyle, 138. Tihri-Gurhv\al, 11,000- 
12,000 feet, Duthie, 73. 
7- Sikkim : Lachea, 12,000 feet, J, K. Hooker. 
Distrib. Endemic. 

3G. Cakex linearis, Boott\ Hook.f, L e. vu 712, 

1. West Himalaya, Boyle. Kashmir: Tragbol, 11,400 feet, 
C. B. Clarke, 29266 ; Pir Piiijul, 11,000 feet, //, C Levinge. 
Choor, 12,000 feet, Edgeworth. Kedarkaata, Jacquemont, 
865. Gurhwal, 11,000 feet, Strachey Sf Winterbottom, 

Tibri-Gurhwal, 13,000-14,000 feet, Duthie, 376. West 
Nipal, 13,000-14,000 feet, Duthie, 6091 part. 
7, Sikkim : Lachen, 13,000 feet, J, D. Hooker. 
Distrib. Endemic. 

Carex linearis, Boott : 

Var. /3. ELACHisTA, C. B. Clarke in Hook.f. L c. vi* 713. 
1. West Nepal, 13,000-14,000 feet, Duthie, 6091 part, 
Distrib. Endemic. (One piece only.) 

LIN:N. JOUEif.— BOXANT, vol. XXXI v. I 


^-r-,1 - r - ■- ?-^- -I,- '----11 

K '_ 


37. Carex tidtta, C. B. OlarJce in IIoolc. f. 



Distrih. Endemic. 

38. Caeex KARA, Booit ; HooJc.f. L c vi. 713. 

4. Ceylon, Gardner, 950, Thwaites, 3080. 

7. Bhotan, Griffitl, G62, 1992, 26G2, Kew n. 6096, 6102 part. 

8. Khasia, Griffith, Kew n. 6102 part ; Cherra Poonje, 

Wallich; Shillong, 6000 feet, C. B, Clarice, 43123. 
Distrih. Japan. Borneo. Australia. 

39. Caeex capillacea, Booit; Ilooh.f. I. c, vl. 713. 

7. Sikkim; Lachen, 10,000-1 2, 000 feet, J". Z>.//"oo/E:er; Takln, 
9000 feet, O. B. Clarice, 27846. Bhotan, GriJJUh, 2667, 
Kew n. 6095, 6101. 
Distrib. Endemic ? (if separable from C. rara). 

40. Carex crtptostachxs, ^ronyn. in Bot. Voy. Coquille, p. 152, 

t. 25. 

[C. cyrtostacTiys, C. B. Clarke in Hook. f. 1. e. vi. 714, errore.] 
11. Penang, Wallich, 3383. Perak, 3500 feet, hb. King, 
n. 8517. Singapore, Bidley, 1720. 
Distrih. Malaya. China. 

41. Cares Helferi, Boech. ; Hook. f. I. c. vi. 714. 

10. Tenassorim Eiver,in bamboo -jungle, Heifer, Kew n. 6111/2. 
Distrih. Endemic. 

42. Carex pandanophtlla, C. B. Clarice in Hook. f. I. c. vi. 


10. Pegu, Tomab, Kurz, n. 2704. 

Distrih. Endemic. 


7. Sikkim Teral, 500 feet, C. B, Clarke, 36996. 

8. Cacbar: J)ooA^\xi\i, T. Thomson. Ciiittagong: Kasalong, 

C. B. Clarke, 8265. 

by Boott's band C. Jis 
Boott's band C. indica). 


Jobore, Luke Sf Kensall 
Distrih. Cocbinchina. Java. 

King, 1496. Trang, Kumtler, 1383. 



Carex tndica, Linn, : 

Yar. ? /3, LiETE-BHUNEA, C, B. Qlarhe in Ilool. f. Fl. BriL Ind. 

vi. 715. 

4. Ceylon, alt. 5000 feet, Thwaites, n. 2628 (marked by Boott's 
liaiid C. hengalensis, Koxb., and G. Thwaifesii). 

10. Mergui, Griffith, 1011, Kew n. G137 Cyoung). Tenasserlm, 
Heifer, E. Saluen, WaUich, 3533. 

11. Pahang, Ridlei/, n. 2145 (young). Kedah Peak, Ridley, 

Dlstrih, Endemic. 

Caeex indica, Linn. : 

Var. MiLNEi, C. B. Clarke in ITool.f. I. c. vl. 715. 
11. Pahang, Ridley, 2143 a. 
Distrib. Eudemic. 

44. Carex DrsTRACTA, G. B. Clarke in HooJc.f. I c. vi. 715. 

8. Assam, ^'■Jenkins." 

Distrib, Endemic. 

There are two good sheets of this in hb. Kew, communicated 
by Col. Jenkins; doubtless obtained by the Calcutta Garden 
collectors who worked under him ; without any note of habitat ; 


The example of 

Wall. Cat. 3421 '' Ryncliospora N;ipalia 1821 " in lib. Kew is also 
C. distracta. The ticket is supposed erroneous; but whether it 
is .30, or a mixture in the Wallichian herbarium, the number does 
]iot belp us to the locality whence the plant was obtained: it 
may have been Nepal or Assam or elsewhere; the Wallich 
collections having been largely sorted (before the numbers were 



Wahlenl.; Ilook.f. 

llich, 3400 B part. Simla, Fielding (young).] 
7. Nepal, Lindley (young). Darjeeling, 6000 feet, (7. B. 

Clarke, 27291. 




G. condensata), Griffith, 29 (marked by Bjott's ha])d 

G. Bruceana). 

C. B. Clarke, 37466. 

Hooker. Shillong, 5000 feet, 


Boott's hand C Bruceana). Kohima, 4750 feet, C, B. 
Clarke, 41611. 


'-f'T- ^— ■ — **■ 








Distrib. China. Madagascar. 
WalL Cat. 3400 B contains aev 

and the C cruciata plants in it were, I tliink, probably collected, 
at Jovvai by Gomez— tbout^li marked Kumaon. 

CarilX chuctata, Wahlenb. : 

Yar, NAoroiiENSis, G. B. Clarke in Ilook.f. FL Brit. Ind, vi, 


5, Chota JSTagpore ; Parasnath, BOOOfeet, C. B. Clarke, 21077, 
21091; 4200 feet, <7, B. Clarke, 33681 ; Siugbhoom, 200J 
feetj a B. Clarke, 20445, 

Bistrib, Endemic. 





C condensafa. 

Nees, but is figured in Boott, Carex, t. 241, as C.bfin(/alensis). 
Darjeeling, Grijlth, 7000 feet, C B. Clarice, 26256, 2000 
feet, Treufler ; Elver (Rung) Ait, 2000 feet, C. B. Clarke, 
10081 ; Mongpo, 4500 feet, C. B. Clarke, 36284. 
8, Assam, Mack (marked by Boott's hand C. beni^alensin) ; 


Khasia, Lemann 

(figured, Boott, Carex, t, 242, as C. ben^alensis) ; Bor 
Panee, X H. Hooker, 4000-5000 feet, a B. Clarke, 14718, 
15586, 45614; Jowai, 3500 feet, C. B. Clarke, 44730. 

Bistrib. Tonkin. 

I do not find, In Kew Herbarium, the green-fruited form of 
var. argocarpns stated, in PL Brit, Ind. 716, to have been collected 
on the Bruhmapootra bank (on the authority of Boott, which ia 
certainly erroneous). 

46. Carex parvjgluma, C. B, Clarke in ITook.f^ L c. vi. 716. 
8. Luckimpore : Namsung, 1500 feet, C B. Clarke, 37920, 

37941, 37959, 

Bistrib, Endemic. 

47. Carex condensata, Nees ; Hook.f. Z. c. vi, 716. 

1. West Himalaya, Boyle, 83 (figured, Boott, Carex, t. 247), 
23,84, 85, 89. Sirmoor, Pagu, Jacguemont, 2334. Upper 
Sutledge, Eampur. 21 Thomson, Kumaon, WalL Cat. 

- J- 



3400 B part (figured, Boott, Carex, t. 24-.'^) ; Bbsar, 7500 
feet, Strachey <ji" Winterhotiom, Madden. Tiliri-Gurhwa!, 
5000-6000 feet, nuUde, 374. Nepal, WaUich, 3400 a. 
Nepal, WaUich (marked by Boott's baud C vesiculona). 
2. Sind, Pintvill. 

7. Darjeeling, Gnffith ; Lachen, 10,000-11,000 feet, J. B. 

HooJier ; Toiiglo, 9000 feet, C. B. Clarke, 35041, 35086- 
Bbotan, arifitl, 2672. 

8. Assam, Mrs. Muck. Kbasia, Grifiih ; Cberra Poonjee, 
4000 feet, Oovicz, J. I). Hooker ; Mamloo, 4000 feet, 
a B. Clarke, 45093. Shilloiig, 4500-5000 feet, G. B. 
Clarke, 38498, 38S79 ; Jowai, 3500 feet, C. B. Clarke, 

Bistrib. Eudemic. 

48, Cabex vesiculosa, Boott ; Ilook.f. Fl. Brit. Ind. vi. 717. 

7. Darjeeiiug, Griffith, Kew u. 6060 ; Goke, 2500 feet, C. B. 
Clarke, 24891 ; Tumlong, 3500 feet, C. B. Clarke, 27G88. 
Bbotau, Grifith, 2670, 2U78, Kew u. 6088. 

8. Agyain, Grijfith^ 9SG. Clierra Poonjee, Grijflth (figured 

in Boott, Carex, t. 323), Bruce^ J. J). IIooJcer\ Mahadcu 
Griffith, Kew n- 6057, GOoS ; Matiiloo, 4000 Icet, (7. b\ 
Clarhe, 454^1; Eoga Pani, 4000 feet, G. £. CZ^/rAe, 44879. 
Khatiia, 4000-5000 feet, Hook, f 4' 1\ Thorns. East 
Bengal, Griffith^ 364, Kew n. G059, G136. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

Cahex a^esiculosa, Boott: 

Var. /3. PAMcULATAj G B. Clarke in Ilook^f. I, c. vi. 717. 

7. ^epal, WaUich. JJarjeelitig, Lemann. 
Distrib. Endt;mie* 

49. Carex continua, G B. Clarke in Ilook.f, h c. vi. 717. 

7, Nepal, WaUich^ 3400 a part. Slkkitn : Kiver (Rung) Ait, 
1100 feet, G. B. Clarke, 2713G, 27142, 27241 ; lliver 
Tt-esta, 500 feet, G B. Clarke, 26o28. 

Bistrib. Eudemic. 


6. Chota Nagpore : Paraauath, 4000 feet, C. B. Clarke, 34G65. 

7. Nepal, WaUich, 3398 (ma] ked by Boott's haud C. condcti- 
sata). SiiJgnleb-la, 9000-1 2,000 Icet, Schlagintweii, 14702. 
ttikkim: Darjeeiiug, Griffith, Kew n. 6138; 2000-4000 

- J 

a \ 



feet, Khursiong, J". J9. IlooJcei-^ Chooiibuttee, C B. ClarJce, 


8. Assain, GrIJith, 1-490 (mnrked by Boott's band Csframen- 
fitia) ; Burney Hat, 500 feet, C- B. Clarice, 3808L Kbasia : 
Nuiigpo, 2500 feet, C B, Clarice, 43305 ; Myrung, Sijnons ; 

4000-5000 feet, IIooJc, / e^ T. Tlioms, 
Rc^npreugiri, C. 5. Clarice^ 43037. 

Garo Hills : 

9, Mogoung Valley (Mines) and Patkoye Mts., GriJllIi,'Kevf 
DUtrih. Emieniic. 

51. Cakex filtctna, Nees ; ITooh.f. FL Brit. Ind, vi* 717- 

3. Nilgherry Mts., Wirfhf, 1916, 1917, HoJienacJcer, 1290, 

1291. Pulney Mts., Wight, 3176, 

4. Ceylon, Gardner^ n. 941, JValker^ Mackenzie^ Tliivaiies^ 

n. 820. 

5. Courtallum, Wight, 999, 1913^ Palamcottab, Wight, 

8. Assam, Fielding:, Kobima, 5500 feet, 0, B. Clarice, 41036. 
Kbasia, 4000-5000 feet, Hoolc. f. ^' T. Thorns, ; 1500-4500 

feet, C B. Clarke, 5392, 5521, My 
(Boott, Carox, t* 310). Snrarccn, J. 


Carex, t. 313). Mauphlong and Maumbrai 
Kew n. 6053. 
Distrih, China, Java, 



Cakex iiltctna, Nees : 

Var. jj. MEiOGYNA, Stracheg ; Hook.f, L c. vi. 718. 

1, AYest Himalaya, liogle, 82, 86, 90, 4000-7000 feet, Fdge- 

iVorth{Bco\t, Carex, t, 311). Kuinaon, 6000 feet, St^^achey 
Sf Win fe7'bo( torn, n, 1 (Boott, Carex, t. 319). Katbi, 
7200 feet, Strachey Sf Winterhottom, n. 3 (Boott, Carex, 

t. 317). Simla, Tagu, SOOO feet, T. Thomson (Boott; 
Carex, t. 312), 

2. Sind, Pintail I, 

7. Nepal, hb. B. Don. Sikkim, 4000-7000 feet, /. D. 

Hooker : Kbtirsiong, J. D. Hooker (Boott, Carex, t. 320). 
Darjeoling, Grijith, Kew n. 6053 ; Lachen, 7000-9000 

feet, J. D. Hooker (Boott, Carex, t. 314). Bhutan : 
Dumsong, 6000 feet, C. B. Clarke, 26424. 

Distrih, Endemic- 


n 4 



Cakex piLiciNA, JVees : 

Var. y. MINOR, Boott; Ilook.f. FL Brit. Ind, \u 718- 
?• Sikkim : Lachen, 7000-10,000 feet, J". D. Jlooher (Boott, 
Carex, t, 318) ; Buckeem, 7500 feet, O, B. Clarke, 
8. Khasia, 4000-6000 feet, J. D. Hooker] Sliillong Peaki 
6400 feet, 0. B. Clarke, 3S707, 38719. 
Distrib. Eademic. 

Cauex riLiciN"A, I^ees : 

Var. d. MiCROGYNAj <7, B. Clarke in Ilook.f. I cvi. 718. 
3. Malabaria, Kurz^ 2695. 
4- Cejlon, MaxwelL 

8. Chittagon^:, /. i). //oc^^^r, 269. Arracan : BorongaldLind, 
Distrib. Endemii". 

52* Caeek plebeia, C. B. Clarke in Hook.f. L c. vi. 718. 

5. Chota Nagpore : Ilazaribagb, 1750 feet, C, B. Clarke, 
33841. Lohardugga, 2000 feet, G. B, Clarke, 33965, 
33985. Siagbhoom, 1500 feet, C. B. Clarke, 31125. 
Distrib^ Eudemic. 

53, Carex leptocarpus, C. B, Clarke in Rook,f> L c. vi. 719. 
9. Muneypoor, Watt, 6728, 
Distrib, Eudemic, 

54, Carex iiercarensis, Steud,\ Ilook.f. L <?. vi. 719. 

3. Nilglierry Mts,, Wight, 16, Ilohenacker^ 943, GougJi. 
Ooty, 8000 feet, (7, B. Clarke, 11097. Pulaey Mt^^, 

Wight, 3172. 
5- Madras, J. D. Hooker (Boott, Carex, t. 321). Cour- 

tallum, Wight, 99S (Boott, Carex, t. 322), 1293. 
Distrib, Endemic. 

Carex mercarexsis, Steud. : 

Var. /3. MAJOR, Steud. ; Hook, f, I. c, vi. 719. 
3. Bombay: Mahabelaisbwar, Woodroiv, 79. Canara: Mer- 
cara, Hohenacker, 629, Anamallay Mt^,, Beddome. 
Distrib* Eudemic. 

* rt 


JW ■-■■* T"S 







Distrib. Endemic (only once collected). 

56. Carex ceylanica, Boeck. ; Ilooh.f. l. c. vi. 719. 
4. Ceylon, GOOO feet, Thcaites, 820. 

Distrib. Endemic (apparently only once collected). 

57. Carex Wighitjana, Nees ; IlooJc.f, I. c. vi. 720. 

4. Ceylon, Walker (a small doubtful piece). 

5. Coromandelia, Wi//hf, 1914, 1915, Wall. Cat. 3100 C. 
Courtallum, Wiffht, 1292 (Boott, Carex, t. 30), 1296. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

58. Carex ecostata, C. B. Clarke in Hool;/. I. c. yi. 720. 

8. Naga Hills : JakpLo, 99U0 feet, C. B. Clarke, 41357, 

Distrib. Endemic. 

>. Carex eepauda, C. B. Clarke in Ilook.f. I. c. vi. 720. 

8. Khasia: Cherra, 3000 I'eet, J. D. Hooker; Mausmai, 4000 

feet, C. B. Clarke, 14295. Shillong, 5200-5500 feet, 

a B. Clarke, 43463, 44098. 
Distrib. Endemic. 

60. Cahex peeakensis, C. B. Clarke in Ilook.f. I. c. vi. 720. 
11. Perak, Wray. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

61. Caeex sanotjinea, Boott; Ilook.f. I. c. vi. 720. 
1. Murree Woods, Fleming, ].84, 212. 
Distrib. Cabul. 

62. Carex ehizomatosa, Steud. ; Ilook.f. I. c. vi. 721. 

8. Gowbatty, Brahmapootra J3ank, iJoo/Zi. Khasia, Nungpo, 
2000 feet, C. B. Clarke, 43295. Thoyung, 3000 feet' 

C. B. Clarke, 37554. 

9. Muneypoor, 4000 feet, Watt, G033. 
GriJJith, Kew n. 6108, 6111. 

Distrib. Tonkin. Java. Philippines. 


63. Carex LlNDLEYA^'A, Nees^, IIool\f. h c. vi. 721, . 

3. Nilgherry Mt^,, WigJit, 13, 14, 17 (Eoott, Carex, t. 34), 

North of Ava, 

-^ ■ 


■■" J 



Gardner, ScTimid. Ooty, Wic/hf, 2924 ; 8000 feet, C. B. 

Clarke, 11137. 
4. Ceylon, Walker, 39, Gardner, 947 ; 7000 feet, Thwaiies, 


Distrib. Endemic 



4. Ceylon, alt, 0-2000 feet, Thwaites, 2(531, Laule. 

Seyne^ Wigh 

Wight, 992. 
Distrib. Endemic, 

65. Carex malaccensis, C B. Clarke in Iloolcf. I. c, vi. 722. 
11. Malacca: Langkawi, Curtis^ 1669- 
Distrib. Endemic. 

(56, Cakex spicigeka, Nees; Ilook.f. L c. vi. 722. 

4. Central Province up to 6000 feet, Tliwaites, 822 ; Walker, 
Wight, 1299, W. II. Harvey, 
Distrib. Endeaiic. 

Carex spicigeea, Nees* 

Var. /3. MINOR, Thwait€S\ IlooJcf. I. c. vi. 722. 

4. Ceylon, Gardner, 919, Thwaites, 824, 
Distrib. Endemic. 

Cabex spicigeeAj Nees'. 

Var, y. rubella (yp-)? Doott\ Ilook.f. I. c. yL 722. 

4, Cey]on, alt. 7000 feet. Thwaites, 2966. 
Distrib, Endemic. 

Carex spicigkra, I^ees: 

Var. I. ROSTBATA, Boech. ; Hook.f. I. c. vi. 722. 
4* Ceylon, Thtvaites, 2629, fide Doeck. 
Distrib. Endemic. 

67. Carex baccans, Nees; Hook.f. I. c. vi. 722. 

3. Bombay, Scott, DalzelL Bababoodun Hills, Talhot, 2337. 

Nilgiri Mts., Gardner, Wight, 6, 1912. Kotaglicrry, 
Adam. Pulney Mts,, WitjiJit, 3173. 

4. Ceylon, Maxwell, Walker, Wight, 1290, 1298, Gardner, 
943, Tlmaites, 821. 

7. East JN'epal, J". B. Booker. Sikkiui, 4000-8000 feet, 

J. D. Hooker. 




8, -Assam, Mach Khasia, 3000-5000 feet, Clierra and 
Ladder Hi]], J. B. Ilooher, 749; Maoplilon- Griffith^ 
Kew n. 6054; Mausinai, 4000 feet, a B. Clarke, 45817. 
Naga Hills, 5800 feet, C. B. Clarke, 41151. 
Bistrib, Cliina. Cocliinehina. Malay Islands. 

Carex BACCAiss, Wees: 

Var. /5- STCciFBUCTUs, C. B. Clarke in Ilook.f. FL Brit. Ind, 
vi. 723. 

8. Khasin, J. D. Hooker; Umwai, 3500 feet, C. B. Clarke^ 

Distrih, Endemic. 


Metz, 942, Wigh 

Cauoor, 6000 fpet 

C. B. Clarice, 107S0. 



Wiaht Walli 

5. Coromandelia, Wigh 

Disti'ih. Eudemic. 


Carex Mrosunus, Nees : 

Var. /3. EMiXEXS (ap.), Nees ; HooJc.f. I. c. vi. p. 723. 
1. Kaslimir, 3000 feet (Basaoli), G. B. Clarice, 31G28. Simla, 
6000-7000 feet, Mgeworth. Gurhwal, 5000-COOO feet, 
Duthie, 4496. Tibri-Gurliwal, 3000-4000 feet, Duthie, 
7. Nepal, WaUich, 8382, 3384 A. Gossain Than, Wallich, 
3397. DarjeeliDg, Griffith, Kew n. 6055. Khurjiong, 
3000 feet, C. B, Clarice, 35895. Miiitogong, 4500 feet, 
G. B. Clarice, 24938. Bhotan, Griffith. 

Bistrih, Endemic. 

Carex Mtosuhus, J^ees : 

Var. y. EATONOENSTS, C. B. Clarke in ITook.f. I. c. vi. 723. 

7. Sikkim : 11. Katoiig, 6000-8000 feet, J. D. Hooker. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

69. Carex prjestaxs, C. B. Clarke in Hook.f. L c. vi. 723. 

1. Kumaon. 7000-8000 feet (above Sliinkala), Duthie, 6118 
Distrib. Endemic. 



70. Carex spiculata, Boott; Ilooh.f. Fl. Brit. Ind. vi. 724. 
8. Khasia : Cherra, WaUich, ariffith, Kew n. 6069, J". B. 
Hooker, 861 ; Shaila, 250 feet, C. B. Olarke, 149G1 ; 
Kullong, 5700 feet, G. B. Clarke, 40013 ; Niirtiung, 
4000-5000 feet, Hooker f. ^ T. Thomson; Amwe?, 3000- 
4000 feet, /. D. Hooker. 

Disirlb. Endemic. 

Carex spicctlata, Boott: 


7. Sikkim: Monrjpo, 2000 feet, C. B. Clarke, 13777; R. 

Eyang, 1000 feet, C B. Clarke, 13721, 13758 ; Punka- 


bari, 1000 feet, C. B. Clarke, 13830. 



iffith, Kew n. 6085 ; 
Cherra Khud, 2000 

feet, C. B. Clarke, 41832 ; Nurtiung, 4000 feet, Hooker f. 


Distrih. Endemic. 

71. Carex composita, Boott-, Hook, f, I. c. vi. 724. 

7. Mishmi; Premsong's, GriJJith, 464, Kew n. GOSO. 

8. Assam, Jenkins. Kliasia, Grijitli, 4000-6000 feet, 
Hooker et T. Thomson ; Clu-rra, J. D. Hooker:, Kalapani, 
J. D. Hooker, 1354 ; Vale of Rocks, 5000 feet, G. B. 

4000 feet, C. B. Clarke, 
44878 ; Dingling, 5000 feet, C. B. Clarke, 18450 ; 
Shiliong, 5300 fet t, C. B. Clarke, 3S363 ; Monai, 500O 
feet, G. B. Clarke, 43991. Naga Hill^, 5800 feet, O. B. 
Clarke, 41185. 

10. Mergui, Grijlth, 118. 

Biitrib. Endemic. 

Clarke, 45472 ; Boga Pani, 

72. Carex desponsa, Boott; Hook.f. I. c. vi. 724. 

8. Khasia, alt. 5000-6000 feet, Moflcng and Mairung Woods, 

J, D. Hooker, 1417. 
Distrib. Endemic. 

73. Carex scitxjla, Boott-, Hook.f. I. c, vi. 724. 
■ 7.. Mlshrai : Khosha's, Griffith, Kew n. 6097. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

_J - 

^ *- 



74. Caeex insignis, Boott ; Hooh.f. Fl. Brit. Ind. vi. 725. 

7. Nepal ; Khabili E., 5000-6000 feet (near Sikkim), /. B. 

IlooJcer. Sikkim, 5000-7000 feet, J. B. IlooJcer ] Khur- 
siong, 7000 feet, C. B. Clarke, 359G4. Bhotan : Sana!, 
6500 feet, Griffith, Kew n. 6062. 

8. Assam, Jenkins. Kliasia : Ka'Japani, 4000-6000 feet, 
Hoolcerf. et T. Thoimon ; Myrung, Griffith^ Kew n. 6061 ; 
Jowye, 4000 feet, /. B. Hooker. 

Bistrib. Endemic. 

i. Caeex poltcephala, Boott \ Ilook.f. I. c. vi. 725. 
7. Sikkim ; Tunglo, 10,000 feet, J. B. Hooker ; Tonglo, 
8000 ieet, O. B. Clarke, 35595 ; Dikeeling, 8000 feet, 

C. B. Clarke, 27875. 
Bistrib. Eudemic. 

. Caeex Walkebi, Boott; Ilook.f. I. c. vi, 725. 

3. Nilgherries : Canoor, 6000-7600 feet, C. B. Clarke, 11002, 

11033, 11065. 

4. Ceylon, Gardner, 942 ; Pedrotalagalla, 7000 feet, Thwailes, 

Bistrib. Endemic. 

77. Carex decoba, Boott; Hook.f. I c. vi. 725. 

7. Sikkim; Tonglo, 10,000 feet, J. B. Hooker-, Tonglo, 
9000 feet, a B. Clarke, 35787 ; Sundukphoo, 10,000 feet, 

a B. Clarke, 35673; Chola, 11,000-12,000 feet, J. B. 

8. Naga Hills: Pulinatadze, 7700 feet, Brain (not certainly 

Bistrib. Endemic. 

78. Cakex akbibens, C. B. Clarke in Hook.f. I. c. vi. 726. 

10. Nattoung, 4000 feet, Kurz. 

11. Sarut Perah, 3000-3500 ieet, lib. King, 2801. 
Bistrib. Eudemic. 

Caeex Daltoni, Boott j Hook.f. I. c. vi. 726. 

7. Sikkim : Clioongtam, 8000 feet, J. B. Hooker. Upper 

Sikkim, Bantling. 
Bistrib. Endemic. 






80- Carex in^qualis, O, B. Clarke ; Rooh.f, FL Brit. Tnd. vi. 


1. Kumaon, 8000-9000 feet, Duthie, (JUi, 6U7. 
7. Sikkim : Lacheu, 9000-11,000 feet, J. D. Hooker. 
Bistrib. Endemic- 

81. Carex WiiCTTERBOTTOMi, (7. B. Clarke; Ilooh.f. I. c, y\. I'll, 

1. Kumaon : Jugthana Pass, 8000 feet, Stracliey Sf Winter- 
hotfom^ 16. 

Bistrih. Endemic. 

82. Carex pulcera, Booti ; Ilook.f. L c. vi. 727. 

7. East Nepal: K. Tambur, J.B. Hooker. Sikkim: Lachen, 
7000-11,000 feet, J. B. Hooker. 
Bistrib, Endemic. 


83. Carex mu]S'da, Boott\ Hook.f. I. c. vi. 727. 

7. Sikkim: Lachen, 11,000-13,000 feet, J, B. Hooker: 
Joiigri, 13,000 feet, C. B. Clarke, 26092. Sundukphoo, 
12,000 feet, C B. Clarke, 34988. North-east Sikkim, 
Bistrib. Endemic. 

84. Carex Stbacheti [Buthie in] T, E. Atkinson^ Gaz. x. 

[1886?] p. 618; Hook.f. FL Brit. Ind vi. 727. 

1, Kumaon: Madliari Pass, 8000 feet, Strachey cf^ Winter- 
bottom, 18- Gurhwal : Kuari Pas3, 12,000-13,000 feet, 
Buthie, 5000. 
Bistrib. Endemic. 

85. Carex cuevata^ Boott ; Hook.f. I, c. vi. 728. 

7. Sikkim: Lachen and Tungu, 12,000-13,000 feet, J. D 

Bistrib, Endemic. 




12,000 feet, 

G. B. Clarke, 34992, 34994. Upper Sikkim, Bantling. 

Bistrib. Endemic. 

Hook. f. 

7. Sikkim : Lachen and Lacboong, 9000-11,000 ket, «/. B 

Bistrib. Eudemie. 

■1 ^ L 



88. Caeex MUNTP00EEN8IS, 0. B. ClarJce in Sooh. f. Fl. Brit. 

Ind. vi. 729. 
9. Munipoor : Jopoo, 9500 feet, Wati, 6894, 7462. 

Bistrih. Endemic. 

89. Carex speciosa, Kunth ; IIooTc. f. I. c. vi. 729. 

3. Kaiiara, 2000 feet, Talbot, 2282. Pulneys, WigU, 3175. 

6. Madras Peninsula, Wight, 2380. Courtallum, Wight, 
991. Eajmahl Hills, Wallich, 8391. Parasnath, 4200 
feet, C. B. Clarke, 33783. 

7. East Nepal: R. Khabili and R. Jwa, 4000-6000 feet, 

J. B. UooJcer ; R. Teesta, 1000 feet, C. B. Clarice, 11968. 

8. East Bengal, Griffith, Kew n, 6100. Khasia, Griffith ; 

Moflong, 5500 feet, /. B. Hoolcer, 2009. Vale of Rocks, 
5000 feet, C. B. Clarice, 45214. 

Bistrih. Endemic. 

Wo oh. f. 

7. Sikkim : Lachen, 10,000-11,000 feet, J. B. Hooker, 
Bistrih. Endemic. 

91. Carex cuhticeps, C. B. Clarice in Hoolc.f. I. c. vi. 729. 
7. Sikkim : Siiigalehah, 10,000-12,000 feet, C. B. Clarice, 
13373, 25644. Sundukphoo, 12,000 feet, G. B. Clarke^ 
34985. North-east SiUVim, Bantling. 

Bistrih. Endemic. 


1. Gilgit, 9000-10,000 feet, Z>«^A/e, 12404 Kishtwar, 10,000 

feet, T. Thomson. Kashmir: Barzil, 10,500 feet, C. J9. 
ClarJce, 29617; Kunzlwan, 7500 feet, O, B, Clarke, 
29352. C\\m\, Jacqtiemont, 4GG, 1357, 1560. Kunawur, 
Boi/le, 123. Kumaon, 14,000-15,000 feet, DutJiie, 3468. 
Astore, StracTiey ^ Winterhotiom^ 755. Garry s A^aliey, 
Stracliey Sf Winterhottom^ 4. 

2- Kuram, 11,000 h^t, AitcJiUon, 1243. 

7. Sikkim : Teumtongj 15,000 feet, J, D, Hooker. 
Distrib, Cold North Hemisphere. 

Carex alpina, Swartz ; 

V^ar. jS. EEOsTJiATJi, Boott\ Hooh.f^ L c. vi. 730, 
1. Kuimwur, Lippa, Royle, 61. Tibet, 15,000 feet, Sir ache 
^ JFinterbottoniy 1565# 

Bistrih, Endemic. 




Cakex alpinAj Swart 

A/ « 

Var. y. GHACILENTA, Strachet/ ; Ilook.f. FL Brit. Ind. vi. 730. 
1. Kumaon, 10,000 feet, Strachey ^ Winterhotfom^ G75. 
7. Sikkim : Laclieii, 11,000-14,000 feet, J. J). Hooker. 

Disfrib. Endemic. 

93. Carex Lehmanxi, Drejer; Ifool\f. L c. vi. 730. 

1- Tihri-Gurhwal, 11,000-12,000 feet, Duthie, 58. West 
Nepal, Nampa &adh, 11,000-12,000 feet, iJuthie, GIVS. 

Nepal, Walllch, 3381. 
7. Sikkim: Yeumtong, 12,000 feet, J". D, Koolcer \ Joiigri, 

] 3,000 feet, (7. B, Clarke, 25818. 

Bistrib. Endemic. 

94. Carex obscura, Nees; IFooJc.f, L c. vi. 731. 

1. Taranda, BoyJe, 118, 112 part; Shealkur, 9000 feet, 
Munro, 2442. Kashmir: Gulmurg, 9000-10,000 feet, 


Buthie, 11372. Kunawur, Jacquemonf, 476. Kumaon: 
EulamR, 10,500 feet, Strachey ^ Winterhotfoyn, 1487. 
7. Sikkim : SundukpTioo, 12,000 feet, <7, B. Clarke, 34974. 
Bistrib. Endemic. 

Carex obscuea, Kees : 

Var. jS. BEACHTCARPA, C. B* Clarke in Hook.f. I. c. vi. 731. 
1. West Himalaya, Munro, 2422. Simla, 9000-11,000 feel, 
Browne, 7382. Tihri-Gurhwal, 11,000-12,000 feet, Buthie, 
Gl. West Nepal, 10,000-11,000 feet, Buthie, 6112. 
7. Sikkim: Yeumtong, 12,000 feet, J, B, Hooker \ Lachen 
and Kankola, 11,000-12,000 feet, J". D. Hooker \ Putung- 
la, hb. King, 4407. North-east Sikkim, Cummins. 

Bistrib, Endemic, 


1. Kashmir: Barzil, 11,300 feet, <7.-B. CTarl-^, 29722 ; Sona- 

murg, 11,000 feet, W. S, Atkinson. Sind Valley, 11,500 

feet, a B. Clarke, 31042. 
7. Sikkim: Lachen and Tungu, 11 

Hooker ; Tookoo-]a, hb. King, 4i 

Bistrib. Cold North Hemisphere. 


North-east Sikkim, 

96- Carex DrxHiEi, C, B. Clarke in Hook.f. I, e. vi. 731, 
1. Gurhwal : Bhowani, 13,000-14,000 feet, Buthie, 4499 
Bistrib. Endemic. 


-T r* ^ M ^ ' 




Carex DcTitiEr, C. B. Clarke : 

Yar. i3. aLAGiALi3, 0. B. Clarice in IlooJc.f. Fl. Brit, huh vl. 

7. Sikkim : Momay, 15,000 feet, J. D. Hooker ; Kankola, 
15,000-17,000 feet, J. D. Hooker; JongrI, 13,000 feet, 
C. B. Clarke, 2G161. 

Distrih. Endemic 

97. Carex nitalis, Boott; Ilook.f. I.e. vi. 732. 

1. Gilgit, aHes. Ladak and Nubra, 14,000-18,000 feet, T. 

Thommn. TibetandZauskar,12,000-15,OOOfeet, T. Thorn- 
son. VarangV a»?^,T. Thomson. Karakorum, 13,000-14,000 
feet, C. B. Clarke, 30235, 3024i, 30439, 30441. Chinese 
Tartary, 3/Mrtro, 2434. VhunrOiO, IG,000 feet, JSdf/eworth. 
^ Kimaw \iv,Jacqne?nont, 480, 15,000"l6,000fcet, T. Thomson. 
Kaslimir, 13,000-14,000 feet, i)«i!Ai>, 13392,13393, Aifchi- 
son, 114. Tibet, 15,000 feet, Strachey ^ Winterhottom, 23. 
Kumaon, Strachey Sf Winterhottom, 15G5 part ; Ualuiii 
Glacier, 13,000-14,000 feet,DMai^,34G9. Tihri-Gurhwal, 
13,000-14,000 feet, Buthie, 371. Gurhwal, 10,500 feet, 

Schlaginfweit, 10067. 

2. Kuram, Aitchison, 1242. 

7. Sikkim: LacKeu and Saindung, 11,000-17,000 feet, /. I). 


Distrib. CabuL Central Asia. 

98. Cakex psycropuila, Nees", Ilook.f. I c. vL 732, 

1165, Royle^ 111. Kashmir 


West Himalaya, Falconer^ 
Gulmurg, 8000-9000 feet, j 
7800 feet, C. B. Glarhe, 29099. 
T. Thomson. Kunawur, Eoyle^ 12*1, 11,000 ieet^Brandia, 
Karlij 5000-8000 feet, EJgeworth. Kedarkanto, Royle, 
113, Simla, 9000-10,000 feet, Duthie, 7381. Tihri-Gurh- 
wal, Dutliie^ 63 part Kumaoi], T. Thomson^ 1112; Kisheii- 

Strachey Sf Winterhottom^ 602. Harung Ghat, 



Gurhwal, 10,000 ^^i^t 

&' Winterbottom, 1150. Nipal, Wi 


Disfrib. Endemic. 

99. Carex mklanantha, C A. Meyer; Hook. J. I. c. vi. 733- 
1 Gnari KhorBum, Schlagintweit^ 7019. Kaislimir: Baltis- 
than, 13,000-14,000 feet, Duthie, 12158 ; Liddar Valley, 

I ■ - 

I r 





i;i,000-14,000 feet, DtUhie, 133G0; Masjid Valley, 13,000 
feet, Bathie, 132.-iG; Bi^rzi], 10,500 feet, C\ B. Clarke, 
20G35; Zo-i-la, 11,000 feet, T. Thomson ^, Sonamurg, 
11,000 feet, W, S, AlJdnson, II. a LeDlvge, a B. Clarice, 
27351. Marbul Pass, 10,500 feet, C B. Clarke, 31290. 

Lahoul, JatacltJce, 123 a. 

Dialrib. CabuL Ceutral Asia. 

Hook, f. 

1. Tibet, 17,000 feet, Thorold, 25 ; liockhill, 15,000 feei, 

StracheySf JFuiterhoffom, 13, j 
koruni, 14,000 feet, Conway^ 


feet, Dulliie^ 1191-2 ; .Karakash, Cayley \ Lanak Pass and 
Parang Valley, 12,000-16,000 feet, T. Thomson. Kunawur, 


Jacquemonf^ 1752, 1829. Piti, Jacqiiemonf, 1057,^ 'Spiti, 

ScMaginfweit^ 2538. Lahoul, Scldaijintweit, ^Wl. 

7. Sikkim, Kiangza and Eomtso, 10,000-17,000 feet, J. I). 
Jlooher, Piiarce, Dunhoo. 
Blstrih. Central Asia* 

101, Cauex supixa, Wahlenb, ; Ilooh, f. /. c. vi. 733. 

1. Kuinaou : Bugdwar, Slrachcy S^^JVinterboftom, 17 ; Jalinka, 
14,000-15,000 feet, Vtc/hie, G09S. 
Distrih. Central Asia. Arctic Europe* 



feet, Littledale. Kubra, 15,000-17,000 feet, T. Thomson ; 
HaideandlSouEinun'g, T. Thomson. Kniiawur, Jacqriemont^ 

1823. Nepal 

Bathie, 6109. 


7. Sikkim : Moinay, 17,000 feet, J. B. Hooker ', Teumtong, 
15,000 feet, J. Z>. Hooker y Tungu, 12,000-13,000 feet, 
J. B. Hooker. 
Bistrib. Cold North ircmisphere. 

[G. mavrantha^ Boeck. Cyp. Nov^, Heft 1 [1888], p. 19, was 
this species.^ 

103. Cakex cruenta, Nees ] Ilook.f. h c. vi. 734. 

1. Gilgit, G^^7t^5,121. Tibet: Kisliengunjii, 15,000 feet, 6'i'rac^^y 
^ JVinterbottom^ 601 ; Barzil, 15,000 feet, Strachey ^ 
Winterbodom^Glo, GIO. Kashmir : Kitihtwar, 8000-14,000 




3 I 

V r 

- f 




feet, T. Thomson ; Ecmbiana A^alley, 8000 feet, C. Ji. 
Clarice, 21 'i5(\ Sind YMley, /ac'^wewowi^, 988 ; 10,000- 
11,000 feet, Butliie, 11622. [Kuuawur J, Jacquemonf, 492, 
602. Zaiiskar, T. Thomson. Tihri-Gurliwal, 11,000 feet, 
Buthie, 59. Gurhwal, 15,000 feet, Strachey 

4" Wi 

hotiom, 24, 25. 



Sikkiiii, Laelien, 13,000 

feet, /. _D. Hooker, 

Bfstrih. Cenlral Asia. 

[O. heterolepis, Boeck. Cyp. Novae, Heft 1 [1888], p. 48, non 

Boott, was this species.] 

]04. Cabex maculata, i?oo« ; Kooh.f. FL Brit. Ind. vl. 7:^5. 
3. NiJgiris, 7F«>^^ j Canoor, 6000-7000 feet, G. B. Clarke, 

10887, 10960. 



Kew n. G065. 


Mausmai and Cherra Coalhill, 3750-4200 feet, CB. Clarke, 

43722, 43848. 
Bistrih. Korea. Japan. Australia. 

105. Gaeex ticinalts, BooK; Hook.f. I.e. vi. 735. 

3. Nilgiris, Schmidt. 

Bistrih. Endemic. 

Hook f. 

8. East Bengal, Griffith, Kew n. 6000. Khasia, Oriffith 
6000 feet, Hooker f. ^' T. Thomson ; 4000 feet, J, B 
Hooker, 1015 ; Sliillong, GOOO feet, C. B. Clarke, 43435 
Mausniai to Cherra Coalbill, 3750-4200 feet, C. B. Clarke 
4372G, 43850. 
Bistrih. Java, Japan. 

Cabex Jackiana, Boott : 

Var. /3. MINOR, C. B. Clarke in Hook.f. L c. vl. 735. 
3. Nilgiri Mts., Canoor, 7000 feet, C, B. Clarke, 11061. 


4. Ceylon, 5000 feet, Thwaites, 3198. 
Bistrih. Endemic. 

7. Caeex rusTFOKMis, Nees \ Hook.f. I, c. vi. 
1. Mussoorie, Royle, 88. Kumaon, Binsar, 7000 feet, St 

Sf Winterhottom, 10. 
7. Sikkim : Lachen, 10,000-12,000 feet, /. B. Hooker. 

Bistrih. Endemic. 

*^ -i 


-1 ^ 



Sooh^ /. 


Top, 10,000 feet, J, D. Hooker ; Tonglo, 9000 feet, (7. B, 
GlarJce, 2710G, 33020; Suuddvphoo, 10,000 feet, C. B, 
Clarice, 350o9. 
Bistrib. Endemic, 

Carex finitima, Bootf : 

Yar. /3. ATTKXUATA, (7. 7?. Clarhe in ITooh.f. I. c. vi. 736. 

8, Khasia : Vale of Rocks, 4500 feet, C. B. Clarice, 43675, 
Disfrih, Endemic, 


109. Catiex liRETiscAT^A, C* B* Clarke in Iloolc.f. L e. vi. 736- 
4. Ambagamowa, Thwaites, 3781. 
Bistrih. Endemic. 

110. Carex japoxtca, Thunh, ; Hoolcf, I. e. vi. 736. 

7, Nepal, WalL Cat. 3395 part. Darjeeling, Griffith^ Kcw 

n. 6079. 

8. Khasia: ShiUonjr Hill^, 5500 feet, C B. Clarke, 43451, 

43161 ; Soor Puhar^ 6000 feet, C, B, Clarke, 43656. 

Distrih^ Japan, 

I tliink it quite possible, from the f^eneral state of the present 
numbering of AVallich's and of Griffith's collections, that the 

pieces of this plant ticketed "Nepal," *' Darjeeling,'* respectively 
may have been collected in Khasia. 

Cakex. japois^tca, Thunl.i 

Var. /3. ALOPECUKOIDES, G, B. Clarke in Ilook.f. Lc, vi. 737, 

7. Nepal, Wallich^ n. 3395 partly. Darjceling, Griffith. 

Sikkim : Lachung, 6000 feet, /. Z>. Hooker ; Kungait, 
1000 feetj J". D. Hooker. 

8. Khasia : Nunklao, 3750 feet, J. D. Hooker, C. B. Clarke, 


9. Muneypoor : Keyang, 8400 feet, Watt, 6710. 
Distrih. Japan. 

111. Carex diluta, Bieh.\ Hook.f. I.e. vi. 737. 

1. Baltisthan, SOOO feet, Skardo to Dras, CB. Clarke, 29966, 
30511 ; Shigar, C. B. Clarke, 30078. 

2. Beloochisthan, Stocks. 


L.ri II 

J ■ w * -'-^^ 



Bislrib. Cabul and Central Asia to Lapland and the Azores. 
[0. Aitcliisoni, Eoeck. in Flora, kiii. [ISSO], p. 45G, was this 

112. Cakex Munroi, C. li. Clarice in Iloolc.f. Fv. Brit. Ind. vi. 738. 
1. Kunawur: Nako, 11,500 feet, Munro, 2431. 

Disfrih. Endemic. 

113. Caeex pereugikka, Scop.\ lluok.f. I. c. vi. 738. 

1, Kashmir: Pir Pinjul, 11,000 feet, C. B. Clarl-e, 28773. 
Disirih. Central Asia and Alpine Europe. 

114. Carex tristis, Bich.; Ilook.f. I c. vi. 738. 

1. Karakorum, 11,500 feet, G. B. Clarice, 30221. KdHlimlr : 
Burji-la, 13,000-14,000 feet, C B, Clarice, 29S37, 20SG3 ; 
Drag, 11,000-12,000 feet, ButJiie, 13797 ; Liddai- Valley, 
13,000 feet, Buihie, 13390. 
Bistrib. Central Asia. 

115. Carex FiATA, Linn. ; IlooJcf. J. c vi. 739. 

1. Kashmir : liamn, Jacf[uemoHf, 43G ; GOOO feet, C. B. Clarke, 

2S492; Dras, 11,000 feet, T. Thomson; Gurais, 8000 

feet, a B. Clarke, 29493. 

Bistrib. North Temperate Kegions. [There are examples of 

C.flitoa, or at least of closely-allied forms marked by Boott or 

other competent men C Jlava, from Tasmania, South Africa, 

Temjierate South America.] 

116. Carex soxgoriCA, Karel. et Kirih ; Ilook.f. I. c. vi. 730. 

1. Kashmir: G-urais to Barzil, 8000-9000 fet-t, C. B. Clarice, 

29484, 29G05 ; Dras, 10,000-11,000 feet, Bufltie, 13702. 

2. Kuram, Aitchison, G02. 

Bistrib. Cabul. Central Asia. Mandschuria. (But will be 
much wider if the plant be esteemed a Yar. of C. nutans, Host.) 

117. Carex hostrata, Stokes; Hook.f. I.e. vi. 740. 

1. Kashmir, Jacquemont, 1024; Uras, 10,000-11,000 feet, 
ButUe, 11728, 13G9G, 138G8; Zogi-hi, 11,000 feet, 71 
TUmson ; Deosai, 13,500 feet, C. B. Clarice, 29.^22 ; 
Gurais, 8000 feet, C. B. Clarke, 29484. Lahoul, 

Jacsclike, 123. Kisheogunga, Strachcy, G03. Kuiiiaou : 

Kutti Tangti, 15,000 feet, Buthie, 6107. 



■ 7. SiWim:'L^c}\cn,0d00-12,000ieet, J.D.Hooker. Bhotan, 

Grijifh, 2GG5, 
Dlstrih. Cool Northern Regions, 

118, Cahex TESTc.vni.v, Linn. ; Uook.f. FL Brit. Ind. vi. 7iO, 
1. Kashmir: Margan Pass ll,"500 feet, W, S. Atkinson. 

Distrib. Cool Northern lie^ions. 

119. Carex Pseudo-cyperuSj Linn, ; Hook, f, Z- c, vi. 740. 

1. K:uslimir, GOOD feet, T. Thomson; Pir Piujiil, 11,000 feot, 

IL (7. Levi 


Distrih. Cool Northern Regions, [There are examples from 
Temperate South America, and from the Cape, considered this 
species by competent men.] 

120. Carex ACUT[FORArrs, Ehrh. ; Rook.f. I. c. vi. 740. 

1, Kashmir: Graiiderbal, GOOO feet, T. Thomson. Lahoul, 
Jacschkc^ 277 i)art, 
Disfrih. Cool Northern Region g. 

121. Carex tumtda, J]ooft : Hook, f, J. c. vi. 741* 

7. Sikkim, 8000-10,000 fecr, /. 7). //(jo^^er; Khursiong, 6000 

feet, a B. Clarke, 26, GG2. 

8. Kha^ia: Slilllong, 6000 feot, C. B. Clarke, 43392. 
Disfrih. Endemic. 

122, Carex or.ivACEA, Booft; Hook.f, Z. o, vi. 74L 

7. Sikkim, 1000-2000 feet, J. D. Hooker. 

8. Assam, Jenkins^ Masters ; Luckimpore, 300 feet, C B. 

Clarke, 37S1G ; Kamroop, tOOO feeb, O. B. Clarke, 43251. 
Cachar, Keenan, 
Distrih, Java. Japan. 


123. Carex LOBTTLTROSTRts, Z^y^y^r; Hook, f, /. c?. vi. 741. 

4. Ceylon, Walker, Wight, 120G, Gardner, 946; 6000-7000 
feetj Thwaites^ 2633* 

Distrib, Endemic. 

121, Carex lurida, G. B, Clarke in Hook. f. Lc. vi, 742. 

7. Sikkim: Lachen, 8000-12,000 feet, J". Z>.//(;o^^^r. Bhotan: 

Chupcha, 8000 I'eet, Gril/Uh, 1067, Kew n. 6066. 
Bisfrib. Endemic* 



325. Cajiex FUsciFituCTUs, C. B. Clarice in IIool\f. FL Brit, In J. 

vi, 742. 
8. Luekimpore : Makum, 300 feet, C. B. Clarice, 37814, 
Dhirib. Endemic. 

120, Cakex flacca, Schreh. \ llook.f. L c. vi. 712. 

2. Sind, FlnwllL 
DUtrib. Temperate North Hemisphere* 

, Ca"Rex setioekAj 2>, Don ; Ilook.f. I. c. vi. 743. 

1. Kashmir r E, Banahal and Badarwar, T.Tliomson. Kuna- 
wur, Jacqiicmonf, 1207. Pangi, T. Thomson. Korth-wcst 
ITimalaja, Jioi/Ie, 143; Topa, IIU J, Fleming ; Mussoorie, 
Jameaon, Jacquemont^ 491. JSaini Tal, T. Thomson, 534 
part, Strachcu <$' Winterhoitom^ 204, Iscpal, WalUvh^ 




8000 feet, J. D. Ilooher. Eirkit, ^%^- Collector. 
Dlatrib. Endemic. 

128. Carex ScnLAGii^TWETTiAXA, lioeck, ; Ilook.f. Lc. vi. 743- 

1. Kashmir: Kuttun Pir, 7000 feet, C. B. Clarke, 2S3(;5, 

North-wewt Himalaya, T. Thomson. Juaiuioo, SOOO feet, 
Brandts. Kunawur, lO^OUO feet, Branch's, Simla, 0000- 
7000 feet, Sclihujinttveit, 5039, Brandis. 

2. Sind, Fin will. 
Disfrib. Tarkand, 

129. Carex ikakis, Kunth ; Ilooh.f, I.e. vi. 713. 

1. Kashmir: Euttun Pir, 7000 feet, C. B, Clarice, 283G9. 
Simla, Jaeiiuemoni^ 901; Eayu, T. Thovison, Tihri-Gurh- 
wa], 9000-10,000 feet, DulJne, G3. Gm^hwal, T. Thomson, 
531 part. Ivedarkmita, Boyle, 131. Naini Tal, 0100 feet, 
Stracliey Sf Winterlottom, 15* Kumaou, 7000-SOOO feet, 
Diithie, 3407, 11,000 feet, Bidhie, 0099. 

7. Sikkiui, SGOO feet, Treufler^ 430; Lacheu and Taugma 
Guoia, 7000-13,000 feet, J. D, Hooker', E, Kulhait, 7000 
feet, a B, Clarke, 12093; Tumbok, 10,000 feet, C. B. 
Clarke, 12892, 
Bistrih. Eudemic, 



130. Carex KAJSiiMiUENsrs, C. B. Clarice in IlooJcf. Fl. Brit. 

Ind. vi. 743. 
1. Kashmir: VlvV\u]\\\, Jac(jvemo7if^ 559. Kiphtwarj 15,000 
feet, 71 Thomson. tSind Valley, 11,500 feet, G. B. Clarice, 
3103G, 31030 ; Tragbol, 10,200 feer, C B. Clarice, 29223 ; 
Gooraip, 10,000 feet, G. B, Clarke, 292S1. 

Bistrih. Eudemie. 

Nees ; Hook. f. 

1. Xubra, 15,000-17,000 feet, T. Thomson. KasLmir: Liddar 
Valley, 13,000-14,000 feet, Duthie, 133r)0 ; Baltal, T 

Thomson, Ktiniiwur, Jacqiiemonf^ 1311, lioyle^ 110, 

T. Thomson, 2035. Chinese l^artary, 7000-9000 feet, 

Kiimaon, Strachey Sf Win 

Munro, 24 IL 

13,000-14,000 feet, Dulhie, 3470. 


7. Sikkim: Lachun ajid YeuiiUung, 11,000-13,000 feet, J. jD. 
Booker \ Pluilung and Samdiiig, 10,000-17,000 feet, J". B. 

13,000 feet, 0. B. Clarke, 25781. 

Hooker : 


Chuinbi, King^s Collector, 
Dislrib. Central A^\n>. 

132, Carex iiiRTELLA, i)/Yy(?r; Hook./. 


cf Wintei 

801* Katjlnnir : Pir l*injul, Jac<iuemunt^ 554; Margati 
PasH, 9500 feet, W, S. A/kinsou ; ICishtwar, 15,000 feet, 
T. Thomson ; Tilail, 12,500 feet, C. B. Clarke, 30000. 
Chumba: Saucb Pays, T Thomson, Kunawur, Jacque- 
monf, 1415, lioyle,\m, 122. Tihri-Gurlivval, 9000-10,000 
feet, Dathte, 02. 

2. Kuraiii Valley, 11,000 feet, Aitchison, 1007. 
Distrlb. Eudemic. 

3. Carex CARDiorEi*Ts, Nees \ Hook.f, L c\ vi. 744, 
1. Ka^luiiir, Falconer, 1103 ; lislamabad to IL Baniihal, 
8000-10,000 feet, T Thomson ; Alibad, 10,000-11,000 feet, 

C.B. Clarke, 28919, 2S953 ; Tiliri-Gurlnval, 8000-9000 
ieet, Buthie, 3-3; iiinnnoi\ Jacquemonf, dQl ; Surkunda, 
9000-10,000 feet, EJyaworth', Mussoorie, Boyle, 146, 
10,000 feet, Munro, 2430, Duntie, 2119. Kumaon, 10,000 

feet, St7*acJtey ^ Winterhotfc 
2* Kurain, Ailchison, 41S, 1214. 
Bis t rib. Cabnl. 

fl q V ^ - ^' 



ME. c. E. clauke oisr the 

134. Cauex IIalleriana, Asso ; Ilook.f. FL Brit, Ind. vi. 745. 

2. S:nd, PinwllL 

Disfrib. From Cabul to Central Europe. Also (a subspecies) 
in North America. 

135. Carex LiETA, jBooit; IlQol\f, I. c, vi. 745. 

7- Sikkim: Tungn, 12,000-13,000 feet, J. 7>. Iloolcer, 
Distrib, Endemic. 

V . 

13f». Carex setosa, Booft-, Ilooh.f, I. c, vi. 745. 

1. Kashmir: Sind Valley, 12,000 feet, C. B. C/ar/.-^, 30994 ; 
Pir Pinjul, 11,000 feet, G. B. Clarice, 2S8S3. Tihri-Gurh- 
wa], 10,000-12,000 feet, Butlne, 56, 60. 
7, Sikkim : Laclien, 9000-12,000 feet, J. B. Ilooler. Namdec, 
12,000 feet. Bantling. 
Bistrib. Endemic. 

137. Cakex oligocarpa, C. B. Clarke in IlooJc.f, L c^ vi, 746. 
1- Karakorura, 12,750 feet, C. B. (7/arA^(?,3043G. Dras-Skardo, 
12,500 feet, C. B. Clarice, 30533. 
Bistrih. Endemic. 

138. Carex cREYicuLiiis, B. Br. ; Iloolc.f. L c. vi. 740. 

1. Mussoorie, Boyle, 152, 6000 Icet, Munro, 2428. Siiida, 
9000-10,000 feet, Bailiie, 7383. Kumaon, 7000 feet, 
T> Thomson. 

2. Sind, BlmdlL 

3. NilglierrJes : Canoor, 7000 feet, O. B. Clarke, 10S30. 

8. Khnsia: Kliillous, 5000-5600 feet, C, B. 0/^77^^^,43616, 
44092 ; Yale of Eocks, 4500 feet, C B, Clarke, 43700. 

9. Muueypoor: Khongni, 6000 feet, JVa/f, GMl. 
Bistrih, Japan. China. Anstralin- New Zealand. 

8. Khasia : M\ 


IIooTcf, I c, vi. 746. 

1256, Kow n. 6078, J. B. 

Rooher, 1939 5 Kalapani, 5000-6000 feet, J". B. Hooker-^ 

trem, J. B. Hooker, 2245 ; Mofloiig, Jl B. Hooker ; 
Nurtiung, B B. Hooker. Graro Hills, Suwanyiri, 1200 
feet, C. B. Clarke, 42984, 

Bistrib, China- Japan. 





140. Carex Wallicuiaxa, li'ees ; Ilooh. f. FI. Brit. Tnd. vi. 


1. Kashmir: OiA^v'^Aikc^Slraclwy ^WlnferloUom', Naoshera, 

Jacqucmont, 333 ; Ilawul Piiidee, Aitchisoii, 1127. Nortli- 
west Himulaya, Jioi/Ia, 114. Dclira Dhoon, Xin'j. 
Kuiriaon, 3£unro, 24<2 1 ; 1500 feet, SfracJiei/ Sf JVinier- 

2. Julluiidur, 900 fec4, T. Thomson. Sind, FinwiU. Oudh 

Terai, WaUicli, 33S0. 

6. Saliarunporc, Jacqucmont. Moradabad, T. Thomson^ 4G4. 

Delhi Canfil, EJgvworth. 

7. Nepal, Wallicli, 3370. Tonglo, Lister. 

8. Jorliaut, Grijilh ; Growhatti, i?oo!^7*. Cachar, Keenan. 

9. Wulloboon, (Jr////"//^, 22, Kew n. 6071. 

Distrih. Cabul. 

141. Caeex ligulata, JS^res ; 


1. Kashmir, Falcon er,llij-ii. IMussoorie, i?oy/6', 115. Kumaon, 

7000 feet, 

4- Wi 

1034; Eanikhet, 

5000-GOOO feet. Dutliir, 0119. 

3. Nilgherries : Canoor, 5000-7000 feet, G. B. Clarice, 10820, 


4. Pcradcnia, Tliwaites, 2750. 

7, Ncxial : R. Khabili, J. J). Jfooker. 

8. Kliasia : Shilloiifr, GOOO feet, C. B. Clarhe, 3SG88. 

Distrih. China. Japan. 

142. Carex herecatipa, O. A. Meyer; RooJc.f. I. c. vi. 747. 

7. Nepal, Wallich, 3379. 

9. Muneypoor : Karon g &■ Moa, 4000-5800 feet, G. B. Clarke, 

41779, 4200. 
Distrih. Endemic. 

HEX hebecaupa, 0. A. Meyer : 

Var. /3. LACHNOSPERMA, C. B. Clarice in TTooJc. f. 

7. Nepal: E. Khabili, 5000-GOOO feet, /. D. Rook 


'fith, Kc\v u. 60G3 ; Nunkluo, 5000-0000 


Distrih. Cochinchiua. 





Note (A). On the Bislrihutlon of the Suh-Order MapanieaD 

in India • 

The whole material that has come throu^jh my hands from tlie 
herbaria is only 114 collectionSj representing 22 closely-allied 
species. Nevertheless, much may be proved by this scanty 
material ; for the plants are large or striking, and if they are 
not collected while oh^aiuvid Scirpus^ Fimhristylis^ are collected in 
abundance, we may assume that the individuals of Mapanise are 
not numerous and that they are in very narrow localities. 

[The wdiole sub-order lies between 2T N. L. and 27" S- L. in 
both hemispheres except tlio distinct genera Chrysoihrix at the 
Cape and Chorisandra in Cape Town,] 

The two large geneia Mapania and Ili/poli/trum occur in 
America, Africa^ Asia, and Oceania, and are concomitant every- 
where (remarkable if the view of Pax of their Avide separation is 
correct) : thus, in India there is a cluster of Ilypolijlnim 
in Ceylon, also of Mapania \ there is a cluster of Ilf/poljjtnim 
down the Malay Peninsula to Singapore, also of Mapania. The 
two gpnera are similarly linked in the American distribution, the 
centre of gravity for both being in Gruiana and Lower Amazon. 

The actual Indian distribution is (1) Ceyhm (South and A\rest), 
continued up the Malabar Ghats to Bombay. (2) Singapore 
and Malay Peninsula, continued up through Pegu and ChiLtagong 
to the Bruhmapootra~\vith one species in Sikkinn 

. Note (B). The Geographic Distribution of the CaricinesB 

of India, 

The Caricineae are especially worth attention in their geographic 
distribution, because they are strictly indigenous ; of the 1117 
examples above tabulated^ there is perhaps not one that was not 
truly wild. Of Cf/perus, Fimhristijiis, &c., huge quantities of 
many species are cultivated by man with his corn; of Kobresia 
and Oarex I know no cornfield weed or species that aceouipanies 
man in any way. 

In order to shorten the present article, the Indian Caricinete 
are arranged in three groups, viz. : — (1) Froprice, i. e. the sect. 
FropricB of Eit-Carex, the few closely-allied sect. Atrutce being 
tlirown in; (2) the sect. Indicce of Ea-Carex \ (3) the remainder 

of Caricinese, being mainly Vifjnea (with Kohreaia and the lew 




species of Eu-Carex &cct. 4. Barm thrown in). The f^pocies 
then number (a very few strongly marked forms being treated 
as species) : 

Non-Endemic. Endemic, 

PropTi(j£ 32 

Indices 7 

Vignea^ <te 25 









The JS^ilghiri Hills with the Mountains of Ceylon, anJ mucli 
intermediate mouutaiuoua and jiiJigly country as Travancore, 
Anama]]ays,Pulneyg,Courtallum\villbo referred to as the Nilghiri- 
Ceylon Eegion. The whole hilly and juugly region from Khasia 
to Singapore will be referred to as the Eastern llegion* 

The component parts of the jS'on-Eudeinie Indian Carlcineaj 
will be arranged as the European component, the Cuntrul-Abiuu, 

the Eastern. 

Beginning with the jN'on-Endemic Pro])ri(jd, — we find that, of 
the 32 speeiesj 14 belong to the *' European conipouont "— they 
enter India at the Nurth-west corner and occupy the liigher 
levels, 8000-12^000 feet, of our AVest nimalavau fcsubtsubarca ; 
they extend no far titer into India, only one or two of tiiein have 
been collected in Upper Sikkim. These aie species of Cooler 
(NorLhern and Alpine) Euro[)e which have nearly all been found 
in the Caucasus and intermediate regions ; many of these West 


Stokes, C vesica ria, Linn., 
cyperus^ Linn.). 


Ehrh.j C, F6eudo- 
Wallichlana, Nee:?, 


extends from Cabul to Ava ; but of the precediug Euroi)ean- 
component 14, not one rcaehcs Khasia, far less does any one 

execute the jump to Malabaria. 

The Central-Asian component of the Non-Endemic Tropriw^ 
of 8 species only, reaches only the high Himalaya, 10,000-10,000 
feet: it is a component of the Indian flora merely because w^e 
extend onr political north frontier of India into the high plateau 

of Central At^ia. 

The Eastern component of the Non-Endeiiuc Fropri(S contains 
9 species also found in China, Japan, or Malaya ; with one very 
widespread species, C. breviculmis, li. JJr., whieli is scattered 
from New Zealand and Japnn to the West llinudaya. Of this 
Eastern component we find that 4 t^pecies inhabit Khasia and 


F_-F - I 

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alao the Nilghiri-Ceylon repjion, being absent in the directly 
intervening area of Bengal, Central India, &c. (1000 miles). It 
is suggested below that the Eiistcni component whicli reappears 
so strongly in the Nilghiri-Ceylon region came via Sumatra. 
The Endemic Fropria; emphasizes what tlie Non-Endemic 


1 us 

of Geography: of the 20 species 12 are high-level 

AVo=it Himalayan, 5 are included between Sikkim and East Assam, 
3 are of Niighiri-Ceylon. 

The component parts of the Indict will be considered under 
the same heads as the Proprue. 

As to the Non-Endemic 7 species, 5 belong to tlio Eastern 
component, and of these 3 also occur in the Nilghiri-Ceylon 
region. One of those letter, G. baccans, Nccs, creeps up the 
Malabar Ghats nortliwards; I have seen two examples labelled 

" Bombaj^" but am not sure how 

wtre got. 

near Bombay town these 

As to the remaining two Non-Endemic Indicce, one is the rare 
C. mnfjuinea, Boott, of which I have seen two examples only — 
(«) from the Murreo woods; {h) from Cabul; the other is the 
C. crueiata, Wahlcnb., a species (as understood in the 'Flora of 
British India ') scattered from Madagascar to China ; but both 
itself and its varieties are so difficult to define botanically, that 
I do not think it safe to draw any deductions from its area of 

The Endemic Indicas are 4G : of these 17 arc in Sikkim or 
West Himalaya or both (mostly at temperate levels); 17 are in 
Siklvim or Assam or both ; 9 are in the Nibdiiri-Ceylon rcirion, 
whereof C. mcrcarensis extends north uj) tlie Malabar Ghats 
nearly to Bombay. The remaining 3 endemic species have more 
unusual areas of habitation :~C plebeia grows at the 1500-2000 
level throughout Chota Nagpore; it is so closely allied to the 
abundant C. fiUcina, Nces, that it miglit be reckoned the Chota 
Nagpore geographic race of that species ; C. slramentUia, Boeck., 
plentiful in the East Himalaya and Assam, occurs also 
Parasnath (in Chota Nagpore) at 4000 feet alt.- C. sjyeciom, 
Kuntb, a stronuly-markcd isolated (but very variable) species, 
is found in Malabar, Chuta Nagpore, East Himalaya, Assam, 
Iveeping in view the short distance from the Garo Hills or 
from Sikkitn to Eajmahl, it is an important observation that ^o 



y " ' . r 



few plants have been able to struggle across 200 or 250 miles. 
It is true that theriisiug of the Himalaya is a thing of yesterday ; 
fctill there hare been considcrabJe o^oiUations in level 


and Khasia was there long before; how feu species bave been 
carried across by birds, drift-wood, jind other accidents! The 
Plora of Chota Xagpore is wortli a special review ; it is essentially 
tl)at of Central India, but there are a very few species which have 
got across from Khasia; such are the strongly-marked Fimbri- 

sty lis Hi 

less certainly the (Campanukeeous) 

CephaJostigma Ilooheri^ C. B. Clarke. 

The Care:c sect. ladicdd are pre-eminently subtropical : thej 
are abundant in species and in individuals in India^ but extend 
little beyond India — only a few species of the Sect, have been 
received from China, a tew from Africa and Trop, America. 

Considering tlie component portions of tlie Viijnece^ &e- under 
tbe same he:ids : — Wo have 9 species that belong to the European 
component (such as Q, divlm^ Hudson^ C. incurva^ Ligbtf., 
C.vulfjaris^ Fries) ; these extend from Temperate Europe (several 
from England) to the North-west Himalaya; here they occur 
at high levels, and very few reach east even to North Sikkini. 
There are 4 species (3 of wbich are Kobresias) which represent 
tlie Central Asian component, and just enter the higher 

There are 7 species belonging to the Eastern component, only 
in East Himalaya or Kliasia ; no one of these extends down the 
Malay Peninsula, and (therefore ?) no one is found in the Nibdiiri- 
Ceylon area. 

The 5 remaining Non-Endemic species have a mucli more 
extensive range; they are abundant plants, and all occur iu 
the Nilghiri-Ceylon Keglou, viz. : 

(1) C. nuhigcna^ D. Don — from Cabul to China. 

(2) C. Jongipes^ D. Don — froiti Nepal to China. 

(3) C, hrunnea^ Thunb. — JMascarenia to Japan, Australia 
Sandwich lisles. 

(4) C, phacola, Spreng. — from South Africa to Japan. 

(5) C. rara, Boott— Khasia to Japan, Borneo, Australia, 

The Endemic Vigne<s, &c, (32), follow closely the example of 
the Endemic Propr'ue a]id Indiccb — one, C Araoitiana^ Drejer, 
is confined to Ceylon; the remaining 31 are confined to the 


Iliinalaya and Khasia, except that the Khasia C, longicruris 
reappears in the Nilghiri-Ceylon region. To say more about 
these, would be to repeat what has been said about the Froprice 
and Indiae. 

Suir. tiling up the geographical distribution of the Cariciiicie, 
we see that there are 2 major and 2 minor I^on-Endemic Com- 
ponents in tlje Indian Flora, to which parallel Endemic Com- 
ponents correspond. These arc ; — (1) the European, (2) tlie 
Eastern, (3) the Central Asian, (4) the fcir IIem]spha?ric* 

(1) The European non-endemic species (27) enter India at the 

north-west angle and extend half of them over our West 
Himalayan tract, half of them to East Himalaya or Assam, 
With these are 55 endemic Himalayan plants. 

(2) The Eastern species of Assam and the East Himalaya, a few 

extending down the Malay Peninsula. Those may be 
reckoned 23 specie^, whereof 6 reappear in the Nilghiri- 
Ceylon Region, With these are 4 endemic Nilgliiri-Ceylon 
specie?, and 22 Eastern endemic species, whereof 3 reappear 
in the Nilghiri-Ceylon region. 

(3) The Central-Asian component of 12 non-endemic species 

which just enter the high Himalaya from the North, and with 
wliich may be arranged perhaps 8 endemic plants — Kobrc^^ias 
and high-level Carices — which arc altogether Central Asian 
in character. 

(4) The Hemispha-ric component, of 5 to 7 specie?, which are 

scattered from Africa to Japan, Sandwich Islands, and New 

It will be noticed that, omitting very few species of which few 
examples have been collected, the areas of the Caricinca? in 
India do not fill up one-third the whole area of the Empire. 
This is not entirely a question of elevation-above-sea and cool- 
ness, for there are large areas of the Deecau at considerable 
elevation where no Carex has yet been found, while there nve. 
several species in Assam that have (as yet) only been found at 
low elevations. It is more a matter of moisture ; but from 
Chittagong to Singapore Carex is not prominent, though the 
country is moist enough as well as jungly and hilly enough. 

J - ■■ »■ 



Tlie Dlstrihution of the Indian Cyperaceae compared with 

that of the Caricinese, 

ScLERTA. — In tbis genus, of the 29 species in India, 11 occur 
in only one of the regions discusiscd under Caricinc^e, and there- 
fore prove little. Tv>o or three are rice-fiekl weeds — hemisphaerio 
or cosmopolitan in area. But there are no less than 11 species of 
our Eastern Eegion which extend also to our Nilghiri-Ceylon 
Kef^ion; several of these are South Malay, not extending north 
to Khasia, and therefore support the theory that the Nilghiri- 
Ceylon component of ihe Indian Flora was derived from the 
same source as the Eastern, but did not come to Ceylon from 
Khasia, via Chota Nngpore, Specially to be noted in this argu- 
ment are Selena zeylanica, whicdi extends from Borneo to VeQ\\, 
but not farther north ; Sch chinensis, Kunth, which is found in 
r*>vlnn. Sin^'^auore. Malava: ScL JVeesii, Kunth, found in Ceylon 

helong to the Eastern 

and Malaya. 

The Suborder Mapaniese, en masse, 
component of the Indian flora ; they lie in the Malay Peninsula, 
one species, Hypolyfruyn latifolinm, L. C. Eich.j extending to 
Khasia and Sikkim, with an important parallel group in tlio 
Nibdiiri-Ccylon Eegion. The closely-allied species occur either 
in the Malay Peninsuhi (a few in Pegu) or in Ceylon. The 
stronf^-lv-marked Lepironia occurs in Ceylon and in the extreme 
south of the Malay Peninsula (also in Mascarenia, Australia). 

Remtrea is confined to South India, but it is a sea-;sljore plant, 
and its distribution proves little beyond this. 

GrAiiNiA is specially an Australian genus, two species of which 
extend to the South Malay Peninsula, 

Cladium is specially Australian, Cladium Maingayi and 
C. glomerafinn reach the South Malay Peninsula. G. undu- 
latum, Thwaites, is confined to Ceylon and Malaya- (7. rlparium 
var. crassa is only known from the sea-coast of Bengal and 
Ceylon; the abundant growth of this at 5000 feet elevation at 
ShilJong may possibly yet be that of an introduced plant. 



in our Eastern Eegion, also in Nilgliirl-Ceylon. M, gracilUma^ 
C. B. Clarke, occurs in our Eastern Region, also in the Kilghiri- 
Ceylon Eegion (also in the Nicobars). The remaining species 
occur either in our Eastern Eegion or in the Nilghiri-Ceylon 

r . 

- -u 

Y ^ 

T J 


^ ■ 




, ^ 

I refrain from analyzing in detail the Scirpcic and Cyperea^; 
we should find in them many species common to our Eastern and 
^S'ilghiri-Ceylon Eegions, and numerous groups with represen- 
tative species in those two l^egions ; we should al^o find the 
European component, distinctly marked, coming into India at the 
north-west angle in tlie shajjo of Erloplioram, some Scirpus, &c. 
StiDj owing to tlie large number of cosmopolitan species and 
Avecds of cnltivation in the Scirpese and Cypere^e, I do not think 
a laborious analysis would add much to the very strong illustra- 
tions given by the other suborders. 

The existing Elora of British India is supposed to be made up 
of five principal components, in order of time as follows : — 

(1) The Flora of the uncultivated parts of tlie Deccan, our sub- 
subareas (3) and (5) at 0-4000 feet elevation, is the oldest ; 
it extends to the Gangctic Plain in the North, and many 
species have, in modern geologic times, got over this plain 
to the drier parts of the Western Himalaya. This Elora 

be supposed to have had a common origin with the 


Mascarene and African, 

" ludo-Afrlcan element. 


(2) The Elora of the Eastern Peninsula from Singapore to Assam 

(the Bruhinnpootra Valley) m.ay be little les^ ancient than the 
Indo-African clem_ent, and in the Miocene (?) age or there- 
about it got across directly from the 3Ialay Peninsula to 


This I have called the 

'* Eastern element," 

(3) The '' Central Asi 

element," which would first enter in 

Tertiary times, but which must have been on the extreme 
north mart^in of India ever since the Himalaya attained an 

elevation of 1 2,000 feet. 
(4) The *' European eleuient/' wdiich arrived sliortly after the 

Central Asian at the west end of the Himalaya, and doubt- 
less travelled rapidly east, the continuity of the range 

offering no obstacles. 
rhe " Quaternary ele 


which occupies the cultivated 

lands and roads, and accompanies man. 

■ ■ ■ 

f : 


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■ It would be quite beyond the pcope of the present paper to 
attempt to sliow that tlie geographic distribution of the other 

Natural Orders iti India ]ed to the 






I have drawn from the Cy[)or;ice3e- It; ir so easy to pick out a 
few striking instances that make for one's own theory, and to 
OTt-rlook or undere?;timnte others; it would bo diffieult to estab- 
lish any conclusion without a complete tabulation and analysis of 
the whole material. The Cruciferre are evidently part of our 
European element, and entered India at Kashmir; the Diptero- 
carpeae are part of our Eastern element, and entered India from 
the South-east, and soon found a way across to the Niliihiri- 
Ceylon region. But it is not so easy to make sum.mary state- 
ments about LcguminosjB, Compositse, Gramina, Orchidacea?. 
Probably most Indian botanists will agree that tlicro is a vast 
mass of genera which extend througliout the Himalaya and 
Khasia, often reaching to the Malay Peninsula and i^]a^d^, 
which are absent, or nearly so. from the Madras Peninsula ; that, 
at some time since the present Orders and Grenera of Pha^nogauKs 
were pretty well settled, tliere has existed a much easier route 
for plants from the Malay Peninsula to the ]Si"ilghiri-Ceylon area 
than now exists. As illustrations (not proofs) of these state- 
ments, I give five examples :— 

(1) The genus Qiierctis extends from Kashmir to Malaya 
numerous in species and individuals, but no Oak is indi- 
genous in Ceylon, Malabaria, or Coromandelia. The Oak 
probably reached India with the Eastern element, and it 

appears not improbable that it travelled along the Himahaya 

(2) The Pines have a similar distribution in India to the Oaks, 

with the exception that one Conifer, Podocarpusi neriifolia, 
.1). Don, hag reached the INTilghiri-Ceylon area from the 
Malay Peninsula. In this case the Pinese proper may have 
entered India at Kashn:iir, whilst the genus Podocarpus 
may have come from the South-east. 

(3) The EricacefiB have a similar distribution to the Oaks, with 

the exception that two species {Rhododendron arhorcum. 
Smith, and Gaultlieria fragranfissima^ D. Don) have readied 
Ceylon and the Nilghiri. It is possible that these two 
plants from Burma, or from some southern spot in the 
Malay Peninsula which they once occupied, reached Nilghiri- 







Ceylon by tlie satiie route the Dipterocarps travelled ; but 
I do not Bee that their present distribiitiou favours the 
Tivpothesis of this route more than any other. 

and Androsace are numerous in the "W 


High Alpine Himalaya, two species reaching Kiutsia; no 

species elsewhere in India. These luo genera appear to 

belong to or.r European cU'mciit altogether. 
^5) Lauenopliora is a genus of Composites, its headquarters 

Australia ; i- BiUanlieri, Cas.^., is in Malaya, in Khasia, 

and in Ceylon— nowhere el«e in India. 
(6) None of these geucra or suborders, Quercus, EJiododcndron, 

Frimula, absent, or nearly so, ia tl.e Madras Peninsuh., 

ot.'curs in Tropical or South Africa. 

j-Tv^.B.— The spelling of the localitie-^ is that in each case 

on the collector's ticket. Tins is at least as right as modern 
transliteration. I have not attempted to make the spelling 
uniform, as I cannot do this, even on my own ground, without 
risk of introducing error ; thus I hesitate to alter Jopoo, m 
Muneypoor, io Jakpho, Lliough I suspect they may be the eame 

place. — C. B C] 





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April 1 

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/, Vol. XXXIV. 


No. 236"^ 



I. On the Biology of Agaricus velutipes. Curt. {CoUyhia 


veluti^es, P. Karst.). By E. H. Biffen, formerly 
Prank Smart Student of Gouville and Caius College, 


(Communicated by Prof. H. Marshall i 
;., F.E.S., P.L.S.) (Plates 2-4.) H7 

Wabd. D.S 

II. Notes on tKe Genus Nanomitrium, Lindberg. By I 

Ernest Sxajs-ley Salmon. (Communicated by J. G. 
Baker, F,KS-, P.L.SO (Plate 5.) 16a 

^ Ir 



See Notice on last page of Wrapper 












Elected 24tli May, 1898. 


Albert C. L. G. Giintherj M.A., M.D., F.R.S 


W. Carnitherg, F.B.S. 
Frank Crisp, LL.B., B.A. 


A. D. Michael, F.Z.S., P.R.M.S 
D. n. Scott, Ph.D., F.II.S. 


Frank Crisp, LL.B., B.A. 


B. Daydon Jackson, Esq. | Prof. G. B. Howes, LL. D., F.R.S 


Clias. A. Barber, M.A. 

W. Carruthers, RRS. 

C. B, Clarke, M.A., F.R.S. 

Frank Crisp, LL.B., B.A. 

A. C. L. G Giintber, M.A., M.T)., RR.S. 

W. B. Hemsley, RE.S. 

Prof. W. A. Herdman, D.Sc, F.It.8. 

W. Percy Sladen, RG.S. 

Prof. G. B. Howes, LL.D., RR,S. 

B. Dajdon Juekaon, S]sq. 

A. D. Michael, F.Z.S., F.R.M.S. 

H. W. Monckton, F.G.S. 

G. R. M. Murray, F.R.S. 

Howard Saunders, F.Z S. 

D. H. Scott, Ph.D., RR.S. 


Jarnea Edmund Harting, F.Z.S, 


A. W. Kappel, 


A* R. Hammond. 

This consists of nine Fellows (three of whom retire annually) and of the four 
officers cxoficiom all thirteen members. Tlie former are elected annually 
by the Council in June, and eerye till the succeeding Aimiversarv The 

?C u?'^ ""f r '^ ^'^''^ at intervals during the Session. The Members for 
IsyT-yo, la aldiiiou to the officeri?, are : 

0. B. Clarke, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. J. E. Farmer, M.A. 

Prof. J. Reynolds Green,Sc.D.,F.R.S. 

W, B. Hemsley, F.RS. 
A. D. Michael, RZ,S. 

George Murray, F.R.S. 

W. Percy Sladen, F.G.S. 

Rev, T. R. Stebbing, M.A., F.E S 

Roland Trimen, F,R.S. 

NoTB.-The Charter and Bye-Laws of the Society, as ampndpd fr. 
the 19th March, 1891, maybe had on application. ^' ^ ^"^ 

1,^ - « 



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Oa the Biology of Agaricus vel^lpes, CarL {ColhjVm velatlpes, 
P. Karst.). Bj E. H. Bii^fex, furmorly Prank Smart Student 
of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. (Cotninuuicated 


[Read lat December, 1898.] 

(Pi. AXES 2-4.) 

Ijf the earlj part of the year au abundant crop of the sporophores 
of Agaricus {Galbjhia) vslufipss * grew on a pile of old chestnut 
uud poplar wood in tlie Cambridge Botanic Grardens. It wa;^ 
also frec^ucntly met with on elm and willow treas in the neigh- 
bourhood. This early appearance of sporophores is uuugual 
among the Agarlcineas, and Cjlhjhia vehttipss is one of the few 
forms which persist through the winter uninjured by the frost. 
It may even be found pu^ihing its way through the snowt* The 
large conspicuous clumps of tawny yellow sporophores grow 
from the base to some height up the tree-trunks. In the case of 
one ehn, the greater part of which was dead, the sporophores 
"Were found growing at a height of forty feet above the base* 

The conspicuousness of this common fungus has led, as one 
might expect, to numerous descriptions of it, even among the older 
writers. Thus Curtis :|:^tiscribes and figures it, under the name 
of Agaricits velutipes or the velvet-stemmed Agarlcus, in the 
* Plora Londinensis/ noting that ''the sheath or eg^ (volvzi) and 
the ring or ruffle (velum partiale) are wanting." ''Its velvety 
and sooty stalk, most conspicuous in those which are advanced, 
serves as a distinguishing characteristic from other Agaricineje." 

Sowerby § again describes and figures it, and calls attention to 
the extraordinary length of the stipes in spei^imens growing in a 
shed, and to '' the pollen or white dust which lay on the upper 


A^aricus vdutipes is the original name used by Curtis for the fungus 
described b^ Dilleuius in Ra^'s ' ^Synopsis Stirpiuui Britannicarum/ ed, 3, p, 0, 

n. 51. 

Other synonyms :—A. mutahlUs, Ilud.s. Flor. Ang!. p. 215 ; A, iiigrlpes. Bull, 
Champign. tab. 344; A. Aescull^ Svhum. Euuinerat. \\. ly. ^QiS \ A. austriac us, 
Trattin. Fung. Austr. taf. 7. 1 have usedXarsteud name throughout this paper. 

t Winter, Eab. Krypt.-Flor., Bd. i. p, 779. 

I Curtis, Flor. Loud. vol. ii. pi. l>13, 1798. 
Sowerby, Euglish Fungi, vol, iii. pi. 21)3. 

LI:N^-. jouux, — BuT^NFj VOL. xxxiv; M 




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, I ^ r .■....■ ' , ' ■ ' ' ■ "* 


148 ME. E. ir* BIFFEN OW THE 

half of tlie stipes like wLite-wasli^ and gave the plant quite a new 

It is exquisitely figured in Hussej's * * Illustrations of Britisli 
Mycology/ and complete descriptions are to be found in the 
■\Yorks of Saccardo, Cooke t, and ]\Jass?eei, 

CoUyhia velutipes belongs to the Leucos'porecp. The pileus 
is from 1 to 3 inclics in diameter; at first it is convex, -vsuth 
a distinctly recurved margin, then it becomes plane and even 
slightly umbonate. In young specimens the surface is smooth 
and dry, but as they grow older it becomes slimy, especially in 
wet weatlier. The flesh is thin, especially at the margins, where 
it is semitrausparent* The gills are ochraceous, subdistant, broad, 
and slightly adnate. The stem is t^lender, and varies a great deal 
in length; usually it is about 2 inches long, but occasionally 
as much as 9 inches. It is hollow and stuffedj and spreads 
downwards into a rooting base of a deep brown colour, with a 
velvety surface. The colour is a rich tawny ochre, becoming 
grey on the upper surface when slimy. On drying, the cartila- 
ginous eporophores become more brittle. They may be found 
throughout the greater part of the year, but most abundantly 
in the winter and early spring* 

■ Apparently no very complete study of the anatomy of 
Collyhia velutipes has yet been made, although Costantin and 
Matruchot § described a method by which pure cultures of it 
could readily be obtained, and exhibited their results at the 
Exposition de Champignons de la Societe myeologique in 1884. 
Van Tieghem || has described the formation of oidia and recog- 
nized their purely vegetative function, and also the interesting / 

fact that fragments of sporophores are capable of giving rise to 
fresh sporophores. 

Ereleld^ examined the adult anatomy of Collylia velutipes 
among other species of Colhjlia^ and obtained oidia from the 
mjcelium formed by geiminating basidiospores. The growth 
of his cultures, however, did not extend beyond the oidial 

* ITusspy, Ulustr. Brit Myc. pi. 56. 

t Cooke, Tlaiidhook Erit, Fungi, vol. i. p. 55 ; Illustr. pi. 184 A. 

{ Massce, lirit, Fung, Flora, vol. iii. p. 127. 

5 Costantin et Matruchot, Comptes Keiidus, vol. 119. p, 752. I 

I Van Tietljcrn, Eiill. de la Soc. but. de France, t. xsiii. p. 101. < 

^ Brefeld, XJnters. uus d. GesuiLmtgeb. d. MykoL, H. viii, p. 56, ! 

_ 1 

> : 

t ^ 

' -i^ 

i ■■ 

. ^ 



stage, Furtlier, Hoffmann* has traced the development of tlio 
sporophore- Eeference will be made to tliese papers in more 
detail later. 

The method of culture adopted was as follows :—Eipe sporo- 
phores of the fuugus were placed with the gills downward in 
clean, covered watch-glasses, and some of the spores deposited 
transferred with a sterile needle to tubes of gelatine, containing 
from one to two per cent, of caue-sugar, from which drop-cultures 
and plates were prepared t. 

The early stages of germination were followed in hanjiiiijr-drops 
under the microscope. In 24 hours at a temperature of 17"^ C. 
the first hypha) appear; they branch and grow riipidly for seven 
days, forming a tangled septate mycelium, which then becomes 
very vacuolated, and on tlie eighth day the ends of its hyphm 
begin to septate off to form oidia. In another day practically the 
whole mycelium has broken up into oidia-chains (PI. 2. iig. 1). 
Theoidia are rod-shaped, with slightly rounded cnd.s. They vary 
considerably in length, 3-8'5 ;n being the extreme measurements 
obtained, while their breadth of 2^ is fairly constant. Each 
contains a distinct nucleus* 

Ko further changes were found to occur in these hanging-drops, 
although kept under obser\ation until they became dried up. 
Meanwhile, a similar development occurred in the plate cultures, 
and oidia from them were transferred to blocks of sterilized horse- 
chestnut wood, placed in large, plugged test-tubes, and kept 
moist wMth cotton-wool saturated with water. The sterilization 
was effected by heating the tubes containing the blockn, and the 
cotton-wool plugs in a steam-sterilizer for an hour, half an hour, 
and quarter of an hour, on three successive days* Three days 
after infection a slight mycelium is visible to the naked eye, 
which spreads gradually, and in a few Aveeks forms a thin, mealy 
layer over the whole surface of the block. A month after infec- 
tion (Jan* 31st., March 1st) the sporophores are obtained. The 
mycelium at the point of ibrjnatiun turns an umber-brown colour, 
and in the centre of the patch a small rourided body 0^5-1 mnu 

in diameter appears, from wliich tf|joruphore6 rapidly develop. 
These small, rounded bodies represent the sclerotia found in 
other species of Collijhia^ e. g* C\ tuherosa^ P. Karst. A distinct 

* Iloffmanu, in dc Eary's Comp. Morph. & Biol, of Fungi, etc, p. 207. 
t See Marshall Ward, Plii:, Trans. 1897, vol. 189. l\ p. 12^, 

M 2 


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d- . 

l'-- -t 

: =-- ^ - . 

^ V 




h , 



differentiation into piieus and stipes is noticeable \viien the 
sporopliore is a few days old. Ag an example to show tlie time 
of development, T quote one of the first formed sporophores : the 
Rclerotium was recognizable 32 days after infection ; in 31 days 
two f^mall rounded projections could be distinguished with the 
help of a simple lens, which two days later (in 3G days) had grown 
to a height of 3 mm. and showed a distiuct stipes surmounted 
by an overlapping piieus. A week later the sporophore was 
fully grown and commenced to shod its spores (PI. 2, fig. 2). 
The mature sporophorcs are about 2 inches high, and the 

piieus is about h;ilf an inch in diameter. 




recognizable from the descriptions quoted, though more slender 
in babit than the naturally grown specimens and with a general 
likeness to the closely allied genus Marasmius, The slimy 
appearance of the upper surface of tlie piieus, so characteristic 
of the species, becomes very marked as the sporophore reaches 
maturity. Then its colour chancres slightly^ becoming a little 
duller, watery di'ops are exuded, and it becomes soft and slimy. 

The basidiospores are produced in abundance, and when she! 
frequently form well-marked patterns of the gills on the sides of 
tubes. If transferred to sugar gelatine they readily germinate. 
The size of the basidiosp --res is v.^ry variously stated; thus 
Winter gives them as 8-10 x i-Sju, Cooke '00027 iuch, Masseo 
7x3-3'5 ^, Stevenson 8-10Xi-5 /j. These variations seem too 
large to be accounted for as mere personal equation errors, and 
tempt one to suppose that tlie size is not so good a criterion as 
it is often assumed to be, owing to differences in growth under 
varying circumstances. However, a series of closely agreeing 
observations taken in water from spores of a naturally grown 
specimen, about 2 inches iu diameter, gave 7*0-7"7 x4'4/x; while 
a similar set of observations from a pure culture specimen, 
less than half an inch in diameter, gave 7"2-7'7 X 4'4 jl*. 

The formation of spores ceases, and the sporophores wither 
and dry, ^^hen about fourteen days old. Then, so far as appear- 
ances go, they are dead ; but if kept for some time longer (four 
months in this case) they show unmistakable signs of life, for 
fresh sporophorcs are found to be springing either from the piieus 
or the stipes- These secondary sporophorcs may even produce 
others in their turn (fig. 3). This phenomenon of purely 
ve'^etative reproduction may probably be brought into correlation 

' .■, '- 




With the normal course of eventa in other species of CoUyhia. 
As is well knownj several species are in the habit of forming 
sclerotia*, e. g,, G. tuberosa, P. Karst., 0. cirrlata,'?. Karst., C, race- 
mosa^ P. Karat, j and at least one species, C.platyphylla, P. Karst.f, 
develops analogous structures in the form of mycelial strands 
which, if hard and dark-coloured, would be termed rhizomorphs,for 
like the latter both sclerotia and strands develop new sporophore^. 
In the sporophores of C, veluti^es, however, we have a sort of 
delayed sclerotium, capable of acting as such, however, under 
certain circumstances j and thus the greatly reduced condition 
of its sclerotia becomes more intelligible. 

The growth of the lower surface continues for a longer time 
than that of the u])per, so that its convex surface is gradually 
flattened out, and iu some cases where growth is exceptionally 
continued it even becomes concave, and so the gills arc far more 
exposed than usual. 

A superficial observation of a growing cluster of sporophores 
at once convinces one that they are responsive to the stimulus of 
gravity, for they contrive to grow so that their giils always point 
directly downwards. This geotropism is easily demonstrated by 
placing a tube containing a growing specimen in a position so that 
the plane of the pileus is at right augles to the ground. In a 
couple of hours the stipes becomes twhsted so that the pileus is 
brought into a horizontal position* The process may be repeated 
several times with the same specimen. It often happens that 
sporophores begiu to develop on the underside of the block. In 
these cases they invariably wither before complete development 
occurs, unless they are able to curve round it and so attain a 
position where it is possible for the gills to grow downwards. 

The blocks infected in the beginning of Pebruary produced 
sporophores continually from the beginning of March to the 
middle of June. By this tiuie the majority of them had withered 
however, and w^ere producing secondary sporophores, A further 
crop was formed during the first week in August. 

Cultures grown iu the dark or shaded with red blotting-paper 
form an external mycelium iudistiuguishable in kind and quantity 


* Cf. A^■m Tieghem, Bull, de la Soc. hot. de France, t. xxiii. 1896, p. lOh 

t Fayod, Ann. dea Sci. Nat. 7 ser. t. x^., 1889, pp. 200, 208, 210 ; Brefeld, 

Unters. aus d. Gesammtgeb. d. Mykol., H. viii. p. 56, 

X Fayod, loc. cit. p. 201. Eonimer, Mem. Guar, de TAcad. Roy. Sci. Belg. 
t. liv. p. 14, 






^ : ' 


■ J \ 

/ J 






r IV 


T J 




I j' 

from those grown in the light, but the growth of tlie pilous socniB 
to be inhibited to a certain extent; at any rate ita appearance is 
delayed, and eventually slender stipes, an inch or an iueli and 
a half high, are produced bearing only a minute pileus* 

As it seemed possible that the cultures in plugged test-tubes 
might suffer from being insufficiently aerated, others were put uj) 
in U-tubes and flasks through which a stream of moist, filtered 
aip was drawn by means of an aspirator. In these cultures the 
external mycelium was a little thicker, but the sporophores, which 
were later in forming, were no larger than those in the plugged 
tubes. In order to see whether the steam-sterilizing caused any 
washing out or destruction of nutritive substances in the wood, 
cultures were also made on blocks dry-sterilized by being heated 
as before, but without wetting the cotton-wool plugs at the bottom 
of the tubes until they were ready for infection. When com- 
pared with the wet-sterilized cultures, infected at the same time, 
however, no differences could be detected. I a spite of this it is 
evident that some essential nutrient materials are dissolved out, 
for sporophores develop in abundance on the wet plugs of the 
wet-sterilized tubes, and none develop on the plug-^ of the dry- 
sterilized ones. The experiment only shows, tlien, that the amount 
dissolved is slight, and not sufficient to check the growth of the 

Further, cultures were made on wood extracted with a boiling 
5 per cent, solution of caustic potash, to remove xylose-yielding 
bodies, or with ao per cent, solution of liydrochloric acid to re- 
move hemicelluloses- These solutions were then thoroughl}^ 
washed out with distilled water, which was changed at frequent 
intervals for a week. In both sets of tubes the growth of the 
mycelium was extremely slow, and so far no sporophores have 
been produced (infected for 12 weeks). 

Microscopic examination of the external mycelium shows that 
it is septate, with numerous clamp connections. Its mealy 
appearance is due to the large number of oidia-chains formed. 

Longitudinal sections of the mature sporophore show a cortex 
bearing several forms of hairSj a medulla composed of loosely 
woven hyphss, and a hollow stipes. If the sections are stained 
in eosin, or better in fuchsin-mcthyl green, a system of hyphse, 
having a general resemblance to laticiferous cells, is differentiated 
by staining more deeply than the surrounding tissue. Ita 



high refractive 



abumlaiit granular contents and 

serve to make it more visible (PI. 2. fig. 4). 

In transven^c sections of the stipes the hyphae of this system 
appear as a de^'ply stained riug near its outer margin- These 
hypha? push their way among the parallel hypha> of the stipes, 
occasionally giving off blindly ending branches, v\-hich run either 
m the original direction or in the opposite one. Prom the 
stipes they run into the pileus, where they spread out over it.^^ 
lower surface and send down branches into the trama of the 

gills to form 

a layer immediately below the subhymenium. 

Here they either end in slight dilatations, or pass into the 
hymenium and end between the barren cells (PI. 2. fig. 5). Very 
few branches arc present in the upper portions of the pileus. 


system is evidently identical with the " conductinjj 


described by IstvanfE * in the closely allied genus 

My€(JBna among others. 
The structure of the cortex 

is unusually complex. 



hyphae, which are considerably smaller than those of the medulla, 
and arranged parallel to the surface of the pileus instead of 
being woven together in all directions, turn ontwards and give 
rise to three distinct forms of hairs (PJ- 3, fig. 6J, The most 
conspicuous are large, simple, and spindle-shaped, with granular 
contents coloured a yellowish-brown {a in fig. t5). Among these 
are clusters of three or four smaller hairs, which arise a^ 
branches from the apex of a hypha; they are often constricted 
at intervals so as to have a beaded appearance (6). Standing 
out above these two forms are long, fine, much-branched hairs, 
which often entangle basidiospores among them, and so give 
rise to the 'Svhite-washed '* appearance of the aporophores 
described by Sowerby {c). It seemed probable that the 
sliminesa of the upper surface might be due to the formation of 
mucilage by these hairs, either as a secretion, or by the muci- 
laginous degeneration of their walls. Sections were accordingly 
stained with methylene-blue and other mucilage stains, but no 
indications of its presence were obtained, nor were the walls 
found to be swollen. It is possible, then, that the sliminess is 
due to the quantity of water held by capillarity among these 
slender hairs ; but whether any of the forms are specialized for 
the purpose of transpiring water could not be determined. 

* Istvanffl, Bot. Centr. vol. xxix. 1887, p. 373 ; Pringsh. Jahrb, 1896, p* SOL 


f - J-fK f^ 

' ^ 




Incidentally, thougli, it may be noticed that watery drops are 
exuded from any part of the ^porophore and that they form 
most plentifully at its hase. Their presence there is not due to 
their running down from the higher parts of 1he stipes, for even 
casual observation of their formation shows their gradual growth 
there, and moreover the drops usually remain at the points 
where they are secreted, sometimes even for a week after the 

sporophore has withered. 

The gills show the usual Jgarmis type of structure* — a loose 
medullary portion, the trama, subliymenium, and hymenium, 
with basidia bearing four sterigmata and basidiospore?. Brefeld t 
states that no cystidia arc present in this species^ but I find that 
they are plentiful, especially at the apex of the gills. They are 
simple and spindle-shaped, rarely showing signs of branching 
at the apex, and are full of protoplasmic contents (PI. 3. fig. 7)- 
In several cases these cystidia were found to be terminations of 
the " conducting system," 

Owing to the number of sporophores which a])pcar at intervals 
on the blocks, this method of culture is especially favourable for 
a study of their development. ~Fov this purpose a block was 
chosen showing all stages from the first umber-coloured spots to 
the mature sporophores, and fixed in Plemming*s solution. After 
a thorough washing in water it was taken through the usual 
dilutions of alcohol to absolute alcohol. Thin strips of wood 
bearing different stages of the sporophores were then sliced off, 
imbedded in paraffia-wax, cut into serial sections with a micro- 
tome, and stained with dilute Delafield's hsematoxylin or Bismarck 
brown. In the sections of the earliest stages the hypba? were 
found to emerge in thick strands, especially from the medullary 
rays, to form small selerotia (PL 2. fig. 9). These sclerotia are 
composed of loosely woven hyphse throughout, and show no 
difterentiation into a cortical and a central portion. Each gives 
rise to one or, less frequently, tw^o sporophores. They are 
thus a simpler form of the large sclerotia with strongly thickened 
cortical layers, capable of producing several sporophores, which 
are met with in other species of Collyhia^ e, g., in C, tuherosa^ 
P, Karst., and (7. cirrhata^ P* Karst. The sporophores are 
first visible as minute projections from the sclerotia. Even 

* See also Ileese, Bot. Centr., Bd. xvii. 1884, p. 69, 

t Brefeld, Unters, aus d. Gesammtgeb. d. Mykol., IL Tiii. p, 56, 

f > 


- ^ 


in the earliest stages they may be distinguished from the sclerotia 
in sections, by the fact that their hyphae run for the most part 
parallel to one another, while in the sclerotia they are woven 
together in all directions. The upper surface of the young sporo- 
phore is moreover covered with large simple hairs (PL 2. fig. 8). 
When from 2 to 3 mm. high, the hyphse in the upper part 
spread out to form the pileus, and the characteristic ''button" 
shape of the Agaricinca? is thus produced- At the same time a 
certain amount of differentiation takes place in the tissues* In 
the stipes the central hyphse are apparently pulled apart aud 
form a loose central tissue, while the outer layers are close and 
compact and covered with large pigment-containing hairs. The 
pileus also is differentiated into a loose medullary portion and a 
closely felted cortical layer, again covered with large, simple, 
pigment-containing hairs. The tissue which ultimately gives 
rise to the hymenial layers may also be distinguished as slender 
parallel hypha? running in a dowmvard direction. Occasionally, 
in specimens of this size or slightly larger, the loose medullary 
portion appears to be broken down at the base of the pileus 
to form a "tunnel/' but this is not really the case. The sub- 
hymenium is formed directly from the hyphcT3 on the free lower 
surface and is never enclosed in a cavity * (PI. 2* fig, 10). The only 
approach to a velum partiale is aff'orded by the large hairs of the 
recurved margin pointing towards the stipes, though not conflueiit 
with it. It is interesting to compare thi^^ with the usual type of 
formation of the velum partiale^ of which Agaricus melleus^ A^ahlfj 
serves as a good example. Here the rudimentary tissue of the 
hymenial layers is at first freely exposed, but later hyphae from 
the margin of the pileus and from the stipes grow across the 
intervening space aud form a velum partiale^ which for a time 
keeps pace with the growth of the sporophore by intercalary 
growth but is finally ruptured, part of it forming the ring on 
the stipes* In this case the sporophore is primarily gymnocarpic 
and later becomes angiocarpic; but in Collyhia velutipes it is 
truly gymnocarpic in the sense of the w^ord as used by Brefeld, 
for its hymenium is never enclosed either by a velum partiale 

or a volva. 

The development of the gills does not offer any essentially 
new points, but it may be noted that the cyistidia can be 

* Cj. Hoffmann, in de Bary's Comp. Morph. of Fungi, etc., p. 297* 
t De Earj, ibid, p, 2t)l. 



-^7 \ ' 

M ' 




distinguished from the cells of the hymenial layer at an earlj 
period, for instance in sporopliores 3 mm. high* 

The growth of the sporophore, until it reaches its full 
size, is now very rapid, but no new points o£ interest were 
brought out in investigating it. It should be remembered that 
the measurements given above are from cultures which are 
smaller tlian thoi^e grown under more natural conditions. 

In order to investigate the action of the fungus on the wood, a 
pericf=i of infected blocks were prepared at intervals of a week or 
fortnight. The first few were fixed with !Flemming^s solution, 
well washed in water, and taken through 50, 70, and 90 per 
cent, to absolute alcohol. This method was found to dissolve 
the lignin slightly from the elements at the edges of the blocks, 
and was tlierofore abandoned. Instead, the blocks were boiled 
for a short time, to fix the hyphae in sitti^ and then taken through 
the same scries of dihitions of alcohols ns before. 

On rubbing off the outer mycelium the wood was found to be 
marked with dark brown patches and lines, or, if the culture was 
an old one, it waa a uniform brown all over, but the affected 
parts were still hard and showed no signs of disintegration. To 
trace the course of the mycelium, dilute Delafield's ha^matoxylin 
and picric-aniline-blue were used as stains* Eadial sections of a 
block infected a week previously show that the oidia on the 
surface of the wood have germinated, and that the hyphse they give 
rise to have penetrated several layers of tracheids in depth into 
the wood. Possibly on account of chomotaxis they enter chiefly 
through the pitted walls of the medullary rays. If a transverse 
surface is infected they penetrate for the most part by the wide 
vessels. All stages In the germination of the oidia and the pene- 
tration of their hyphae occur in cultures of this age (PI. 3. fig, 11), 

As soon as the hyphae have formed a small mycelium in the 
vessels and tracheids, it is again broken up into oidia (PL 3. fig. 12), 
which quickly germinate, for very few are to be found in cultures a 
week older, and thus the wood is permeated by a large mycelium 
in a short time. In fact in cultures three to four weeks old it is 
difficult to find any of the wood elements free from hypha? which 
have penetrated through the pits of the walls, the medullary rays 
again serving as the easiest path into the wood-elementa (PI. 3 
fig. 13), 

Strands of shortly septate hyphae then begin to form (PL 4. fi(r, 
14), which ultimately push their way through the wood to the 

t ri 

I ' I 


p ■ 

■ 1 

surface, carrying out with tliem fragments of disintegrated 
tracheids and vessels *- These rliizomorphs are far simpler ia 
structure than those of Agaric us melhus^ for thoy consist merely 
of bundles of shortly septate hyphse, uuenelosed by any specialized 
cortical layer and without a definite growing-point. In much 
attacked parts of tlie w^ood the hyphae arc often of a rich brown 
colour, re;embling that of the sporophore ; but on carefully 
following them, the colouring is found to be restricted to small 
areas. The colour of the sporophore is not therefore due to 
this colouring-matter being directly transported to it. In the 
medullary rays the hyphae often grow to a great size. A similar 
rank development of Ijypha) is described as occurring in Polyporus 
horealis^ Fr., among other wood-destroying fungi f- 

The first noticeable action of the mycelium is to destroy the 
starch contents of the medullary rays, and it is not until the 
infections are three or four weeks old that the characteristic 
action becomes evident. The thickenin";-lavers of the tracheids 
and fibres are then seen in transverse sections to be pitted in 
many places, either as far as the first thickening-layer, or right 
tlu'ough to tlie middle lamella J (PL 4. dg, 15). In longitudinal 
sections these pits are found to be grooves corroded out by the 
action of the hypha?, which tlius leave a map of their path 
(PL4. fig. IG). It frequently happens that these grooves lead 
dii'ectly to small irregular holes in the walls of the elements, show- 
ing where the hyphse have turned to pass througli a pit \a hich has 

subsequently been enlarged. The action of the hyphse is thus a 

€/, Eiclielbaum, Bot. Cenlr. 188G, xxvi, p. 20ri, 

t Hartig, Zersetzungcrsclicinungen des HoIzl's, p, 56. 

J The view taken here with regard to the constitution of the walla of the 
wood elements is, that the middle lamella is primarily composed of celltiloae or 
poctates^ which during the process of Jigniflcation is impregnated with a substance 
or with substances known collectively as ligtiin ^ The thickening-layers consist 
of cellulose, again impregnated, but to a lesser extent, with lignin. The staining- 
reactioas for the presence of vanillin, eoniferin, and pectates failed to give any 
satisfactory results when employed during this research. 

This view i? consistent with the results given by the employment of 
Wisselingh's cellulose test ^, and with Hoffmeister's metlmd of analysis^. In 
the former the glycerine exerts a gradual solvent action on the lignin, dis- 
solving it completely from the thickening-layers, before dissolving it altogether 
from the middle lamella, 

' Cf, Tollen's Handbuch der Kohleahydrate, vol. ii. p. 270. 

^ Wisselirgh, Pringsh. Jahrb. 1898, p. 619. See also p, 158 of present paper, 

' Hoffineistor, Landwiithsohaftlichen Versuche-Stat. 1893, p. 347. 


4- ■" -. 


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I - 


E , 


MR. R, n. isirFKJ^r on the 

very local one, quite unlike the action of the liypKse of the 
Botryiis caui^ing the lily disease* for instance, which by 


I \ 


an enzyme causes the cellulose-walls in its neigh- 
bourhood to swell and dissolve- The solvent action in this case, 
apparently, is exerted directly by tlie hyphge in intimate contact 
with the cell- walls. In badly attacked wood the thickening- 
layers almost entirely disappear, leaving only a little granular 

Staining with phloroglucin and hydrochloric acid shows that 
the lignin of the middle lamelLa, and the corroded thickeniiig- 
layers still persist, even in the remains carried out by the strands 
of hyphie. The powdery debris of the thickening-layers also 
gives the deep pink coloration due to lignin. Chlor-zinc-iodine 
colours t!ie sections a bright golden yellow, except in cases where 
the blocks have been treated with Flemming's solution^ when a 
very slight cellulose reaction is sometimes given by the elements 
on the outside of the blocks. These two tests make it evidejit 
that the lignin of the wood is not destroyed. Had this been the 
case, instead of obtaining a yellow coloration throughout with 
chlor-zinc-iodine, a deep purple 'would have been produced, 
owing to the cellulose reaction being no longer masked by the 

presence of iignin. "We 


AVisselingh's method t, and thus show it is really cellulose which 
is attacked. Por this purpose sections of the infected wood are 
heated to 300° C. with glycerine in sealed tubes for an hour, and 
then mounted in chlor-zinc-iodine. 

The lignin dissolves out, 

t - 


L *. 


r f 

and the thickening-layers, showing the characteristic pitting, 
give the usual cellulose reaction. This method has the great 
advantage over the acid-extraction method, that it does not cause 
the walls to swell and obliterate their markings ; and further, by 
regulating the time of heating, the lignin may be dissolved out 
from the thickening-layers and yet leave the middle lamella 
intact, so that the sections do not fall to pieces. 

In the paper already referred to Wisselingh has succeeded in 
proving that the walls of fungi do not consist of a special form 
of cellulose known as fungus-cellulose, as it was believed until 
recently, but of chitin similar to that so frequently met with in 
the animal kingdom. On repeating his experiments with sections 

Marshall Ward, Ann. of Bot. vol. ii. 18f)8, p. 339. 
t Wisselingh, Priugsb. Jahrb. 1898, p. 619, 




of infected wood, striking results are obtained* The sections 
are heated to 160° C. with concentrated caustic potash in sealed 
tubesj then washed in 90 per cent, alcohol, and placed in a 
dilute solution of iodine in potassium iodide until deeply stained, 
when they are transferred to diluted sulphuric acid* The 
cellulo?e-walls stain a deep blue-green colour, and the chitin 
walls of the hyph^e a brilliant pink. On washing rapidly in 
w^ater the dark colouring of the cell-walls may be partially 
removed and their swelling prevented. Sharply differentiated 
prepy^^tions are obtained by this method, whicli may be utilized 


.cing the course of the hypha>(PL 4. fig. 17). 
the breaking down of the cellulose layers, bundles of 
acicular crystals of calcium oxalate are formed. They stain 
deeply w^ith ha^matoxylin, probably owing to the precipitation of 
protcid matter upon them by the action of alcohol. When 
treated with sulphuric acid, however, agranular deposit of calcium 
sulphate is left in their place, thus proA^ng that they really do 
consist of the oxalate. 

On extracting the wood with caustic potash, and so removing 
xylose-yielding substances, a peculiar change is brought about in 
the action of the fungus. Transverse sections of the infected 
wood placed in chlor-zinc-iodinc solution now give a cellulose 
reaction; the thickening-layers stain a deep purple colour 
and are swollen so as almost to obliterate the lumen, and in 
places they are wrinkled away from the middle lamella. These 
appearances are precisely the same as those given by wood 
infected with lignin-destroying fungi when so treated*. Similarly 
extracted^ uninfected wood gives no such reaction. If however 
the wood, from which xyloses have been removed, i.s treated with 
a 1 per cent, solution of cane-sugar before infection, the action 
of the hypha? is similar to that already described as normal, and 
the lignin is left unattacked. 

It would seem, then, that soluble carbohydrates are of great 
importance in the proper nutriment of the fungus, but in their 
absence it is capable of varying its usual course of action and 
usijig lignin as a substitute. If we may regard this latter sub- 
stance as aglucoside, as is often done, one might assume that in 
its decomposition glucose is produced and used by the fungus as 
a food-material. 

* MarshuU Ward, rhih Traua, vol. 189. B. (18G7), p. 123. 

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The wood extracted with dilute hydrochloric acid is attacked, 

BO far as one can determine, in the game manner as uiiextracted 

wood ; but both here and in the former ease sporophores have 

not been formed thougli the wood was infected for twelve weelis 

(May 23rd-Aug. loth). 

The growth of the sporophores on the sodden cotton-wool 
plugs is also to be explained by the presence of small quantilie^i 
of soluble carbohydrates extracted from the wood during the 
wet-&terilizing process, for it was found impossible to grow them 
on moist cotton-wool only. 

Attempts were made to extract the enzyme which, it is 
assumed, dLssolves tl.e cellulose by S2)littiiig it into soluble 
carboh)drates. Large flask-cultures w^cre grown for this purpose 
on shavings, and extracted hy grinding with sand and Avalcr, 
glycerine, sodium carbonate, or dilute hydrochloric acid. To 
these solutions a small quantity of potassium cyanide solution or 
chloroform-water was added, to check the growth of the bacteria 
which entered during tlie grinding. The filtered extracts were 
then tested W'ith thin sections of wood and young jstems, and 
with cotton-w^ool, but no difference could be detected between 
them and the boiled controls. Ilowever, the failure to isolate 
the enzyme cannot be taken as a proof of its absence, knowinor^ 
as one does, the difficulty of obtaining these bodies. 

Testing water extracts of infected wood for 

sugars with 


Pehling's solution, or with phenyl hydrazine and acetic acid, and 
sections with a-naphthol and sulphuric acid, also failed to give 
results, so that if sugars arc formed on the breaking down of the 
cellulose-walls, they are quickly changed by the action of tlie 

Another source of carbohydrate food-material is afforded by 
the glucosides so widely present in wood. Bourqueiotf has 
sliown that CoUylia velntipes contains an emulsin-like enzyme, 
which on extraction w^as found to decompose sesculin and amyfi^- 
dalin with the formation of glucoee, 

A further enzyme, an oxidase, is also stated to be present 
in the sporophores of this fungus, but until it has been 
isolated and its action macrochemically tested, it is useless to 
speculate as to its functions. 

Bourquelot, Bull, de la Sec, irijc. dc France, t. viii. p. 13. 
t Ibid, t, X. p. 49. 

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Unlike most of the large 

wood-destrojing fungi, 


owing to 

Collyhia veUtipes chiefly attacks the cellulose portions of the 
\vood-element.% leaving a lignin skeleton. Thus the infected 
wood does not appear to have undergone any profound changes 
until examined microscopically, the presence of the middle 
lamella not allowing the remains of the elements to become 
detached and so cause the wood to crumble away. In nature, 
liowever, the changes in the wood are far more complicated, 

the action of the bacteria invariably met with in 

_ I 

infected wood. It is quite within the bounds of possibility that 
the products they give rise to are utilized by the fungus itself, 
and so a kind of symbiosis (metabio^sis) established. 

My work throughout has been made con>iderably easier by 
the many suggestions of Prof. Marshall AYard, who originally 
proposed it, and I take this opportunity of expressing my thanks 
to him. 

Botanical Laboratory, Cambridge, 

Aug. 1808. 

expla:n"ation of the plates. 

Plate 2. 

Fig. 1, (rt) ForDiatioti of oidia on the eighth day after infeciion in a hanging- 
drop culture, 

{h) Oidia-chains a day older* 

2. Mature sporophore of CoUyhia velutipes, grown on a sterilized block 

of Msculus-^oo&. The age of the culture is 35 days. Photographed, 
natural size, from the original. * 

3. A series of diagrammatic sketches of sporophores produced from the 

primary sporophore, which in these cases has functioned as a 


4. A longitudinal section of the stipes of a mature sporophore showing 

the '* conducting system.'* The hyphie composing it are beginning to 

form branches, 

5. Terminations of the '* conducting system " in the subhymenium, between 

the barren cells of the hymenium, and in cystidia. 

6. A longitudinal section from the upper portion of a pileus, to show the 

layer of small external hyphic, large spindle-shaped hairs with 
yeUowish -brown contents {a), the smaller hairs arising as branche 
from the apex of a hypha {h\ and the fine much-branched, water- 
holding hairs {c). 

* Kindly photographed by Mr, W. G. P. EUis 

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Fig. 7. Section of a latnella with cystidia. 
^ 8, Early stage ia the development of a sporophore from the judimentary 

sclerotium. The large, pigraent-containiDg hairs develop early and 
often serve to distinguish the sporophore from the sclerotium. 
9, A longitudinal section of a sporophore about 2 mm. high, in which a 
cortical layer has been differentiated. The subhymenium is not 
differentiated yet. 

10. An early stage in the development of the subliymenium, also showing 
the large liairs of the recurved margin pointing towards the stipes, 
but not joined to it. The sporophore was about 5 mm. high. From 
a microtome section stained in DelatiekVs hcematoxylin. 

Plate 3 

Fig. 11. Germinating oidia, penetrating through the pitted wall of a tracheid ; 

the wood infected a week previously, 

12. Mycelium within the wood elements breaking up into oidia-chains; 
from the same preparation as iig. IL 

13. Eadial section of a block of ^^ciilus-wooA, infected four weeks 
previously. The irregular holes in the walls show where the hyphte 
have pierced the walls and then furtlier corroded them, Tlie 
rosettes of crystals are formed of bundles of calcium oxalate raphides. 

Plate 4. 

Fig. 14, Hyphae within the wood elements become shortly septale to form a 

rudimentary rhizomorph strand. 

15. Transverse section of Ji^i^culus-w ood to show various degrees in the 
destruction of the thickening-layers, from slightly corroded portions, 
appearing as pits, to almost complete solution. 

16. Longitudinal radial section of Ji!sculus-yf^ ood with the walls of the 
tracheids and medullary rays grooved and pierced by the action of 
the hyphie ; from a preparation stained in Eismarck brown. 

17. Wood treated as described with caustic potash and stained with iodine 
solution and sulphuric acid. The lignified middle lamella is yellow, 
the corroded thickening-layers, blue, and the chitin-wulls of the 
hypha^, pink. 

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Kotes on the G-entis Nanomitriumy Lindberg. By Eenest 
Stanley Salmon. (Cominunicated by J. G. BakeBj F^R.S., 


[Eeacl 2nd February, 1899.] 

(Plate 5.) 

In 1870 Austin (1) published the name Mieromitrium as a 
genus for three American Ephemeroid mosses {M. Austini, 
M, synoicum^ and M. megalosporitm)^ with the following diag- 
nosis : "Capsula globosa, immersa, tenera, apiculata vel mutica, 
clausa, vol pressa in medio horizontaliter fatiecens, brevissime 
pedicellata vel exacte sessilis. Calyptra minima, subdisciformis, 
stylidifera, arete adha>rens* PI 

ores eynoici 


Ephemera valde referentes distinctcne tamen calyptra) forma et 
minutie; infloresceutia &c," 

In 1874 Lindberg (2) pointed out that Austin's name must 
give way to the previously publislicd Mieromitrium of Spruce, 
and substituted the name Nanomitrium^ at the same time adding 
to the genus EpJwmeriim cequinoctialey Spruce, from the Amazon, 
and the European E, tenericviy Hampe, The last-named species 
is very rare, and since its original discovery by Breutel at 
JN^ieslvy, Germany, about 1837, has only occurred sporadically 
in a few places on the Continent, Mitten discovered it 
in England (Hurstpierpoint, Sussex) in 1854; and it then dis- 
appeared untillSOG, when Mr, A\r. E. Nicholson found specimens 
near Crowborough, Susses {see Journ. of Bot. 1896, p. 479), 

A few months ago Mr. Nicholson kindly sent me some fresh 
plants. On examining the capsules of these specimens oi Nano- 
mitrium tenenwi, I found that certain cells of the wall (which is 
only one layer thick at maturity) were differentiated in such a 
way that the capsule possessed a well-marked rudimentary Jid. 
The position and relative size of these differentiated cells, 
which form a complete zone round the capsule, can be best 
seen by reference to PI. 5. figs. 1 & 2, which were drawn from 
Mr. Nicholson's Sussex specimens. 

The occurrence of a rudimentary lid in Nanomitrium tenerum 
is interesting, as Philibert (5), who lately critically examined the 
five species of the genus, does not mention any such structure. 
Limpricht (6) also, in giving the characters of the Order in which 
he places Nanomitrium^ says : '^ Kapeel . • . stets ohne Andeut- 
ung eines Deckels." 




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y[n. E, s- SALMOir on the genus nanomitrium 

As it seemed just possible that the occurrence of these cells 
might be due to an individual variatioiij and not normal for the 
species, I examined original specimens collected by Breutel, in 
Schimper's Herbarium, as well an Husnot's Musci Gall. no. 801, 
and Mitten's Hurstpierpoint plants — all in the Kcw Herbarium, 
Without exception, the capsules of these specimens possessed 
the zone of differentiated cells* 

The constant presence of a rudimentary lid in N, tenerum led 
me to examine the other i^pecies of the genus, iu order to 
ascertain whether it should be considered a generic or specific 
character. The remaining species are iV". synoiciim, N. Austini^ 
N, (sg^itinoctiale^ and N. megalosporiim. In N, synoicum the 
rudimentary lid is very well defined ; and although I was not 
able to find any opened capsules, I am inclined to think that a 
complete separation of the '' lid'' takes place in nature* 

All the ripe capsules that were examined opened on the 
slightest pressure along the line of narrow cells (PI, 5, fig. 8), the 
upper part of the capsule coming away like a true lid. More- 
over, I believe that tlic narrow cells, in which the doliiscence 
occurs, are instrumental in bringing about the detachment of the 
'' lid. 

At maturity the cell- walls of this layer are extremely thin and 
slightly disorganized, so that the vertical septa are no longer 
visible (Ph 5. fig. 4). "When, on slight pressure, the capsule-wall 
ruptures, and detaches the regularly circular ^' lid/' portions of 
these very thin cell-walls of the differentiated zone are found 
attached partly to the '' lid " and partly to the mouth of the cap- 
sule. In A^. Ausfini (PL 5. fig. 5), also, we find that the capsule 
possesses the same structure. 

Philibert (5. p. 51) has mentioned the regular dehiscence of the 
capsule of A^. teuerum in the following words : " La capsule - . * 
semble plutot se dechirer sur place, quelquefois irregulierement, 
mais souvcnt aussi suivaut unc ligne circulairc qui la partage en 
deux hemispheres egaux, le superleur se separant en forme de 
calotte reguliere." 

In Austin's original generic description ('*ca])sula . . . pressa in 
medio horizontaiitcr fatiscens ") the same character is indicated, 
and the regular dehiscence has oven been figured by Sullivant (7), 
at fig. G of his plate of A^. AuslinL Tlie presence of a zone of 
specialized cells satisfactorily accounts for the regular dehiscence 
which has been observed by the different authors quoted above* 




J ^ ■■ 

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three species, iVl tenerum, JV. svnoicum, andiV^. 


are, as pointed out by Philibert (5, p. 55), closely allied, and it 
is not surprising, therefore, that the capsules of all eihibit the 
same structurOj and consequently the same regular dehiscence. 
In i\r. ajf[mnoctiale we find no signs of a rudimentary lid; the 
capsule-wall is composed of cells which show no differentiation 
in any part (fig. 6), so that this species is probably truly cleisto- 
carpous. In respect of inflorescence, also, N. (Bquinoctiale differs 
from the three species mentioned above, which arc all synoicous. 

Philibcrt (5, p, 57), in his account of N, (^quinoctiale^ says : 
'* Dans toutes Ics plantes fructiferes que j*ai observ^es je n'ai 
jamais trouve que des archcgones sans aucun melange d'anthe- 
ridies ; et d'un autre cote j'ai observe unc plante male, naissant 
isolee sur le protonema . . . Cette espece serait done dioi'que." 

Mitten (8), in the original description of the species, thus 
described tlie male inflorescence: "Fios masculus e stolonibus 
confervoideis foomineo connexis oriundus, vel in ramulo brevi 

In the Kew specimens of W, wciuinoeiiale (Musci Amaz. et 
And. 443) the inflorescence occurs in two distinct forms — (1) 
dioicousj the male plant, formed of five or six leaves, enclosing a 
few antheridia, springing from the protonema near a female 
plant (fig. 7) ; (2) autoicous, the male branch arising laterally 
from the female stem, just below the pcricbaetium (fig. 9). So 
far as I have been able to observe in the rather limited material, 
the two forms of inflorescence occur in about equal numbers. 

The male plants that I have ween have always sprung from the 
protonema, and were not attached by radicles to the feaiale plant 
(rhizautoieous), so that A^. c^qutnoctiale is apparently truly 
polyoicous (autoicous + dioicous). The cells of the capsule of 
N. {Bquinoctiale are firmer than those of the tliree species 
mentioned above, and the prominent apiculus suggests rather 


I was not able to find any calyptrse, although a few young 
capsules were scon. 

This again poiuts to Ephemernm^ as iti this genus the calyptra 
is frequently fugitive; whilst in Nanomitrium tenertun^Sijnoicum^ 

and Austini the capsules up to maturity are surmounted by 
the minute, closely appressed calyptra. Mitten (8) gives for 
N', (Bquinoctiale simply the description: "calyptra archegonio 
styliformi elongate." Pbilibert docs not describe the calyptra* 

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There remains, now, only iV. megalosporum to be considered. 
Here, also, there is no trace of a rudimentary lid (fig. 10). 
Moreover, from the study o£ authentic specimens (Musci 
Appal. 47), I have come to the conclusion that this species does 
not belong to I^anomitrium. 

Philibert (5* p. 50) remarks that in this species an approach is 
made in the leaf-areolation towards JEjyhemerum, but considers the 

plant to be a true Nanomitrium for the following reasons : — " La 
structure du fruit est bien celle du genre Naiiomitrium. La calyp- 
tra est reduite au style, auquel adherent quelquefois deux ou trois 
petits lambeaux irreguliers ; la capsule est tout a fait sphcrique, 
. . < sa surface supericure est arrondie ou un pen deprimee, sans 
aucune trace de pointe . . . L'enveloppe capsulaire * * . est toujours 
formce . . .d'une seule couchc de cellules hexagouales, . .11 n'y 
a point en realite de sporange ni de columcUe ; et cette espcce 
reste toujours bien scparee par la du genre Ephemerum^ dont 
elle s'cloigne d'aillcurs par sa capsule uniformement arrondie, 
par Tabsence des stomates, par Fimperfection de sa coiffe, et par 
son inflorescence synoVque." My observations do not confirm, 
in the most important points, those of Philibert's. 

In the first place, these sj^ccimens showed stomata on the 
capsule. The stomata, although few in number, appear to be 
always present ; they occur on the upper half of the capsule 
(figs. 10 & 11), and arc exactly similar to those found in 
JEpTiemerum, e. g. E. serrahm, Hampe. The capsule-wall con- 
sists of more than one layer of cells, and the sporc~sac is easy 
to observe in almost ripe capsules. I consider, therefore, 
that this species should be called Ephemeritm megaJosporum, 

I was not able to see the calyptra* Philibert, as we have seen, 
considers it right for the genua Wanomitrmm; but on the other 
hand Sullivant (7. fig. 7 of pi. si.) figures it as certainly better 
developed than in tenerum^ synoicum, and Austinu If tlie plant 
IS allowed to be an Ephe^nerum^ we must regard it, by reason of 
the rounded capsule and rudimentary calyptra, as a connecting 
link with Nanomitrium. 



(1), in founding the genus, relied on the calyptra and inflorescence. 
Lindberg (2) remarked : '' Ex Ephcmero . . , distinguitur his 
notis maximi momenti : foliis laxis et difficile emollitis, canalicu- 

latis, superne interdum latioribus, obtuse serratis, omnino enerv- 
ibus, sedificatis a cellulis conformibus, Isevissimis et duplicem 

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lineam circumscribentem lial)entibus idebqne baud incrassatis, 
infloresceatia par-syuoica, theca maxime leptodermi, fere sine 
vestigio ullo rostelli, calyptra apici tliecse arete adhsereote, 
minima et brevisyima, ut fere ad stylum solum reducta," 

Pbilibert (5. p. 52), as the result of a critical examination of 
the genus, concluded that ^' La difference essentielle entre ces 
deux genres [_Ephe}nerwn and Nanomitrimii] parait done consister 
en ce que les especes qui apparticnneut au premier ont toujours 
un aporange distinct, tandig que celles du genre Nanomitrium en 
sent depourvues '' ; also remarking {he, €11.-^.57): "Le genre 
Nanomitrium^ quoique bicn distinct du genre EpUemerum parja 
structure du sporogone, n'en scrait pas cependant separe par des 
limites aussi tranchces que le supposait Lindberg : d'uncote le 
N. megalosporum se rapproclie des Ephemera par le tiasu dcs 
feuilles et la grosseur des spores, et d'un autre cote le N. cequi- 
noctiale s'en rapprocherait par rinflorescence," 

Limpricht (6. p. IGO), iu his key, separates Ephemerutn from 
Nanomitrium by the presence of stomata on the capsule of the 
species belongiug to the firat genus ; also remarking on Nanomi- 
triipn (loc, cif,p, 162), " zur Eeifezelt Columclhi und Sporensack 
vo lli^ remrhirV ; and on Ephevieruni {Ioc.cif.i% 16-1)/' Columella 
innerhalb de^ Sporensackes resorbirt, Sporensack bleibend und an 
beiden Polen mit kurzen Siiulchen, den Eesten dcr Columella, die 
den zur Reifezeit noch yorhandenen Luftraum durchsetzen." 

iV^. megalosporum shows the artificiality of the two genera ay at 
present defined, for in this species the capsule has the shape, and 
perhaps the calyptra, of Naiiomitriuvt^ while its structure is that 
of Epliemenim. 

I would propose that the genus Nanomitrium^ as we now know 
it, be restricted to N. teneram^ N. synoicitm^ and N. Austiniy and 
that the essential character separating it from Ephemerum 
be the presence of a strongly leptodermous capsule (with 
a wall at maturity formed of only a single layer of cells), 
possessing a rudimentary lid, as shown by the occurrence of 
differentiated cells, by which a regular dehiscence is effected. 
iV. megalosporum must be transferred to Ephemerum, and probably 
iV. arptinocUale also, although more observations are desirable to 
settle this last point, 

There remains to be considered the systematic position of the 
two genera, and some of the facts mentioned above helj), I think, 
to decide this question. 

Limpricht, in his admirable *^Die Laubmoose/' has unfortu- 

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stets oLne 


nately kept up the unnatural Tribe Cleistocarpm in his classiiica- 
tiou. Nanomitrium and EpJtemerum are placed therein the Order 
Ephemeracece ; the former will now have to be removed, as the 
Order is characterized by possessing a capsule 
Andeutung eines Deckels. 

It is even doubtful if Limpricht can include Nanomitrium in 
tlie CleistocarpcjB at all, as this author expressly states as the 
most important character of the Clcisfocarpce^ '' dasa die . . . 
Kapsel eich niemals mittelst eines Deckels offnet, aucb AVcnn 
dieser der Anlage nach vorliaiiden iwt." 

But we can safely, I think, put aside the idea that either 
Nano7nitrium or Ephemertim will find a permanent place in the 
Cleistocarpw ; for the mainteninice of this tribe leads to the 
obviously unnatural separation of such genera as Pliysco- 
mitrium and FhyscomitreUa. AYe need consider, therefort^.^ only 
those schemes of classification in which cleistocarpous genera 
are considered as being composed of degraded or simpler forms 
belonging to various stegocarpous Orders. Nanoviitrium has 
already been w^ell placed by Lindberg (2) in the Funariacecc. 

The possession of a rudimentary lid further justifies the 

position of this genus in an Order in ^\■hich stegocarpous genera 

occur, and tends to give it a place near Physcomitrella^ as in 

that genus (which has been generally regarded as cleistocarpous) 

Mrs. Brition (9) has lately recorded a regular dehiscence of 

the capsule. 

From the preceding remarks it is clear that Mphemerum and 

Nanoviitrium are too closely allied to be separated in different 
Orders. This has been felt by many authors, Limpricht, for 
instance, includes both in Epheme^'acea? ; Paris, in his 'Index 
Bryologicus ' (10) has even sunk Nanomitrium in EpJiemermn. 

Lindberg wavered as to the proper systematic position oi EpJie- 
merum. At first (3) this author placed it in the section Funariecs of 
Funariaeece^ but later (2. p. 410) wrote: — '^ Ephemerumylx inter 
Funariaceas est collocandum, sed potius inter Pottiaceas in serie 
Tortuleanmi (?)"; and finally, in the classical ' Musci Scandi- 
navici ' (4), we find Ephemerum placed ia the Tortidacece and 
associated wath Barhula. 

Braithwaite (11) has followed Lindberg as regards the placin 
of Ephemerum in Tortitlaeece^ but considers that its aflBnity 
appears to be greatest with the genus Phascuniy "both in the 
calyptra and areolation/* 


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DixoD, on the other hand, places Ephemerum in the Funariace^B, 
for, it appears to ine, very convincing reasons. This anthor says 
(12) : *' I have united Ephemerum with tlie FtmariaceWy as despite 
their near resemblance to Acaulon they appear to be quite as 
closely related, through Physcomitrella, with that Order, and the 
areolation is rather Funarioid than Pottioid." Also on page 208 : 
'' The plants composing this and the last genus [JVanomifrium and 
Ephemerum] are connected with the liigher Eunariacem thronjjh 
Ph/scomitrella and PhyscomHrium.'^ 

We may now, I think, look upon Nanomiirium as securely 
placed in the Funariacece^ and at the same time must consider 
that Ephemerum is linked, through the intermediate E, viegalo- 
spormn, to the same Order. 

i\^o/^, — Since wriling the above, I have seen the last part of 
Goebers * Organographie dor Pflanzen' (2 Th. 1 Heft, 1898), and 
find that the capsule of Nanomitriitm tenerum has been recently 
investigated by this author, with the special object of ascertaining!^ 
if a columella is present- 

Goebel has found that a columella exists in the earlier stages 
of the development of the capsule^ but that^ when the capsule is 
ripe, the columella, together with all tlie cells of the amphithecium 
except the external layer, becomes absorbed. Also, what is 
specially interesting, the presence of the differentiated cells of 
the capsule-wall, above referred to, is clearly indicated. 

In the figure of the longitudinal section of the ripe capsule 
{loc, cit, fig. 2'>3) two very small cells are shown, which are 
described in the explanation of the figure as the anuulus. 

[An earlier account of Groebers investigations on N, tenerum 
appears in Flora, Bd. Ixxx. p. 403 (1895). Here a figure is 
given of the capsule, showing the zone of diiferentiated cells^ 
which is described as the annulus, and the following remarks 
are made: — ^^ Nanomitrkim besitzt indess einen Deckel und 
einen " Eing '' in der einschichtigen S[jorogonwand. . . , An einer 
Anzahl reifer Kapseln war der Deckel an der Ringstelle (die 
wie Pig. 3 zeigt, durch niedrigere Zcllen gekennzeichnet i.^t) 


gelegentlicb mag auch der Eing 


sich ausbilden und dann die Kapselwand bei der Reife uuregel- 
miissig zerrcissen." The other points of my paper are not 
touched upon.— E. S. S., February 21st, 1899.] 

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Of vera, at 

Musci AppalacTiiani, p. 10 (1870). 

(2) LiNDBEEa, S. 0. — " Manipulus muscorum secundus," 

p. 408. Notis. Siillsk. "P. et Fl. Fenn. Eiirh. xiii. (Nj 

serie x.) (1874). 

(3) Idem. — " Uppstiillning af fam. Funariacete. 

K. Vet.-Akad. Fiirb. xsi. p. 591 (1865). 

(4) Idem. — Musci Scandinavici, &c. p. 22 (1879). 

(5) Philibeet, H.— -" Sur le genre Kanomitrium (Lindberg)." 

Kev. Bry. 1898, p. 19. 
(6 LiMPEiCHT, K. G.— " Die Laubmoose," in Eabenh. Krypt.- 

Flor., i. Abth. p. 161 (1885). 


■IconesMnseorum, Supplement (1874). 

(8) MlTTEN,W. 


.Tourn. I-inn. 

Soc. (Bot.) xii. (1809). 

(9) Brittox, E. G-.— Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, xxii. p. 02 (1895). 

(10) Paris, E. G-.— " Index Bryologicus." Act. Soc. Linn. Bor- 

deaux, vol. 1. 1. 10. p. 134 (1896). 

(11) Beaithwaite, E. 


(12) Dixox, H. N. 




Fig. 1. Nanomitrimn tenerum, capsule sliowing zone of differentiated cells, 

X 150. 

2. N. tenerum, apex of capsule, X 255. 

3. N. symicum, capsule dehiscing along the line of the different iated cells, 

X 150. 

4. iV. synoicxim, part of wall of a ripe capsule at line of dehiscence, 

X 255. 

5. N. Austini, capsule dehiscing as in fig. 3, X 150. 

6. N. t£ quill oct idle, capsule, X 150. 




male plant, seated on tlie protonema, X G8, 

8. Antberidium of same, X 150. 

9. N, cpquinodiale , autoicous form of mflorescence, X 150. 

10. N. rnegalospoTiim, capsule opening irregularly on pressure; st^, stoma; 

«p,, spore-sac, X 68. 

11. Stoma of same, X 400. 

T^- 'i- 


Salmon . 




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I. The Botanical Eesults of a Journey into the Interior 

of Western Australia. By SPE]!fCEE Le Marchanx 

MooBE, B.Sc., RL.S 171 

II. On the Production of Apospory by Environment in 

Atliyrium Mli^-fosmina, var. unco-glomeratum, an 
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M.B. (Communicated by C. T. Drueet, E.L.S.).. 262 

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The Botanical Ecsults oE a Journey into the Interior of Western 
Au3tralia^,; witli some Observations on tlie Xiiturc and Eola- 
tions .or the Desert Flora. By Spencek Le Marcuant 
MooRE, B,Sc-, F.L.S. 

[Read 17tb Noveinbcr, 1898.] 

Our expedition landed at King Grcorge's Sound in tlie middle of 
Dcucnibcr, 189 Jj, During tlie few hourd intervening between the 
liner' :3 arrival and the departure of our train for Perthjl rambled 
about in the neighbourhood of Albany, admiring tlie astonishing 
variety in its vegetation for which this corner of Australia is 
so celebrated. True, indeed, it was late in the seasoUjand muci 
of the flowering was already over; yet even then it would have 
been easy, at the co&t of a few hours' diligent labour, to make a 
collection by no means insignificant, had such a course, in view of 
the tliorough exploration of previous travellers, been deemed for 
any reason desirable. Beyond the granite hills of Albany lies a 
wide stretch of low marshy land which might still be worth a 
botanist's attention ; but one soon pa>;iOS this and enters the 
''bash" — a type of country extending, with more or less vari- 
ation, till the Diirliug ranges are reached. In spite of the large 
grants of Crown land made over to the Railway Company*, and 
the inducements held forth to settlers in the districts traversed 

by the Line, development in this part of the Colony has not 

proceeded apace, and not till you arrive at Katanning arc there 
many signs of agricultural enterprise. Here, however, as at 
Beverley and especially at York, the farmer is more in evidence. 
But, unless the summer of ISOi was exceptional — happily I 
believe this to have been the case — he must have many diflicultics 
to contend against. Loiterers at the wayside stations had doleful 
stories to tell of the drought — >tories too often confirmed up to 
the hilt as we passed through splendid-looking country so cruelly ' 
parched that the sight of it was enough to make one's heart ache. 

But all this was changed in 

the Darling range?^, where the 

numerous wood-cutting settlements imparted a welcome tone of 
prosperity to tlie scene. 

As we travelled up to Southern Cross from Perth, night soon 

hid the country from our idew, and not until we were near our 

'^ This railway, together with the land-concessions enjoyed by it, liaa been 
recently purchased by the West Australian Government, 




, -ft- ■ '•"' ■ "• 



destination did the daybreak restore it. We had traversed the 
Jarrah forest-region the cvciiiug before, and were now passing 
over red soil through well-wooded country of which tbe vegeta- 
tion consisted, in its main feature, of gum-trccs *, much lower in 
stature and sparser in habit than the giants of tiie Jarrah region. 
When, a few days afterwards, we started from Southern Cross 
with a small camel-train for Siberia, situated some 120 miles in a 
north-OiKsterly direction, the gum-trees were left behind a few 
miles out of Southern Cros?, and we entered a broad stretch of 
country thickly covered with shrubby vegetation, while tlie soil 
had cbanged from red to white or yellow, an indication of under- 
lying granite rocks. This shrub-bearing region with pale soil 
extends to Siberia, except for some intervening treed belts with 
red soil and some salt lakes and " salt-bush " flats. At intervals 
along the route one pat^ses large granite outcrcpp, where alone 
water is to be had, if at all. The drought was very severe when 
we passed through, and wo began to be seriously apprehensive 
of disaster; but, thanks to a timely thunderstorm, our journey 
was performed without further difficulty. In coming down by 
railway from Coolgardie more than eighteen months afterw^ards, 
I passed through the same wide belt of shrubbed land, of which 
the chief characteristic is the abundance of Myrtacea) belonging, 
for the most part, to the tribe Chama-lauciea;. Among t!ie few 
plants secured in this part of the journey may be mentioned 

Mariantlius Uneatus, F. MuelL, Casaia artemisioides, Gaudich., 
ZouJonia aurea, F. Mnell,, Kunzea sericea, Turcz., Olearia ramu- 
losa, Bentb., and the new species Vhylhta JycopoJioides, Acacia 
sibirica, and HelicJirysum puteale. One of tie most striking 
features about the vegetation of the West Australian desert, or 
at least of those ])arts of it visiterJ by me, is the absence of the 
well-known " Black-Boy " (Xanlhorrloea Freiuii, Endl.) : except 
for a narrow beH between Southern Cross and Siberia, wljcre a 
few diminutive indi\iduals, probably of this species, were seen, 
and a similar belt up counlry between Tilgangie and Uladdie, 
this plant, so abundant nearer the coast, w^as not met with ea^t 
of Southern Cross. 

From Siberia we made our way, via Goongarrie or Ninety 
Mi!e, to Mount Margaret. The country between Siberia and 
G-oongarrie is similar to that at Southern Cross, the soil beii 

These guin-ti-ees appear to be Eucalyptus sahnonophloia , E. rcdunca, <tc. 


*TJ1 - 



red, ^\'hne gum-trees are the most prominent element in the 

vegetation — it is, in short, an auriferous zone. But no sooner 

is the salt lake at Goongirrie crossed, than an entire change 

take.s place in the vegetation. From this point omvard gum- 

tree5 are few in number, and for the moi>t part restricted to the 

banks of crcek^^, and their place is taken by " Mulga" (Acacia), 

by Eremophilas^j Proteacea?, Casiiarinas, Sea. The general hue 

of this vci^etatioii is a dark olive-;]:reen, and this renders the 

scene dreary to a degree. There is, however, one alleviation, 

inasmuch as the brlglit groe:\ foliage of t'lat beautiful tree, the 

Currajong (Sieraj^Ua dlversifolia^ Gr. Don), rare and seldom seen 

further west, often refre.ilies the traveller's eye in this back 

country* Goongarrle is situated close to tlie thirtieth ])arallLd of 

South latitude : and as the chano^e in the veiretation is here so 

abrupt, I liave, as will afterwards be shown in more detail, 

assumed tliis parallel as m:irking the divisio:i between two floras. 

Whether the line should run due cast and west is a moot point 
its trend is probably nort!i-west or nortli-north-west. I find, 

however, by proceeding on the just-mentioned assumption and 
comparing all available records, a considerable percentage of the 
platits found to the south of the thirtieth parallel are different, 
specifically or gcnerically — generally the former — from those 
havingtheirliabitat north ofit. Theprimary difference between the 
two region:^, the rarity of gum-trees in the one atid their abundance 
in the other, is a fact well known to mining men, one of the most 
serious drawbacks to mining enterprise in the northern districts 
being the scarcity of suitable timber, w^hiie its abundance south 
of the thirtieth parallel, as at Soutliern Cross, Coolgardie, 
Kalgoorlie, and other centres, is a fact well known to all 

From Mount Margaret a short expedition was made to " the 
table-topped mountain," a low elevation a few miles to the north- 
east, which has by some, apparently in error, been identified 
Mith the hill called by Sir John Forrest, Mount Weld. The 
camp was then fixed at the Hawk's Nest, situated at the foot of a 
diorite range of low elevation, the scene of a then almost deserted 

* Tills (lifT^^rence between the nearer and more distant parts of the desert 
was first broiiglit to my notice by Sir John Forrest in an interview I hud with 
him before leaving for the Interior. I mention this for the purpose of em[>ha- 
sizing a fact which had evidently impressed itself deeply, during the early 
pioneering days when he first won hi:^ spurSj upon the mind of a man who 
himself makes no special claim to being a botanist* 



»TJT.m.^i»-,' TT^^^-" '_, y -jirm 

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mining encampment Prom tins place, I, accompanied by our 
Afghan and the camels, made for Coolgardie via Yilgangie and 
UJaddie, with the object of procuring a fresh supply of food. 
On my return to the Hawk's Nest, w^e started for the diggings 
near Lake Darlot ; but tlie country being very dry, we remained 
a few' days camped at Mackenzie's well, fourteen miles north- 
east of Mount Margaret, as a long waterless stage intervened 
between us and our destination. A timely storm enabled us to 
push forw^ard, and, passing the Darlot diggings, w^e crossed the 
salt lake Darlot, and made for some high granite rocks fourteen 
miles to tlie northward, where there was an abundant supply of 
water. At that time provisions at Darlot were at famine prices, 
and we consequently found ourselves forced to relinquish our 
intention of travelling further north; and, making a track through 
the bush, we returned to our main encampment at Mackenzie's 
well. Prom here the whole party set out along the Darlot 
road, with the object of camping at a creek w here there w^as 
plenty of w^ater ; and it was during a stay of three wrecks at this 
last camp, while some of the party were away on a distant expe- 
dition, tliat I was able to do a little collecting. Here I found 
inter alia the pretty little lonidium florihundum, AYalp., in sotre 
plenty ; also AhutiJon Fraseri, Hook., and its var. parvi/lora^ 
Eenth., BodoncdafiUfoUa, Hook., Acacia aneura, Benth., Micro- 
wyrtus imbricaia, E. Br., Cantliium latifoliiim, F. Muelh, Pluchea 
Beniex, E. Br-, EremopJiila leucophylla, Benth., and E, latifolia^ 
F. MuelL, and a curious dw^arf variety (var. rositlata, nob.) of 
Isicotiana suaveolens, Lehm., &c. Nor w^as 1 unsuccessful in the 
search fur new^ species, e. g., Eremopldla metallicorumy llemigenia 
exilis^ ?nd the pretty rose-flowered Velleia rosea, 

We had been five months on our travels, and our stock of 
provisions getting low, our faces were turned to the south. 
Travelling by way of Doyle's well, Mount George, and Gruon- 
garrle, we arrived at Coolgardie on June 27th, and after a short 
delay there, fixed our camp at Gibraltar, sixteen miles south- 
west of the mining capitah It was now the depth of wintf^r; 
the days were cool and the nights intensely cold, A C(msiderable 
quantity of rain had fallen, and herbaceous vegetation showed 
itself in fair abundance, and as spring approached the desert began 
to wear quite a pleasing appearance. Grasses threw^ up their 
haulms, and lowly Crucifers and Umbellifers, Calandriiiias, Zygo- 
phyllums, Erodiums, Droseras, Goodenias {Qoodenia heterophylla 

^ . 


i . - 



and Goodenia mimuloides^ tlic latter new), Amarantliacea&j &c,, 
came into flower But the chiet'lionours of this spring vegetation 
are won by lowly Compositae of the tribe Helichy&ese- Some of 
these cover large spaces of ground literally in sheets — now yellow 
(Waitzia corymhosa^ Wendh, llelipferum Ilaigldi^ F. MuelK), 
now white (Jlellpferum ruhdlum, Bt'iith., and Fitzgihhoni^ F. 
MuelL, Cephalipterinn Drummondil, A, Gray) or pink (Schoenia 
Cassiniana, Steeiz) ; while in the neiglibourhood of granite out- 
crops the white or pink llcJiptcrum Manglesii^ F. Muelh, and the 
jel\o\y Fodolepis pallida^ Turcz,, and HeUchrnsumsemipappostim^ 
DC, are conspicuous at this time of year. Thia wealth of 
colour is, however^ of but short duration ; daily the sun mounts 
higher in the lieavens and all lowly vegetation dries up and 
vatii^hes, so tliat by the end of October the ground has become 
bare as a monk's tonsure, and you wonder how anything herba- 
ceous could have contrived to exist there* 

One point has been left unnoticed, namely, the occurrence of 

the so-called '^Spinifex " {Triodia irritans^ E. Br.)- This is not 
met ^vith in any quantity south of Mount Margaret, but further 
north one passes j^tretclies o£ country of which it is a prominent 
feature, 1 saw^ nothing suggestive of the term '* spinifex desert " 
which one finds printed on the maps ; for after, at most, a few 
miles of '^ spinifex,*' the " bush'^ reappears. What there may 
be still further north and north-east, of course I cannot say ; 
but there seem to be grounds for doubting whether any very 
large and continuous arta of which the '' 


ifex " 


ehiiracteristic plant exists in the interior of the Colony, Never- 
theless, its i'requency in the north, w^hen we bear in mind the 
comparative rarity of its occurrence south of the thirtieth 
parallel, is a matter worthy of remark- 
It has already been stated that spring is the time of flowering 
for the herbaceous vegetation, and to a large exteat this is true 
of the shrubs and trees also. Some of the latter, however, put 
forth their flowers at other times of the year ; while a few, such 
as the Quandong and Sccsvola spinescens^ K. Br., will flower 
almost the whole year round. In the moister coast-regloti, 
likewise, most of the plants are spring or early summer flovverers *", 

* In his ossay on the Auatrallaa Flora (Flora of Tasmania, Introd. E^saj, 
p. xxis), Sir Joseph Hooker combats the thoa prevalent idea that the vegetation 
of the island-continent is entirely without analogy in other parts of the world. 
Among other arguments advanced lii support of his contention, we find it 

* -iC- 



and for tlie ol)vious rca?on that the summer and autumn are very 
Lot and the air so dry that flowers are then liable to become 
des'ecated. The flowering of plants is also dependent upon the 
chance of rain. I was particularly struck with this fact when 
far up country, upon coming into some district recently vi^iited 
hy a storm, and finding the shrubs in flower there, while in 
neighbouring districts not so favoured — the storms are usually 
local, often extremely so — flowers wore not to be seen. Curious, 
toOj is the paucity of the flowers, and the rapidity with which 
they dry up, often, to aU appearance, before pollination has beea 
cfTccted- But this is only one sign of the dc^^perate struggle for 
existence which these tenants of the desert soliiudes are forced to 
maintain. Trees and shrubs quite or all but dead are frequent; 
and it is no exaggeration to say that in some diistrict?^, "where rain 
lias not fallen for a considerable time, fully fifty per cent, of the 
vegetation may be on the verge of destruction. This remark 
a])[)lies chiefly to the country north of the thirtieth parallel; 
bouth of that line the gum-trees, ever, fresh, no matter how long 
the drought may have lasted, give an entirely different appearance 
to the scene. 

Go where you will^ the quantity of vegctaftion is simply mar- 
vellous, when one bears in mind the extreinely small rainfall. 
Q']ie best way to obtain a clear idea of this is to climh a low hill, 
or one of the " gnamma " rocks so frequently met with. From 
$uch a point of view the clearness of the atmosphere cnahlcs tlie 
eye to range over long distances, and one gets the impression of 

a den>ely aflbrested country, variegated he:e and theie, perhaps, 
by a glistening salt lake, with perhaps a *' salt-bush" flat in the 
ibreground. Admiring such a scene as this, I thought of the 
Matto G rosso '^ cerrados," which have nothing like so much 
shrubhy and arhoreous vegetation, and scarcely so high an 
average summer teinperature, though tlie quantity of rain which 
fails upon them is ten times as great. This wonderful adapta- 
tion of Australian plants to an extreme climate I shall again refer 
to later on. 

avLrred that in j\u£rlrana, as elst^Lere, a eoinirion order of flowering prevails, 

the Orcliidea putting fortli their bloPSome in spring, the Loguniino?te in Kunnner, 

aiitl llieConipositse in autumn, Wiether, supposing the order of flowering to 

be as statt'd, the arguiuent has any -value, may be a matter of opinion ; tiie 

]^oint to euip]iasize here is that, as applicable to the "West Aubtraltan flora, the 
statement ie scarcely borne out by facts. 



I projiose to give first a list of the plants collected by myself* 
Tlien wiJI follow btatisstics of the Desert flora obtained from all 
available sources. Xerophily and hooioplasy will next be briefly 
referred to ; and after tbis some remarks will be made on the 
distribution of Desert plants in relation to the ^oil. 

The fir:3t set of the plants, it may be added, i^ at the British 
Musoum. The second and third sets have been sent to Columbia 
College, New York, and the Kew Herbarium respectively. 

litST OF PLANrs collected in the Wesi Auslraltan Interior ; 

with descriptions of the new species. 




BLEN'is^onrA BREVLrESj F, MaelL Near Coolgardie, August 
I'lowers white. 

B. CA'RnAMiis'oiDES, F, MuclL^ var. microcarpa, nol^ Near 

Coolgardie, August. A small form only 8 cm, high^ with short 
pods not exceeding G mm. in length. Flowers yellow, 

Altssum LiNiFOLiUMj Stfph. EuviroQS of Coolgardie, August. 

Stenopetalum bobustum, FndL A common little herb in 
Bpringtime at Gibraltar near Coolgardie. Flowers brown-yellow, 

S. spnjEROCARruM, F, MuelL Near Coolgardie. August* 

S, Li^s^EAKE, B. Br. Near Coolgardie, August. 

Menkea coolgardiensis,^. Moore^inJourn> Boi, xxxw (1897) 
p. 1G2. Near Coolgardie, August. 

Lepidium papillosvm, F, MuelL Near Coolgardie, August. 

A small form, only 5-10 cm. high. 

L. EUDEKALE, Liun. Ncar Coolgardie, August. 

Kapitakus satitus, Zi?2n, Bullabulling rocks, September. 

Almost certainly introduced by teamsters. 

tt ^ ■:?■■■.*■ l-^ 

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loNiDiUM FLOEiBUNDUMj Walp, Between Wilson's creek 
and Lake Darlot and elsewliere in that district, April and May. 
Between Coolgardie and Gibraltar, August. A pretty little sub- 
shrub not infrequently met with, 2 feet or so high. Plowers 
much like those of Viola tricolor^ bat smaller. 


Salt-bush plain ?outh of Doyle^s well, June (flowers and fruit). 
Pruits smaller than those of type, oblong-ovoid not flattened, 
and with only 1-4 seeds- A small tree or tall shrub up to 
12 feet or so high, the branches weeping. 

MAETAjfTiius LTNEATUS, F. MuclL Between Southern Cross 
and Siberia soak, January (flowers and fruit). An erect shrub 
about 2^ feet high. Flow^ers yellowish white, with chocolate 
stripes. Capsules relatively larger and narroAver than those of 
the type. 

In the report of the Elder Expedition this plant is alluded to 
as a twiner. 


Peankejvta PAiTCTFLOEA, BC. Gibraltar, September. 

subshrub with pink flowers. 



SiLENE Gallica, Linu, Bullabulling, September. A well 
established alien, 

Deymaetafiltfohmts, Benth, Near Coolgardie, August. A 
rather common little herb in springtime. 


CALAis-DErNrA PYQ^T^A, F, MuelL Bullabulling, September. 

C, CALYPTEATA, IIooTc. f. Near Coolgardie, August. Here a 
small, indeed usually minute, herb. 


IItpertcum japonicum, Thunl. Donkey rock?, between Goon- 
garrie and Mt. Margiret, June. 

r I 




Layatera plebeta, Shns, Between Uladdie soak and Yii- 
gangio elaypans, March, Near Coolgardic, August 

The Ccolgardie specimens arc remarkably small, only 10-12 cm. 
high, and proportionately diminished all round. 

Malva paetiflora, Linn, Bullabulling, September. An 
undoubted introduction. 

Flagtakthus repens, ap. nov. SufFruticosa, repens, ])ubes- 
cens, foliis paiyis longipetiohitia rotundato-ovatis vel suborbi- 
cularibus rariui? ovatis pleriaque iiia^qualitcr 5-lobulatiy, iloribua 
parvis axillaribus solitariis vel breviter racemosis subsessilibu;^ 
hermapbroditisj calyce tubuloso 5-lobato, pctalis calycctn sub- 
sequantibus vel paullo excedentibus, staminibus 10, ovarii loculis 
5, stylis filifbrmibus stamina superantibua. 

Hab. Crtscitjuxta Gibraltar, mens. Oct. florens et fructificans. 

Caules sat validi, crcbro ramosi, aubtus demum puberuli. 
Foliorum lamina 0'5-l"0 cm. long, et lat.^ basi truncata vel 
obtusa; lobi circa 0'15 ciu. long., deltoidei, oblusi ; petioli usque 
ad 0'8 cm, long,, plerumque vcro breviores; stipulse linearc?', 0"25 
cm. long. Calyx 0'45 cm. long,, circa 0*5 cm, diam.j 5-angulalus ; 
lobi ejus deltoidei, obtusi, Petala late oblonga, obtusis^im^j. 
Ovarium glabrum. StyJi elongati, deorsum geniculati. Car- 
pella matura 5, calyce iuclusa, puberula, apice subito elevata 
ibique obtusa. Semina atia, acrobiculata, 0'13 cm. long. 

This is evidently closely allied to P, diffusus^ Benth, The cbief 
points of difference are the indumentum, the subscssilc herma- 
phrodite flowers, and the invariable decandry. 

SiDA PLTROPUILA, F. MiielL "Wilson's patch bet^Yeen Mount 
Margaret and Lake Darlot, May. Plain south of Doyle's well, 
June- A small subshrub, 2-3 feet high. Plowers yellow. 




Near Ccolgardie, August. A small yellov\^- 

flowered subshrub. 

The apcciniens, which are in early flower, have the general 

appearauce of S. calyxliymenia^ J. Gay, the calyx of which is 

strongly accrescent, whereas that of iS. petropJdla^ P. Muell., 

Avhicb the present plant also resembles, is scarcely so at all. 

Por this reason I am unable to definitely name the specimens- 

■ n 

I- '1 



Abutilon- CRTPTOPETALUif, F, Muell. Iseax Siberia soak, 

January. A lowlj erect subshrub, about 18 inches bigli, 
sparingly branched. Plowers pale yellow. 

A. FEjiSEEi, Hook. Between Mackenzie's well and Lake 
Darlot, April. A small yellow-flowered subshrub. 

A. Pkaseri, 7/oo/t., var. PAiiTlFLOEA, 56;?/7i. Wilson's patch, 
between Mount Margaret and Lake Darlot, May. Flowers 
3 ellow, then white. 

Hibiscus KiiiCHAUPriANUs, F. Muell Between Pendionie 
soak and Mt. Margaret, March. Subshrub, a foot high. Flowers 
pale purple. 


Steiiculta ditersifolia, G. Don. (Brachvchitou Gre^orli, 
i. 3IuelL), This, tlie Kurra^ong tree, is tolerably abundant in 
various district^^ of the Interior, especially norUi of Goongarrie. 
It is much rarer in the neighbourhood of Coolgardie ; thus, 
during all the months I was at Gribraltar,but one was seen there, 
and none elsewhere except at Bullabulling, where there are a 
few close to the rockg. 

EuLiNGiA coACTA, sp. no7. Saffrutox, caulibus et foliis et 
alabastris molliter villosulo-tomentosis, foliis snbsessilibus lineari- 
oblongis obtusissimid crenatis bullnlatis deinde planis, stipuhs 
seiaceis integris villosulis, cymis tnbsessilibus oppositifoliis ter- 
minalibusve pluriflorifci congeatis quam folia brevioribus, alabastris 
pentagouis obtu^i^s, calycis lobis oblongo-ovatis obtusissimis, 
p^talis parvis quam sepala multo brevioribas basi planis vel 
leviter concayis revolutisve, ligula parva vel vix vel omnino 
obsolcta, staminibus omnino liberls, fctaminodiid stamina multo 
cxcedentibu.H liberis. 

Ilah. Eepperi inter Coolgardie et Gibraltar mens. Sept. flores 
albos 2:>roferentem* 

i^scendens, usque ad 30'0 cm. alt., plerumque humilior et non- 
nunquam usque ai 15'0cm.abbrcviata. Radix rigidus, fere rectus, 
sparsim ramosus, sursum 25 cm, diam. Caules rigidi, teretes, 
tetate glabri et fulvido-rnfi. Polia 2-0-2"5 cm. long., 0'4-0-G cm. 
lat, deinde pagiaa superiore pubescentia; petioli 0'l-0'2 cm. et 
stipulai 0'4-0"7 cm. long. Cyma3 pauciflorse, circa 2 cm. diam. 
Eractea? lanceolato-obovata?, acutae, pediceilos excedentes, extra 

rT- I ■ 

f ^ 


■ I . 



villosulce, Flores vix usque ad TO cm. diam. Cal^'cia lobi 0'4 cm- 
long., extra mox molliter puLcscentes. Petalu vix ultra 0'2 cm, 
long, extus villosula; ligula knilnam paullo supcraiis, linearis, 
ol)tu:ra, vel plus niinua abbrevlata et petahnn totum ad laminaiu 
ininutam ovatam vel ovato-lanceolatam jdanam sa^pc reductum. 
Pilamenta O'l cm. long., basi dilatata ibique libera, Staminodia 
omnino inter se libeia, lanceolat:*, vix 0*3 em. long., villosula. 
Ovarium glabrum^ granulatum. Capsula? ignotaj. 

Tbis plant bas given me much trouble, mainly on account of 
its peta's. It i^, in fact, a syntbetic type, since tbc differences 
ia the petals cbaracterl^tic of the tiibcs Buotttierlea? and Lasio- 
petale.T are met witli here, and even in the samefoicer. The petals 
typical of the former tribe are prominent organs, ^vith a large 
concave base and an elongated, more or less linear appendage or 
laftiina : those of the Lasiopetalca.', if present at all, are timall and 
Bcalv,and^vithout traceof a lamina. The i)ctRh oi'Iiulin^iacoacta 
are never of any t^ize, but the lamina is sometimes relatively 
^vell-devcloped, and this side by side with petal^> ^vhich may show 
but a trace of a lamina or even be reduced to a simple scale. 
In all other respects, Avitb the trifling exception that the stami- 

are quite free at tlie base, instead of being eonn:ite and 
adnite to the stamens, the present plant is a typical Bidingia:^ 
but, ijiasmuch as the union i^ very slight in the ease of li^ sajvi- 
joUa, Benth., 1 cannot consider this lo warrant the establishing of 
a new genus in an order already, to my judgment, too much 

divided up geoerieally. 

Owing to absence of fridt, it is impossible to indicate the 
affinity of li- coacta. At first sight it look^s not unlike li^ pannosa, 
II. Br., but the leaves are smaller and differently shaped, and tha 
inflorescence is more congested. The floral peculiarities above 
mentioned are, of court^e, vs eighty points of divergence. 

This plant was found only in one phice, which a bush-fire had 
parsed over some time previously. Flagianihus repens (p. 179) 
also grows heie, and X saw it nowhere else. 

ErLiNGiA ioxornvLLA?,i<: J/wc//. NearKilkeimy soak, June. 
An a>cending subshrub, up to 3 feet or so. Plowers yellow. 

The specimens to hand have buds merely, so that I find it 
impossible to name this without a query. 

Kekavdeenia iKTEfJRiFOLiA, SUud. Siberia soak, January (in 
fruit). Between TJiaddie eoak and Yilgangic claypans, March 


I" ^ 

T ^^ ^IT ■! 

fp^^TT^' F^* -V 


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(m fruit). Nine-mile rockg between Coolgardie and GibraHar, 

In the two former localities a small subslirub up to 2 feet 
lii^b, with pale purple or lavender caljces. Near Coolgardie a 
Bl'rubof 3 to 4 feet, the calyces blue. Its large, brightly coloured 
calyces give this plant a very ^trildng appearance. It was scea 
only iu the soil of decomposed grauite. 


Tribulus TKJiuESTuis, Linn. Between IJladdie soak and 
Yilgangie claypaus, March. 

Z70OPI1VLLUM APTCULATUM, F. MueJL Commou in the Cool- 
gardie district in springtime, ^lowers yellow. 

Z. I()nocAnI>^T^^, F. Muell^ var. bilobum. :N'ear Coolgardie, 


Flowers yellow. 

Z. FRUTicuLOsuii, BQ. K'car Ninotv-mile lake, north of 
Coolgardie, June. A small yellow-flowered subshrub* 

Z. FKUTrcrr.osuir, DC, var. pahviflora, noh. Near Cool- 
gardie, August. Between Coolgardie and Gibraltar, October. 
Apparently the same variety Avas obtained by the Elder 
Expedition people. 


m m n 

Erodium cicuTAitiUM, UlUrit. K(ar Coolgardie, Co 
in Angnst and September. 

E. CYGyoKUM, Necs, Near Coolgardie, August, 

OxALis C0RNicuLAT.i, Linn, Siberia soak, January. The 
specimens were not kept. 


PiiEBALTUM TUBKRCurosuxf, BcntJi, A shrub about 4 feet 
high, with white flowers near Coolgardie, with pink flowers near 


Stackiiousia yiminea, Sm, Donkey rocks between Goon- 
garric and Mt. Margaret, June. Gibraltar, September. 

t > % 

% . 



STACKHorsrA FLAYA, IIooJc^ var. Doiikey rocks, June. This 
varit^ty has pubescent bracts and floral axes. The petals also are 
somewhat blunter than are tliose of type specimens. Might 
possibly be regarded as a new species. 

Another Slackhousia^ probably typical >S'. fava^ Hook., is 
rather abundant on the Kine-mile rot-ks near Coolgardie, but, as 
no specimens are to hand, I inuist somehow have omitted to 
press any. 

The SfacJcJiousicey so far as my observation goes, grow only on 
decomposed granitic soih 


PoAfA-DEUHis PoRRESTiANAj 2^, MueU. A slirub about 3 feet 
or so, with white flowers, near Gnarlbine, September. A lowly 
shrub, up to 2 feet, with brown flowers, between Coolgardie 
and Gnarlbine, Octuber. I can see no essential difference 
between the two. 

Trymalium Myutfllus, sp. nov. Crebro ramo?a, ramis 
tenuibus mox glabris, foliis parvia oblanceolatis vel angut^te 
oblanceolato-obovatis in petiolum brevem scn.^im angustatis 
subtus molliter appres^e pubescentibus, cymis plurifloris folia 
excedentibus, floribus modicis pedicellatis^ pedicellis tandem 
calyces excedentibus una cum bid breviter tomentosis, bractcis 
ovati.^, ovario 3-loculo. 

Ilab, Viget propo Coolgardie, nbi mens. Au^. floret. 

Frutes ultranietralis, Eamiili flexuosi, foliorum cvanidorum 
reliquiis persistentibus crebro induti, cincrel, circa O'l cni.cras.^i. 
Stipulfe ovatse vel ovato-lanceolatfe, scario?:a?, circa 0^075 cm. 
long. Folia pubcoriacea, pleraque 0^5-0*7 cm. long,, obiusissima 
vel emargitiata, supra brevissime pubescentia, snbtus pallida. 
Cymse tandem usque ad 1'5 cm. long,, plera?que vero breviores* 
Bracteae stipulis conformes, extra pubescentcs. Alabastra 
5-goiia. Flores circa 0*2 cm. diam.j lute^ceuti-albJ. Calycislobi 
late ovati, obtusi. Petala qnam calyx brevlora, cucullata, brevis- 
sime ungiiiculata, integra. Stamina parva, rieinde erecta. 
Capsula nondum obvia* 

A plant with the habit of T. Wicliurce^ Xec^ to whicb it is 
doubtless cluticly allied. The leaves, however, are somewhat 
different in shape, and the cymes longer than the leaves and with 

1 -, 



more flowers. The three-celled ovary may be mentioneil among 
other points of difference. 

SxtiN^ANxnEMUit LECCOPHTlACTU^r, lieiss. Between AVilson's 
creek and Lake Dnrlot, May* A small brandling subalirub 
about 2 feet high, Flowers yellow. 

Cl{T^TA^DRA PARVTFOLTA, Tufcz. Near Coolgardle, September* 

C. (§ WicnuREA)rETTi,T:;A, pp. nov. Spinosa, sparsim ramosa, 
rann"s crispc pubcscentibus, foliis minutis linearibus obluais 
mnrginibus revolutis minute pubescentibus, floribusparvis pedun- 
culatis, calyce subrotato altc lobato glabro, ovario infero. 

Ilah, Crescit apud petras graniticas ''Donkey rocks" nun- 
cupata?!, inter Groongarrie et Mt. Margaret. 

Suffrutex parvus, |-mctralis* Eami subtereles, circa 0'2 cm, 
diam., cinerascentcs, dein glabri et rimosi. Spime rectcTS vel 
leviler decurvse*, m.odic.T, vix I'O cm. long., apicem versus atten- 
uatie, nonnunquam foliigera). Folia circa 0'3 cm. long., basi 
obtusa, petiolis brevis^imis fulta, Flores solitarii vel in glome- 
rulos paivoa dispositi. Bracteae minutae, albido-ciliata?. Pedun- 
culi circa 0^2 cm. long., glabri. Alabastra obtusissima, 5-gona. 
Flores 0*4 cm. diam., albi. Calycis lobi ovati, obtu^i, 0'i;3 cm. 
long. Fetala calycem suba^quantia, longe ungaiculata, late ovata, 
concava. Stamina primo pctalis abscendita dein libera. Discus 
annularis, prominent^, ijlaber. Capsula) liucusque ignotae. 

This baa much the look of C. glahrifiora^ Bentb,, a Murehison 
plant, in common with which it has glabrous flower^, so rare 

in the genus* The new species bi-longs, however, to the other 
Bcetion oithe genus — Wichurca^ cliaracterized by a large annular 
free disc- It differs from its fellows of that section by reason 
of its subrotatc corollai^, its affinity appearing closest with 
G. longistaminea^ F, Muclh, but the spines, tomcntum, and 
bracts are additional and weighty points of divergence. 


DoDONJiA EiLiroLiA, IIooJc. Between Wilson's pool and Luke 
Darlofc, May* 

D. LOBULATA, F. MiieJL A ^hrub up to 5 feet at Bulla- 

bulling, September. 

~i .ri 


I I" 

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IMiRBELiA MicROPni'LLOiDES, ^S'. Moore, in Joum. Bot. 
(1897) p. IGL A small subshrub about 3 Let hii^h near Cool- 
gardie, August. Flowers yellow and rod. 

OxYLOBiUM GRANiTicUM, sp. nov. Friiticosa, elata, deindo 
fere glabra, tbliis subverticillatis vel suboppositis rarius solitariis 
ovatis (jbtusi?s;mis vel emarginatis brevipctiolatis teiiuiter cori- 
ace's couspicue et arct9 reticulato-nervo3i>^, racenrs aiillaribus 
tcrmiualibusve elougatis laxifloris folia exccdoatibus, alaba^t^3 
albido-scriccis, calyco pediccllum superauto puberulo, floribus 
modicis aurantiaeis, ovario longistipitato douse a]bido-seric(o 
ovulis 6. 

Hah, Yiget apud pctras granitlcas ad Bullabulling, mens. Sept. 

Frutex liumnnje altitudiuis vel pauUo ultra, asccuden?, crebro 
foliatus. Eainuli saltern sursum angulati, exlmie stn'ati, vircs- 
ceutes. Eoliorum lamina 4-0-5-0 cm. long., 2-0-2-5 cm. lat. 
basi acuta apice brevis^ime apiculafa, nervo mediano dorso 
maxime eminente, nervulis utrinque coiisplcuis ; petioli Q-o em. 
long. Stipulaj lanctolatae, circa 0-2 em. long. Eacemi 100- 
12-0 cm. loug., deorsum nudi, sursum flores oppositos vel verti- 
cillafos raro solitarJos circa 10 cm. long, fcrentcs. .Bractea> 
fugaceffi baud obviae. Pedicelli 0'2-03 cm. long., junioros albo- 
pubescentcs. Calycis lobi ciliati, superJores allius connati, ovati, 
obtuaissimi, inferiores lanceolati, 0-3 cm. long., calyx totua O'G cm. 
long. Vexillum rcniforme, rix 1-0 cm. lat. Filamenta O'S cm. 
long,, deorsum dilatata ibiquo plu^ minus barbata. Ovarii stipes 
ee ipsum sequans, sursum sericeua. Stylus compressus, apico 
leviter attenuatus. Legiimen non vidi. 

A very distinct and handsome species, which may be said to 
combine the foliage of O. atiopurpureum, Turez., and tlie inflores- 
cence of O. trilobatum, Bonth., or O. parrijlorum, Benth. 

Psi-LLOTA LTcoPODroiDES, sp. nov. Suffruticosa, strictn, sur- 
sum, aparsim ramo^a, molliter villoso-toraentosa, foliis 
arete imbricatis abbrevlatis spgro omnino scssilibus obIongo-o\atis 
breviter apiculatis fere planis, stipulis 0, floribus modicis glo- 
meratis glomerulis plurifloris terminalibus vel subapicatibua, 
bracteis braeteolisque lanceolatis acuminatis d^en^c villosi?, calycis 
villosi lobis tubum multo t xcedentibus axialibus quam abaxialia 

,•■ r^J-^'^ 

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■TV-varr* p. 

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Bracteol.^ modice 0'7 cm. long. Florea 

iiiajoribu?, voxiilo calycem paullo CKccdentc, stamlnibua inter m 
brevisHiine connatis et una cum petiilia anrmlum angustum efibr- 
mantibus, ovario brevisisime stipitato clcnao Tilloso, stylo ovarium 

Bapcrautc deorsum villoso* 

Hah, Croscit inter Soutliern Cross et puteum '' AYangine " 
sive '* Siberia boak '* dictum, mens, Jan. florens. 

Circa -^-nictralis. Caulia deorsum nudus ibiquc novellas 
cmittcns, dcindeglabcr. Folia 0"5-0'6 cm. long.,0'3-0-4 cmjat., 


supra minutissime tomentella, subtus villoso-tomentosa, costa 
media pag* iuf . emiucute et in apiculo brevi rigido decolore exiens* 
Glomeruli fere usque 30 cm* diam. Pedieclli circa 0*15 cm. 
Ions:-, craesyi, yillosi. 
bruniiei. Calycis tubus circa 02 cm. long.; lobi axinles ovato- 
lanccolati, subito inaequilatcralitcr acuminati, 0'8 cm. long.; lobi 
abaxialoa lancoolati, lubus mcdius quam laterales paullo brcvlor, 
hi longiusacuminati et 0'G5 cm. long., lobi omues intus nitentes efc 
saltern in sicco plus minus brumico-aurantiaci. Vexillum circa 
I'O cm. long*, 0'7 cm* lat., ejus unguiculus 0"35 cm. long. ; alas 

0'8 cm. long; carina vexdlo pequilonga, obtuea. Ovarii stipes 
circa 04 cm. long., ovarium ei oblique iuscrtum, 0*35 cm. long., 
late oblongum, obtu^^um ; stylus filiformis, sursum glaber, sub 
apice leviter dilataius, O'G cm. long. Do legumine inquirendum. 
Mr. Bcnlliam would doubtless have called tids a PuJtencEa^ 


that its affinity is undoubtedly with P. Urodon, Benth. 
Baron von Mueller, however, refers that plant to Phyllota, basing 
his vicNV, a[)parcntly, upon the absence of stipulf s and the union 
of the stamens and petals into a short ring, which are charac- 
teristics of Phyllota and not of PalUmjca. Although usually 
a'^reeing with Bentham's views where they confiict with Mueller's, 

I am of opiuion that the latter Is right in this instancej and con- 
sequently propose to place the present plant in Fhyllofa. From 
P. Urodon it can easily be distinguished by its stouter habit, 
woolly t omentum, diflercntly shaped leaves and calyx-lobe.^, as 
well as in a number of minor points, 

Phtllota HU.\[iLTS, &p. nov. SufTruticosa, humilis, sparslm 
ramosa, foliis minutis imbricatis ovatis acutis gessilibus rigidis 
pnbescentibus dein glabris, stipulis 0, floribus modicis axillaiibus 
glomerulos paucilloros sessilcs cfTurmantibus, hracleolis angusle 
lanceolatia calyci applicutis, calycis villos^i lobis tubum multo 
excedeutibus iixialibus quam abaxialia majoribusj vexillo calycem 

Fcc ng 

^ ^ 

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J 4 


, ' 




excedeute, sfcaiainibus ct petalid annulum acyre ef£ormaiitibu8j 
ovario sea::^!!! douise villoso, stylo ovarium supcrante dcur^Liui 

Uah. later puteum ''Uladdie soak*' dictum et Til^an^l'o 
repperl mens. Mart, Uoreutem, 

Suffrutex taututii 15'0 cm. alt. Rami tcuues, paullo ultra 
O'l cm. diam.j sparsnu ramulosij paiicillori, subterete^, patule 
pubescentes delude pubenili. I'olla O'i cm, loIl^^, 0'23 cm. lat., 
minutfaaimc apiculata, concava, co^ta mc dla dorso emiiiLny. 
Glomeruli 3-4-flori, 1"0 cm* diam, Bracteola? 0'3 cm. loni^., 

(lorso villosulao. Plorea lutei. Calyx 0*5 cm. long* ; lobi 
abaxialod ovato-lanceolati, lateralea lanceolalos paullo excedeiite^', 

oranes brcviter acuminati et eximie nervoai. Vexillum circa 
0*8 cm. long., unguiculatiim. Carina obtusa, vexillo fere <^{]ui- 

longa. Ovarium denae villu.sum, ses sile, ovoideum, 0*3 cm. lung. 

Stylus filiformis, sursum glaber, ib ique gradatim attenuatusr\ 

Legumiua desunt. 

Allied to the last, and fur the same reasona referred to Phyllola. 

There is nothing like it in that genus, nor am I acquaiiitod with 

any species of FuUenc£a with which it can bo compared. 

DiLLwrwiA (§ Xeropktalum) ACER03A, 8 p. Bov* Sufirutcx 

humilia ramosus, foliis abbrcviatis anguste 

lincaribus obtutis 

rigidia margine revolutls, lluribus parvi::jaxillaribus etaolitariis vel 

m corynibia brevibus paucitloria tllapoaiti?^, bracteoiis minutlirf, 

calycis pubcacentis lobistubum subaequantibus abaxialibua usque 
medium connatia omuibus acutia, vexillo brevi ter unguiculatu alas 


Uah. Prope Coolgardie floret mens. Aug. 

Semimetralia vel minus, liamuli rigidi, crebroramosi, deorsum 
nudi. Polia O'y-0'4 cm. long., 0'05 cm. lat., apice ipao leviter 
recurva, dorao rotundata nequaquam carinata, aur^um canali- 
culata, appresae pubescentia demum glabra, Sttpula) , Pedun- 
cuJi O'l-U'2 cm, long., juxta apicem bracteolati. Eracteola? 
lineares, obtusae, O'l cm. long. Calyx totus \ix 0'5 cm. long. ; 

Plores circa 0'5 cm. long. Vexillun 

expan^um O'G cm, long, et lat., ungue excluso 0*4 cm. long., 
aurantiacum, purpureo-lineatum ] ala? 0-7 cm. long ; carina 

retusa, alia tequilunga, auraum purpurea. Logumen ignotum. 

The affinity of this would appear to be with D. bruniotJes^ 
Meissn., but the infloreacence ia different, the leaves are not 

lobi 0'15 cm. long. 


lilNN. JOUUN, 




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keeled, the bracteoles are mmute, the calyx pubescent, not 
villous, the vexillum not nearly twice as broad as long, the 
keel as long as tbe wings and retuse, not shorter than they 
and obtusely acuminate- 

Medicago DETi[TicuLATA, Willd^ Bullabulling, September. 
Undoubtedly introduced, most probably by teamsters. 

Lotus australis, Andr.^ var. PARYiFLoitA. Between Cool- 
gardie and (xnarlbinej October^ Gibraltar, September. Elowers 
pale purple. 

PsoBALEA ERTANTHA, Bentk Gibraltar, October. 

Indioofkra "breyiden's, Benth. Kilkenny soak, and Donkey 
rocks between Goongarrie and Mt» Margaret, June. A lowly 
subsbrub with dark red flowers. 

Swatnso:n'a cat^escexs, F. Muell. Between Coolgardie and 
Gnarlbine, October. 

S. ivncROPHTLTiA, A. Gray, Near Coolgardie, August. 
Gnarlbine, September. 

Glycine CLA]srDESTi]NrA, Wendl,^ var. sertcea, BentJi. This 
purple-flowered twiner was found near Kilkenny soak in June* 

Cassia pleurocarpa, JP. Muelh Gibraltar, September. A 
handsome spreading; shrub about 5 feet high ; the flowers are 
yellowisb-wliite watb dark veins. 

C. EREMOPHiLi, A. Cti7in. Between Doyle's well and Mt. 
George, June. A yellow-flowered shrub about 3 feet high. 

C. ARTE\risioii)ES, Gaudich. Near Siberia soak, January. 
Coolgardie^ August. A branchinfj erect shrub, 3 to 4 feet hi<;h. 
Plowers yellow. — A variety of this with greatly reduced leaflets 
and flo^vers was found between AVilson's creek and Lake Darlot, 
its yellow-green flowers appearing in May. It a subshrub about 
2 feet high- 

C. SturtiTjT?. Br. Between Doyle's well and Mount George, 
June. A subshrub 2| feet high. Flowers yellow* 

AcACTA ERiiJiTACEA, Beuth. Near Coolgardie, August. A dense- 
gro\tmg iowly subshrub, a foot or so high. 

^ "^ ^ _^ 


AcACTA suBC^RiTLEA, Lifidl, Near Coolgardie, August. Shrub 
up to 8 feet high. 

A. ANEURA, F. MuelL Common between Wilson's pool an'l 
Lake Darlot, where it is a ahrub about 8 feet high, flowering 
in Maj. A variety witli short phyllodes was met with at Pen- 
dinnie soak as a tall shrub bearing flowers in March. 

A.*(§ JuLiFLOR^, Stenopuyll^) sibirica, sp. uov. Fruticosf), 
elata, ramulia rigidis minute rufo-furfuraeeis cito glabris, phyl- 
lodiis lineari-obianceolatis apice obtusis apiculatis nequaquam 
pungeutibus crassiusculis absque co^ta mediana utrinquein sicco 
sub leute obscure plurinerviis minute rufo-furfuraccis dein 
glabria, spicis brevipedunculatis abbrevlatis ac revcra quam 
phyllodia multo brevioribus, floribus 4- rarius S-meris, calyce 
brevissime lobato, petalis usque ad medium eoalitis, legmine? 

Hob, Juxta puteum " Wangine " sive '^ Siberia soak *' nuncu- 
patum rcpperi mens. Jan. 

Frutex diffusus, circa trimctralis. Eamuli subteretes, demum 
pruinosl, crebro foliati, Phyllodia 3"0-5'0 cm. long,, 0-4-0-5*, deorsum coarctata, petiolis 0-2 cm. long., in sicco rugatis 
suffulta, lutescenti-viridia. Spic^ne circiter I'O em, long,, densi- 
florse ; podunculi 0*5-0*7 cm, long- Calycis lobi obtusissimi. 
Corolla calycem longe superans, 0'2 cm. long., ejus lobi oblongo- 
ovati, obtusi* 

There is some doubt about the pods of this plant. My col- 
lecting-note says " pods short," and there are in tbe collection a 
couple of stray Acacia-'^odi^ whicb I think must be those of the 
present plant. These are apparently immature, the larger bcino; 
oblong, about 1"5 cm. in length, half as much in breadth, and 
nearly flat. Attached to one of the specimens are two small, 
turgid, somewhat falcate apparent pods about 4 mm. long and 
almost as broad; but those look so different from the incipient 
pods of just-fertilized flowers, that I suspect the agency of an 
insect here* The nature of the pods of this species must, 
therefore, remain doubtful for the present. 

The species is certainly closely allied to A, aneura^ F. Mueli., 
which, inter alia^ has longer, narrowly linear phyllodes, mostly 
5-merou9 flowers, and free narrow petals. 

A. BRACKTSTACHYA, BcntJi, Betwccu Coolgardie and Lake 

Darlot. Precise locality not ascertainable, the label having been 



-T ^ 

■^ H,r 

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J Th-- ,if- 





Acacia acuminata, Benth, Bullabulling, September. A 
beautiful tree, 20 feet high, with long broad cylindrical heads 
of flowers. This is the only species with such lar^je heads seen 
upon the Goldfields. 

What I conclude to be a variety of this, with much smaller 
and relatively broader phj llodes and extremely short flower-heads, 
is common between AViL-on*8 pool and Lake Darlot, as a shrub 
8 to 10 lett high, flowering in June. 


Tjll^a tehtictllaris, DC. BnUabulling and Coolgardie, 
August and September, 


Drosera peltata, Sm. Bullabulling, September. Flowers 

D. macrantua, FndL Nine-mile rocks near Coolf^ardie. 
August. This haDdsome sundew lias wlute flowers. I also refer 
to the game species, though naturally \^ith some doubt, a 
flowerless Brosera found upon the Donkey roeks, between Goon- 
garrie and Mt. Margaret, iu June, 

D, Menziesit, Ji. Br., var. elavescens. Nine-mile recks 
near Coolgardie; also, with somewhat smaller flovvers, on Bulla- 
bulliiig rocks. It flowers in September. 


LouDONiA ATJREA, F. MuelL Between Southern Cross and 
Siberia soak, January. A small form with greatly reduced 

Haloraois Gossei, F. MuelL Near Coolgardie, August. 




cosa, ramosa, glabra, ramulig tenuibus, foliis parvis linearibus 
obtusissimis subteretibus, floribus peduneulatiy, calycis tubo 
hemisphferleo glabro ejue lobis primanis 5 alte divisis lobuh's 
pcctinato-ciliatis scariosis albis, lobis secondariis 0, petalis juxta 
calycis loboa insertia cal^ci a^quilongis, tubo s^tamineo quam fila- 
menti pars libera breviore, staailnibus iiliformibus, stjlo glabro, 
ovulis circa 8. 

4 f 

r J 




cm. long. ; 

//rtfS. Eepperi juxta G-narlbine mens* Nov. Horentem, Ilabuit 
itaque cl Helms ad AYarangeriiig, ex spec, iii Herb, Kew, asi<erv- 

Suffrutex j-metralis, Eamuliteiiues, obscure angulati, cinerei. 
iolia bac atque iilac coiigcsta, lutoscenti - vlrciitia, deorsum 
ab'quantulum attenuata, 0';j-0-5 em. luii:^., 0*075 cm. lat. Bractcfo 
more generis cito evanicbnc. Pcdunculi 0*5 cm. long. Flores 
07 cm. diam. Caljcis tubus obscure lO-neryia, 0*15 cm. long.; 
]obi 0'35-0*-l cm. long., patuli, 7-9-pectinatb Petala ovata, 
acuta vel breviter acuminata, concava, 03 cm. long. Tubus 
Htamineus circa 01 cm. lonii:. : fibameuta libera, liueari-sububita, 

stamiuodia Integra, fiLimentas libcras semi- 
jequantia ; anthenrum ])arvarum ovoidearum loculi parallel], 
longitudinaliter dehiseeute?i, connectivus baud incrassatus. 
Stylus elongatusj superne attenuatus, glaber. 

To be compared vvitb V. jjicta^'Endl,, from which, inter alia ^ 
ifc IS to be distinguished on accoutit of tlje very obtuse leaves, 
smaller flowers, petals not exceeding tbe calyx-lobes, more deeply 
divided staminal tube, smaller anthers, and glabrous style. 

The plant gatbered by Mr. llclmSj of tbe Elder Expedition, 
agrees perfectly witb mine. It U named '' Verticordia,'' to which 
has been added ^' aff, pict(je,'' undoubtedly its affinity, 

Cat.tthtitx desolata, sp. nov. Suffruticosa, erecta, crebro 
ramosa, ramulis tenuibus glabrls, foliis parvis rectis imbricatis 
tcretibus linearibua obtusissimis glabris, floribus purpureis ex 
axillis superioribus solitatim vel paueibus approximatis oriundis^ 
bracteolis basi brevissimo connatis longe acuminatis glabris, 
calycis tube bracteas longe exeedente ample medio dllatato 
supcrne cavo, loborum aristis attenuatis petala excedentibus, 
ptaminibus indefinitis, stylo deorsum calyce incluso verisimiliti^r 

Ilah. Inter "Wilson's creek et lac. Darlot, mens. Maj. inventa. 

Suffrutex parvus, seminietralis. Rimuli flexuosi, cinerei, summi 
reliquiis foHorum evanidorum more CoralUnce alicujus dense 
obt^iti. Folia 0'2 em. long.^ 0*05 cm. diara., dorso rotuiidata, 
conspicue glandulosa, petiolis brevibus triquetris fulta, in sicco 
flavescenti-yirentia- Bractese obovatse, subito acuminatge, sca- 
riosae, 0'5 cm. long, (acumiue 0*1 cm. long, incluso). Calycis 
glubri tubus 0\S cm. long., medio vix 0"1 cm. lat., sursum et 
deorsum leviter coarctatus, i]i longitudincm eximie rervosus; 
lobi ovati, vix 0"2 cm. long., arista 1"0 cm. long., superne gra- 

^ '.T-v ' - ^ 

fc- - -V 



datim attenuata coronati. Petala oblonga, ovafa, acummata, 
0'65 cm. long* Connectivi glandula minutaj ^lobosa. Stylus 
placentae continuum, vix 1*0 cm. long., ejus dimidium inferius 
calycia tubo inclusum, De fruetibua sileo. 

A plant Avith much the look of Calythrix hrevifolia^ Meissn., 
and C> Irachyphylla^ Turez., from ^vhich it can readily be distin- 
guished by the terete, very obtnse leaves, the elongate-acuminate 
bracts, dilated CJilyx-lube, and differently inserted style. This 
latter character of stylar insertion brings it nearer to a series 
among which (7. Oldjieldii^ Benth., and C. r/raveolens^ Benth,, 
might possibly be mistaken for it. But the leaver of these are 
different, and among otlier points one may mention the bracts, 

which in the case of G. OlJJieldii are connate to the middle, of 
C, graveolens very obtuse. 

TnRTPTOMENE AUSTRALTS, Eudh Gnarlbitie, November. A 
small white-flowered subshrub, 2 i'eet high. 

T. URCEOLARrs, F. MuelL Between Gibraltar and Cool- 
gardie, and near Gnarlbine, September. A small shrub with 
whity-pink flowers. 

MiCROMTRTUS IMRRTCATA, i?. Br. Bctwcou AVilsou s creek 
and Lake Darlot, May< Subshrub, a foot or so high. Plowcrs 
dirty white. 

M. DRUiiiro^^niT, Bentli. A small shrub flowering iu Sep- 
ember between Gibraltar and Coolgardie. 

Wehlia THRYPTOMENoiDES, F. MuclL Bctwecu Gibraltar 
and Coolgardie, al^o at Gnarlbinc, September. A small shrub 
with pink flowers. 

Baeckia crasstfolia, LindL Kear Coolgardie, August. 

KrNZEA SERiCEA, Turcz, A small bush about 3 feet high, 
with scarlet flowers on the BuUabulling rocks (October), with 
white flowers (var. albijlora^ nob.) at Gnarlbine (September). 
This was seen also as a tall spreading shrub, bearing buds and 
young fruits, but no expanded flowers, between Southern Cross 
and Siberia soak in January. 

Melaleuca tncixata, B. Br. A shrub, 4 feet or so high, 
near Gnarlbine, September. 




Melaleuca LEiocAiiPA,F,il/"W/. G-ibraltar district, September. 

M, PAUPERiFLORA, F. Muelh Bctwecii Gnarlbiue and Gib- 
raltar. A tall shrub or small tree up to 20 feet, of obpyramidal 
liabit. riowers white, appcariug in September. 

Eucalyptus (§ Orthantiiere^) Campaspe, sp. nov. Prutex 

elatus ramosus, ioliis brevipetiolatis lanceolatis obtuse acuminatis 

rectis vel parum falcatis, peduuculis axillaribus vel exaxillaribas 

abbreviatis late alatit^ 2-6-floris, pedicellis quam calycis tubus 

breyioribus, calycis tube lute turbinato, opcrculo subhcmisphee- 
rico umbonato quam calycia tubus pauUo lougiore, antheris ob- 

longo-ovatis loculirf parallelis distinctis dchisceotibus, ovario quam 

caljcis tubus parum breviore superne convcxo. 

Hah. Ad Gibraltar ineua, Oct. florescit* 

Circa tetrametralis. Folia 6"0-ll*0 cm. long, juxta medium 
1*0-2-0 em. lat., basin versus sensim coarctataj utrinque pruiuosa, 
codta media (prsesertim yubtus) eminens, costulse iuconspicuse 

rete ineompletuin obscurum cfformaiiteSj coista margiualis mar- 
giui approximata, nonnuaquam obscura; petioli 1*0 cm. long. 

Pedunculi 0't)-0*8 cm. long., 0'3-0'4 cm. kt., una cum ramulis 
ct pedicellis et caljcibus albo-pruinosi. PedicelU nee ultra 
2 cm. long. Calycis tubus 0*4^ cm. long., 0'6 cm. diam., con- 
spicue marginatus- Operculum 0*6 cm. long., breviter et obtuse 

mucrooatum, Stamiua I'O cm. long,, alabastro inflcxa; anthera? 
0*12 cm. long. Capsular desunt. 

Although averse from describiug as new specimens belonging 
to this large aud difficult genus, yet those now under notice are 
BO different from all known to me, that I caunot refrain from the 
venture* The affinity would seem to be with E* rudis^ EridL, 
which is a tree with broader leaves on longer petioles ; it has 
neither the short conspicuously winged peduncles nor the sub- 
eesbile flowers j moreover, its operculum is longer aud conical. 


Mesembryais^themum australe, Soland, Yilgangie claypans, 
February. A lowly subdhrub, a foot or so high. Flowers white. 
A small variety Avith much smaller flowers than those of type- 



H.TDROCOTrLE piLiFEUA, TuTCz.j var. glabrata. Gibraltar^ 
October. An extraordinarily small form, fruiting in October. 

■ * 


f- ctakopetalAj HentJi. Gibraltar, September 
(flower aiid fruit). 

T. EKTOCARPA, Hentli, Gibraltar, September (fruit), 

T. JUNCEA, sp. HOT. Annua ?, parvula, fere omniiio glabra^ 
foliis sparsia parvis pianatise^tis vel teniatim-pinuatifidi^ lobis 
linearibus vel lanceolati^, involucri bracteis Janceolati.s acutis 
j)edicellos suba>quantibus, fructibus medlocribus cordato-reni- 
formibus glabris omniao inermibus vel tuberculis paucis minimi?^ 
secua marginem dorsalem dispositis obsc'ure arniatis. 

Ilah, Ad Gibraltar flore^cebat et fructificabat mens;, Sept. 

Plauta vix ugque 7'0 cm. alt. Caulis ramulos plures strictos 
in sieco stramiucos a basi emittcns. Folia in toto usque ad 
]"5 cm, long., ])leraque vero brcviora, deorsum nonnunquam 
pparsim albo-j^ilosula. TnvoTucri bracteso 5, circa 0*2 cm. long., 
cymblformes, pilo-sulse. UmbcUa circa 3-4-flora. Calycis lobi 
minutissimi. Stigmata capitellata. Pediceili fructibus* sequi- 
longi. Fructus ad commissuram 0*2 cm. long., 0'3 cm. lat., 
cirpclla plerumque fiubiequimagna nisi sequalia, rubro-brunnea, 
parum turgida. 

Tbe lowly habit and tlic entirely unarmed or but feebly armed 
fruits are the marks by which this plant can be recogniz^^d. 


CA^'T^IIT^r latifoltum, F. Muell Between AVil^on's creek 

and Lake Darlot. May. 

C- SUATEOLENS, sp. nov. Fruticosa humills Jncrmisj fol'is 

brevissime pctiolatis lincaribus obtusissimis m.argiiiibus arcta 

revolutis minute puberulis rigidis, eymis axillaribus paucifloris 
quam folia mulfco brevioribus, floribus mediocribus, coroUae lobis 
5 quam tubus brevioribuSj antheris vix exsertis, stigmate mitri- 
formi integro. 


JIah, Eepperi juxta Mt. IVIargaret, ubi floribus albo-virescenti- 
bus suav^olentibus mens. Mart, gaudet. 

Prutex ramosuR, metralis, sur.^um foliatus. Eanii teretes, 
primo ]mbcruli cito glabri et cinerei. Folia 2-0-40 cm. long,, 
0"25-0'4 cm. lat., deorsum pcnsim ac levitcr attenuatii, vix nitcntia, 
costa media utrinque obvia, costulse inconspieuae ; petioli nee 
ultra 0*25 cm. long,, breviter alati. Stipulae parvge, ovatae, 
deciduse. Cvma? circa 1*0 cm. lonp;., vix totidem diam., raodicae. 

'-! . '■' ■ 

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4'^.3TX. Peduncali circa 0-25 cm. long., minute pubcruH, 
Pedicelli pedninmlo voqmlongl Calyx brcviter dentnlus, 0*15 cm. 
long. Corolla tota 0'6 c:ii. long., usque | lobata, faucibus annulo 
pilorum nuctis exdu^is glabra ; lobi lanceolati, obtuse aeuti. 
Filament! inclusa ; anthera? brerlssime exsm-tae. Ovula 1 itcraliter 
affixa. Stylus 0*6 cm. Ion?., glaber. Stigma 0^1 cm. diam., 
deorsum cavum, in longitudinem sulcatum. Drup^ie ignota>. 

The afEuity o£ this is certainly with 


Hook., but the leaves of the two species are quite different, aMd 
among minor points it may be mentioned t'lat the corollas of 
C. suaveolem are dilferently shaped, being relatively broader and 
the lobes decidedly lunger than the tube. The habit also is 


Oleauta ramulosa, Bentli. Near Siberia soak, January. A 
phrubby fragrant composite, about 3 feet high, of compact growth. 
Kay-florets white. A form considerably smaller than the type. 

0. Mtjellfhi, Benili. Frequent at Cibraltir and Coolgardie, 
A handsome little subshrub flowering iu August and September, 
The ray-florets are white. One form has longer ray-florets than 

ViTTADTKiA AITSTRALI3, A. Midi. Frequently seen: e.g., 
Wilson's patcli, between Mt. IMargaret and L-ike Darlot, and 
elsewhere in the same district (May) ; near Coolgardie (August); 
Gibraltar (September). Florets purple or violet. 

Calotts PLUUULIFKRA, F. MuelL Near Coolgardie, August. 
Kay-florets white ; disc yellow, 


C, HISPIDULA, F. llaelL BuUabulliug and near Coolgardie, 
August and Septem!)er. 

Brachycome I'ACHTPTERA, TuTcz. Gibraltar, September. 

B. PUsiLLA, Sleeiz. Between '\Vi]son*s creek and Lake Darlol:, 

^ r 

JMay. Ray-florets pale purple- 

B* ciLiARis, Less. Bullabulling, September. 

B, ciLiARTS, Lcss.^ var. Near Coolgardie, August; Gibraltar, 

B. coLLTNA, Less. Near Coolgardie, August 

Pluchea DenteXj B. Br. Creek near AViL^ou's pool; May» 

* J 

-r" II 



r . 


Ptertgeroi^ ltatroides, BentJi., var, repens, noh. Between 
Uladdie soak and Yilgangie claypans, March. Between Gibraltar 
and CoolgarJiBj October, A rather remarkable repent variety, 
exactly like the type except for its habit. 


Elachakthus occidentalis, sp. noy. Pusilla, ascendens, 
piloso-pubescens vel puberula, eaulibus filamcatosis, foliis anguste 
linearibus obtusis sessilibns, capitulis parvis paucifloris, involucris 
demum anguste turbinatis, flosculia sterilibus circa 3, achseniis 

L ' 

fertilibus anguste obovoideis dense lanatis, pappi setis circa 12 
ovato-lanceolatis acliaiuium suba^quantibus. 

Hab^ Juxta Coolgardie floret et fructificat mens. Aug. 

Usque ad 3'0 cm. alt., plerumque vero humilior, bast ramosa. 
Badix tenuissimus, parum flexuosus, raro ramulosus- J'oliaO'S- 
0-7 cm, long., radicalia usque ad I'O cm., 0'03 cm. lat, Capitula 
0"4 cm. long, et lat. Involucri squamae exteriores 0*15-0^25 cm., in- 
teriores nee ultra 0'35 cm. long, FlosculifcemiueicircaS. Aiitbera^ 
basi truncata?. Acha^nia sub apice subito attenuata, 0*2 era, long., 
compressiuscula, Pappi setae brunuese, paullo ultra 0'2 cm. 
long., acuminata, brevissime denticulatae ; flosculorum sterilium 
pappi setse 2, flore ipso breyiores, sursum longiuscule plumosae. 

This is a second species of a genus which, from the time of its 
foundation in 1852 until now, has remained monotypic. From 
E.pusilliis it can be told at once on account of its different 
appearance, it being extremely small, with slender sterns^ and 
heads not nearly the size of those of E, pusillus. These small 

heads are fewer-flowered than is the case with the other species, 
for although Mr, Bentham says '' female florets about 5-9,'* ia 
the head I dissected there were no less than 14 ; and from cursory 
inspection one gathers that the heads of E. occidcntalis are the 
fewer-flowered. The achenes of the new plant, although they 
appear to be not quite ripe, are manifestly the smaller, and are 
differently shaped, and haye shoulders under the place of insertion 
of the pappus, tiie scales of which are differently shaped. The 
pappus-hairs of the sterile florets are, in the cases examined by 
me, two in number, whereas in E, pusitlus they are about four; 
the latter, too, are longer both actually and relatively to their 
corollas, and they are not nearly so plumose, 

Angianthus tomentosus, Wendh Coolgardie and Gibraltar, 

J ■- "r^i 

^ J 

■ I 

[ N 




Angtakthus pusilluSj SentJi. BullabuUing, September. A 
common little everlasting, of wliich a very small variety, only 
3'5 cm. high, was got at Gibraltar. 

A. STRICTUS, Benth, Gibraltar, September, 

Gnephosts BuRKiTTii ?, Benth. Near Coolgardie, August. 
Differs from the type — a South-Australian plant — by reason of 
its longer stem (3-5 cm, high),- its scattered leaves and somewhat 
larger flower-heads, and may possibly be a distinct and new species, 
I am unable to decide the point, however, as G. BurTelttii is 
represented by a very small piece at Kew alone, so stnall, indeed, 

that I did not think iD right to ask for leave to dissect the 

G. iNTONsus, sp. nov. Ilerba humilis, ascendens, dense albo- 
lanata, foliis anguste linearibus vc-1 lineari-oblanceolatis obtusis 
lanatis, capitulorum glomerulis sublaxe corymbiformibus, bracteis 
pnucis foliis conformibus dense lanatis circunidatis, receptaculo 
parvo, capitulis partialibus 2— l-flosculatis, flosculis bractea 
comparate magna convoluta singillatim circumdatis, pappo 0. 

Jlah. Eepperi ad Gibraltar mens. Sept. 

Erecta, usque 5*0 cm. alt. Caulis tenuis, sparsim foliaccus. 
Folia 0^3-l'0 cm. long., supcriora quam iriferiora longiora ac 
latiora, omnia lanato-villosa. Glomeruli I'O cm. diam., dense 
lanato-villosi. Capitula partialia brevitcr pcdunculata. Bracfca 
circumdans ovata, acuminata, dorso dense lanata, vix 0*4 cm. 
long,, rigida. Ovarium quam corolla paullo brevius, ha^c linearis, 
0*2 cm. long., fere omnino bractea occlusa, AchEenui nondum 

The woolly clothing and rigid acuminate woolly bract investing 
each flower are the marks by which this species can best be 

CEPUALTPTEErM Dbummokdit, A. Gray^ A common ever- 
lasting in the Coolgardie district in August. Involucres and 
florets white, 

GKAPnALODES ULiGiNOSUM, A. Gray. BuUabulling and near 
Coolgardie, August. 

Etjtidosis HELicuKTSOiDEs, DC, Between Southern Cross 
and Mt. Margaret. I am unable to more closely localize this 
find, the label having been mislaid. 

_ t 


i_ "-^ i*ni'r-^ -n ■ ^r ^ 


• ■\" " r r^^ ■ 


MR. S. irOORE 0^ TllK FLORl 

MiLLOTiA TENUiroLiA, Cass, Gibraltar, St-ptember (fruit). 

IxroL^NA TOMENTOSA, F, MucIL Bctween Coolgardie and 
Lake Darlot (label lost). 



TENEf.LA, Benih. Common near Coolgardie in 

PonoxnECA A^^G^sTIFOLTA, Cass. Near Co:)lgard]e, August 
(flower). Gibraltar, September (fruit), 

PoDOLEPTS PALLIDA, Titrcz. Abuudant on the Bullabulliui? 

rocks, September. A lovely everlastiug, Avith golden iavolucres 
aud florets. 

P. Lessont, Benth. Near Coolgardie, Autrust. 

p. Sji:mse^-ta, F. MucIL Near Coolgnrdie, Augush 

SciiffixiA Cassiniaka, Sieefz. Near Coolgardie, August. 

llELTCiiEYsrir riLiFOLiuir, F. Mucll. Near Coolgardie, Sep- 
teniLer. A lowly form, with heads smaller than those of the 
type, and the iuvolueral bracts much less deeply tinged. 


ir. Teppert, F. Muell Gibraltar, September. Hitherto 
recorded only from South Australia. 

IL APrcuj.ATL\\f, DC. Pctwccn Soutlicrn Cross and Siberia 
soak, January. 

H- (§ OxTLKPis) ruTEALE, Rp. no\^* Suffruticosa, erecta, 
sparsim ramopa, ramis dense albo-lauatis fere usque ad eapitiila 
foliatis, foliis parvis ses^^ilibus oblougis obtusis cauli applicatis 

supra viridlbua subtus den^e lanatis, capitulia parvis solituriis 
])aucifloris, involueri ovoidei squamis inimerosis linearibus &parsiin 
lamtis intcrioribus lamina parva lineari-lauceolata coronatis, 
flosculis omnibus (?) hermaphroditis, ach.Tniis glabris compre^ssius- 
culia, pnppi setis circa 15 minutiBsime barbellatis. 

JIaJ), Prope puteum "AV^angine'' siye '* Siberia soak" repperi 
meuH. Jai], 

Eami teretes, demum glabri et briinnei. Folia modica, 0'3-0-4 
cm. long., circa O"! cm. Lit., marginc revoluta et utidulata, Pupra 
fere glabra. luvolucrum 0'4 em. diam., ejus squamae searios^e, 
post anthesin maxima patentes, interiorea vix 4 cm. long., 
extima? multo breviores, omnes pallida stramineae nervo mediaiio 
fusco percnrsoc; lamina circa O'l cm. long., concolor. Corolla? 
04 cm. long, deorsumattenuataelobi lanceolati. obtiisi. Achseuia 

4 tf 

? ^ 



y „ 




nondum irafcura, circa 0'l^? cm. long., oblouga. Pappi seta) 
corollis a?quilongae, brevissime barbellatse. 

The section Oxijlepis of Ilelichrijsun is rather an uu.sati:sfactory 
one, owing to the abnormal appearance given to the flower-heads 
by the n;irro\v involucral bract^s. Indeed, but for these organtj 
being scarious and not herbaceous, the 2)resent plant would be a 
typical Ixiolcena. It al^o has much the appearance of a Lento- 
rlipichus^ from which the absence of any indication of a bealt to 
the achenes must keep it apart, 

IIelichuysum sEMiPAProsuM, BQ, Gnarlbinc, November. 

II. (§ OzoTHAMNUs) Cassiope, sp, Hov. SufFruticosa ?, erecta, 
sursuni crebro ramulosa copiose foliosa, ramulia virgatis dense 
albo-lanatis, foliis niiuutis Jsubteretibus anguste lincaribus obtudis 
doriso canaliculatis scabridia cauli adpressis, capitulis parvis in 
paniculis subcorymbosis brevibus terminalibus paucicapitulatis 
dispositia, involncri turbinati sc^uamis j)lnriseriatis arete appressid 
absque lamina pateute, achaeniis glabris, pappi setis circa 20 
brevissime barbellatis. 

Ilah. Ad Gibraltar floret mens. Oct, 

Eami demum glabri et cinerei, usque ad capltula foliati, 
Polia vix 0'25 cm. long., apjjroximata vix imbi;icata, puberuhj, 
ri^ida, Capitula 0*3 cm. long., basi saltern 0'03 cm., sur.suni 
0'17 cm. lat. Involucri squamae late obovatse, obtu8iiSsim£ej circa 
7-seriatio, glabrae, scariosae, pallida brunuese et nitcutes, intima) 

Pappi setse corollas paullo 
excedcntesj 0*17 cm. long., albidae, Acha^nia noadum matura 
circa 0*7 cm. long., anguste oblonga. 

This should bo placed next H. diotoplujllmn^ F. Maelb, of 
whicb it has much the general appearance; but the leaves, on 
examiuatiou, are seen to be quite diflerenf, and the smaller 
narrower capitula are much more laxly arranged. AmonT other 
details wherein the two species differ, oue may mention tlie 
hirsute achenes of if* diotophyllum. 

"Waitzta cobymbosAj WendL Common at Gibraltar and 
elsewhere in the Coolgardie district in August and September. 

W. Steetziana, Lehm. Near Coolgardie, September. 

Helipteuum Manqlesii, _F. MiielL JSTine-mile rocks near 
Coolgardie, August. Seen also on the rocks at Guarlbine and 

fere 0'3 cm* long. Fiosculi circa 12, 






{.. . 


-■ rTviKn— i«.wyj- '_ r - ^ 

^ - -A- 1 




BullabuUing. Involucral bracts sometimes white, soinetimes 
pink, nourishes only in the soil from decomposed granite. 

Heltpteeum eoseum, SeniJi, Kilkenny soak, June. A 
variety of this beautiful everlasting with white involucres, 

H. ETJBELLUM, JBentTi, Common at Gibraltar and in the 
neighbourhood in August and September. 

H. PiTzaiBBONi, F. MtielL Eather common in September at 
Gribraltar, Bullabulliiig, &c. 

H. ELOETBTJNDUM, DC Betwccu Broad Arrow and Uladdie 
soak, March. 

H. HETERAKTnuM, TuTcz. Near Coolgardie, August. A 
small form, only 6 cm. high. 

H. ITTALOSPERMUM, F, Muell. Near Coolgardie^ August; 
also a larger-headed form at Bullabulling in September, 

H, Hi^romr, F. Muelh Gibraltar, September. 

H, STRiCTUM, Benih. Gibraltar, September. A small form 
up to 22 cm. high, though usually less. 

H. STRiCTUM, Benth.^ var. stenocephala, noh. Near Cool- 
gardie, August. A lowly unbrauched or but little branched 
variety, only 10-14 cm. high. Heads small and narrow, 

H. OPPOSiTTFOLiFM, S, Moove, in Joiirn. Bot. xxxv. (1897) p.lG5 - 
Near Coolgardie, September, 

H. PTOM^UM, Benth. Gibraltar, September, 

H, PYGMJEITM, Benth.j var. occidentale. Near Coolgardie, 

H. Zacch^us, S. Moore, in Journ. BoL xxxv. (1897) p, 166. 

IL (§ Pteropooois) TERECUNniTM, sp, nov. Pusilla, habitu 
IL pygyiKBi^ Benth., ramulis tenuibus fere usque ad capitula 
foliatis una cum foliis pra?sertim sursum laxe albo-lanatis, foliis 
anguste linearibus obtusis, capitulis late ovoideis in corymbis laxis 
brevibus dispositis, involucri squamis ovatia concavis obtusis 
extimis reliquis similibus nisi miuoribus interloribus lamina ovata 
obtusissima lutea ipsis eequilonga vol brevior, achseniis nondum 
maturis mirtutia glabris compressiusculis, pappi setis circa 6 
eximie plumosis. 


* > 

if ■■ 


t - 

3 - ' 



Ilah, Juxta Coolgardle repperi mens. Aug* florentem. 
Nee ultra 0*4 cm, alt., plerumque vero humilior. 


radicalia pauca, caulinis similia; caulina modica, 0'5-0*8 em, 
long., ascendentia. Involucrum 0'8 cm. long, et diam., puberu- 
lum ; squama extima) vix 0*2 cm. long,, intimse cxtimaa duplo 
excedenteSj omnes scariosae et subnitida). Flosculi circa 12, 
minuti. Corolla? pappi setas paullo excedentes. Pappi setae 
prsesertim sursum dense plumosse, 0*13 cm. long. 

This has somewliat the appearance o£ a very much reduced 
state of Melipterum hjalospermum^ F. MuelL, which, as becomes 
a member of the section Euhelipterum^ has hemispherical not 
ovoid flower-heads. The heads of the moat reduced forms of 
a. hyahspermum are considerably larger and have more florets 
than those of H. verecundum. Moreover the involucral bracts 
are much larger, and their laminar appendages are longer and 
relatively narrower. There are also differences in the florets, 
achenes, and pappus. 

H, Zacchceus, to which it is most closely allied, has oblong 
not ovoid capitula, narrower involucral scales (of which the inner 
have a narrow yellowish-green lamina), papillose achenes with 
10 setae to the pappus, Ac. 

HELiPTERUii POLTCEPUALUAT, Beutlu Gibraltar, September. 

II. EXiauuM, F, MuelL Near Coolgardic, August. An ex- 
tremely small condition, only some 5 mm. high. 

H. DiMORPHOLEPis, Benth. Near Coolgardic, August ; Gnarl- 

bine, September. 

Gnaphalium luteo-album, Linn. Creek N.W. of Wilson's 
pool, May* A dwarf state, barely 3 cm. high. 

G. jAPONicuM, Thunb. Bullabulling, September. A small 
form not exceeding 10 cm, in height. 

Erechtuites hispidtjla, DC. Gibraltar, September* 

Sexecio lautus, ForsL Common in the neighbourhood of 
Coolgurdie in August. 

S. vulgaris, Linn. Abundant in the Coolgardie district in 
springtime; probably introduced. 

H -m-^yT. "4- FT 

^ J-^ 

^T^i TTT -f T-W^ 

T' : ■ — -TFT." ^ 

-I --1- 


I - . 






Near Coolgardie, 

Au^rubt. Seen abo in various places iu the interior, where it is 
hy 1^0 means infrequent. 

SoNcnus OLERACErs, Zhin. Kear Coolgardie, August. 


Yelleia j^osea, ?p. nov. 

Humilis, pubcscons, foliis rndi- 

calibua petlolatis angutfte obovatis ohtusis^imis basi seusim 
atUnuatianarglnedtntatis vcl mnatisyel soluumiodo undulatif, 

o t 

recto folia vix duplo tuperante pubcsctnte, bracteis ad 

furcas oppositis ovatis lobatis vel fere iutegris, sepalis 5 libens 
tepalo axiali ovato-lanceolato ceteris lauccolatis omuilus sub- 
.Tquilongis acutip, corolla rosea extra pubet^ceute ecalcarata bujus 
lobis omnibus utrJnque alatis inferioribus 3 aliius (.oimatis, 

indusio mediocri. 

JIah. Inter AVilson's pool et lac Darlot inveni mens. Apr. 


Eadix sat crassu?, simplex. Novella) lanatoe. Tcliorum lamina 
l-3-2'0 cm. long., circa 07 cm. lat., pubcscens, basi iu pctiolura 
usque 0-7 cm. long, decurrcn?. Scapua paullo oiltra 4*0 cm. 
alt., ad 3-0 cm. bracteatus. Brackic O-G-0-8 cm. long., altera 
biloba, altera 1-dcntata, ambo pubesccntcs. Elcris unici maturi 
nobia obvii vix 1-5 cm. diam., pedicellus paullo ultra I'O cm. long. 
Sepala pubesccntia, 0-(J5 cm. long., minora vix 0-2 em. mojus 
O-yS cm. lat. CorollfB tubus dor^o vix 0-25 cm. long., lobi in- 
feriores 07 cm. long., suptrlores l-Q cm. long., usque ad 0-45 cm. 
a tuto liberi, omnes late alati. Anthera? 01 cm. long. Ov-'" 
quoveiuloculo4. Ilidu!^lum ambilu rotuudatum, 0-23 cm. long., 

pilosum. Capt^ula? uoi.dum obviae. 

Undoubtedly near V. paradoxa,'R,BT., horn ^^hk}l it differs 
chiefly in babit, sniall leaves, smaller rose-coloured flowers 
rare for tlie genus,— antbers not half tbe size, ai.d quite difl'erent 


Tbo ?pccimtn, wbicb is unique and bas but one flower, was 

growing on the bank of a creek a slort time after a heavy storm 
had visited the district. I could not bud a fellow to it. 

V. ? sp. A curious monster with somewhat the appearance 







runciuate ratlicul leaves are situated on long petioles ; the calyx- 
kbes are broadly ovate-lanceolate and proniinently tootbed along 
the borders. Corolla broad, not n.ucb exceeding the talyx. 



1 ' 

- * 

I . 

-= ■ "■ 



Stamens none in aJl but one flower examined, which had a single 
one* Indusium large and cup-shaped. 
Gibraltar district, September. 

GooDEitiriA HEDERACEA, Sm. Guarlbine, September- 

G, MiHULOTDES, S. Moore^ in Journ. Bot. xxxr. (1897) p. 167. 
Gibraltar, September* 

SciEYOLA SPIXESCEN9, 7?. Br, Common in various parts^ ag 
hctweeu AYihon's pool and Lake Darlot (April), Coolgardie and 
Gibraltar district (September). 

S. SPINESCEJS'S, R. Br,^ var. Between Coolgardic and Lake 
Darlot. A form without spines and with rusty pubescent leaves 
and flowers, wbich, except for their small size, are very much like 
those of the type. 


Dampiera xataxdulacea, LindL Gnarlbine and BuUa- 

bulling, September, Seen only in neighbourhood of soaks near 
granite rocks. Mowers sky-blue. 


Brunot^ta australtSj Sm, Gibraltar and Gnarlbine districts, 
Sej^tember and October. May be as small as 4 cm. ; my largest 
specimen is six times tbat size. 


IsoTOiiA PETR-aiA, F. MuelL Near Siberia soak. January. 

Gnarlbine, September, 


WAHTiENBEEOiA ORACiLis, A. DC. Near Wilson's pool. May 
Bullabulling and Gibraltar, September. 


Anagallis arveksis, Linn. Thoroughly established at Bulla- 
bulling rocks, September, Flowers blue. 


Altxia BTJXTroLTA, R* Br. Common in the Coolgardie and 
neighbouring districts. A shrub up to 6 or 8 feet, with white 
flowers, which are produced from June till October^ '' Hop- 





Pentatropis LiNEABis, Decne. Near Kilkenny soak, June. 
Flowers clive-green, 

Maksde^^ta LEicnHAHBTTANA, F, MuclL Eetwccn Ninety- 
mile and Mt. Margarut, March, Near Kilkenny soak, June. 


Halgania eigida, sp. nov. Suffruticosa, erceta, viscida, 
ramis sat validia tomentellis vel pubeseentibua tandem fere 
glabrisj foliis brevipetiolatis liuearibui^ apice obtu^is interdum 
recurvis margiuibus arete rcvolutis cras&iusculis rigidis snbtus 
albo- velrufo-tonientellis, cymis paucifloris quam folia brevioribus, 
floribus mediocribus, ealycis lobis oninibua subsequilongis ex- 
terioribus ovatis interioribua ovato-lanceolatis, corollas lobis 
ovatis vel oblongo-oTatis emarginatis, antheria abbreviatis apice 
brevissime appeudiculatis intus pubeseentibua. 

Sab, Crcscit juxta Coolgardie, mens. Aug* florens, ncction 

mens, Oct, ad Gibraltar, 

Suffrutex metralis vel |-metralis, sursum ramosus. Hamuli 
crebro folioai, snbteretea, tomento minuto fulvo vel cinereo 
vestiti vel pubescentes nonnunquam puberuli. Folia l"o-2'5 cm. 
long., 0*18-0*25 cm. lat., Integra, pag. sup. puberula, crccta vel pa- 
tentia, juniora vernicosa ; petioli incra^sati, 0*2 cm. long. Cymrc 
in toto upque ad 1*5 cm. loug., vernicosa). Bractea) oblonga?, 
obtus.Tj ealyci applicata) et eum suba?quantes vel superantes, 
usque ad O'G cm, long, Pedicelli circa 0*25 cm. long., una cum 
bracteis et caljcibua vernicoai. Calycis pubcaceutisj lobi vix 
0^25 cm, long., exteriorcs 0'2 era. lat,, interiores circa 0'18 cm. 
Florea cyanei. Corollas vix 1*0 cm. diam. lobi 0*4 cm* long., 
dorso obscure puberuli. Antherse late obloiigse, 0*2 cm. long., 
appendice rotundata brevitssima coronatai. Fructus hand obvii. 

Near H. lavandulacea^ EndL, which has different leaves, 
larger flowera, linear inner calyx-lobes, longer and narrower 
ccrolla-lobee, and differently shaped anthers with (although 
short for the genus) longer spathulate appendages, the cells 
villous on the inside instead o£ pubescent. 

II. viscosA, sp. nov. SufEruticosa, erceta, sursum ramosa, 
foliis parvis sessilibus anguste linearibus obtusis plania una cum 

J 1^ T 1^ ■ r 

1 I V 1 



ramulis maxime viscosis, floribus parvis solitariis vel binis in 
cjmis pauci- (2-3-) floris disposifcis, pcdunculis folia subiequanti- 
bus, calycis lobid inter se yuba3qualibuH lauceolatis obtusis, corolla 
lobis obovatis obtusissimis, antheris lineai-ibus utrinque pubes- 
centibus appendice ipsis a^quilonga filamentosa coronatis. 

Ilab. Prope Gibraltar menri, Sept. floreycit, 

SufFrutex altitudiuis innotatcO, forsan ^-metralis. Earai et 
ramuli teretes, demuni in lonyitudinem rugati, lii tenues et 
erecto-patentes* Folia integra, rarisaime sparsim dentata, 0-5- 
0-8 cm. long., yis O'l cm. lat.,. obscure strigoso-pube^centia, 
patenti-erecta. Pedunculi communes circa 0*3 cm. long. ; pedi- 
celli 0-2-0-5 cm. long. Calycis btrigose puberuli lobis 015 cm. 
long. Flores circa O'S cm. diam,, cyanei. Corollas lobi O'l cm. 
long., 0-35 em. lat., crenulati, glabri. Antliera) O'^acm. long., 
harum appendices pubcscented. 

Undoubtedly near Halgania strigosa^%iMec\\t.,hn^ niore viscid, 
and without so pronounced a strigoae indumentum. The habit is 
slenderer, tbe leaves are much narrower, and the cjmes less 
congested. The flowers are smaller, the corolla-tubes ditferently 
shaped, and the anther-appendagen, nearly double the length of 
those of ^. strigoiia^ run out into finej)oint:s, those of iZ". strigosa 
ending bluntly. 

Halgania ? sp. Pendinnie soak, March. A small specimen 
without flowers as it comes to hand now, although marked on the 
ticket as having blue flowers. 

EcHiNosPEBMUM coxVCAYUM, F, MuelL Near Coolgardie, 



CoifYOLYULua ERTJBESCENS, Sims. The Brook, Mt. Margaret, 
February. Creek near Wilson's pool, May. Near Eillienny 
soak, June- A rather common little twiner with pale pink 


SoLA]SUM KUMMTJLARiUM, Sp. nov. Suffrutlcosa, humilis, a 
basi ramosa, spinosa, tomento rufo arete induta, spinis solum- 
modo caulinis elongatis tenuibus late patentibus plerisque rectis, 
foliis minimis orbiculatis nonnmiquam leviter retusis brevipetio- 
latis, floribus sat parvis binis pedunculo communi perbrevi 
oppositifolio suffultis raro solitariis, pedicellia folia excedentibus 


■ >. i ^^, - T 



r 7 

fl V 

h .*■' 

C ■ T_ F ^ T ." I 1 I ■ r- -p 


" t 

r _ 




Tcl iis brevlorlbiis, calycia lobis brevissimis latis obtus^lssbnis, 
oorolLT alt® lobatic lobis ovato-lanceolatis extra tomcntosis, an- 
Iberis elongatis sursum grndatim attenuatis. 
■ Hah. Crescit inter Gibraltar et Coolgardie, ubi mens. Sept, 


SufFrutcx f metralis, ascenrlens, crebro ramosus. ^ Eami validi, 
teretes, dcnpe rufo-lomentosi, copiose foliati. Spina) plerseque 
opposita) vel suboppositfc, circa 07 cm. long., basi ipsa amplifi- 
catfe, glabra et uif irla?, integrjy raro bifm-cata). Polia mode 0-35- 
0-4 cm. long., 0-4-0-5 cm. lat., subtus pallidiora ibique densiu3 
tomeutosa, crassluseula ; petioH 0-2 cm. long. Peduneulus com- 
munis circa 0-2 cm.; pedicelli O-H-0-4 cm. long., una cum calyce 
0'2 cm. long., dense rufo-tomcntosi. ¥lorcs cyanei, 0-8 cm. diam. 
Corollai tubus 0-25, lobi 0-G5 cm. long. Antber» liueari-lanceo- 
lata?, vix 0-6 cm. long. T3aeca hucusque noa reperta. 

A very elegant little Solanum, CYidcntly allied to 8. orbiculaium. 
Dun., wbicb, however, with the same habit, has much larger 
leaves, a white not rusty tomentum, larger flowers with relatively 
broader corolla-lobes, and narrower and more pointed anthers. 
It is not uncommon in the district from which it is reported. 

Solanum cnENOroDraiiM, F. Mudl. Near Coolgardie, August. 


A subshrub, 2 feet higli. Bushy habit. 

S. LASTOPnTLLUM, Bun. Between Wilson's pool and Luke 
Darlot, May. Seen elsewhere in the neighbourhood of gnainma 
rocks, growing in decomposed granitic soil. 

S. ELLTPTicuM, R. Br. Near Coolgardie, August. 


Lyctum AT7STR.VLE, F. MuelL Plain south of Doyle's well, 
Juno. A ?mall, dcnsely-l)ranclicd shrub, 3 feet high. Flowera 
pale lavender, tetramcrous. 

NicOTTANA STTAVEOLENS, Lclinu, var. ROSULATA, nol. Bank 
of creek near AVilson's pool. An extraordinarily gmal! form of 
this so widely diffused Australian tobacco. Stem 3'5-12'0 cm. 

high. Leaves rosulate, l'O-3'O cm. long, 
length. Flowers white. 


Corollas 20 em. in 

PnOLinrA scoparta, B, Hr. Between Southern Cross and 
Mount Margaret ; also at Gibraltar, flowering in September. A 
yery common shrub, seen elsewhere in various places. 


F ■ ri 



Pholipta saijIGNA, sp. nov. Truticosa, glaadulosa, ereeta, 
sursum foliosa, foliid subsessilibus liucari-laueeolatid mucronato- 
acuminatis dcorsum integris sursum plua nnnus serrulatis infime 
in pttioluni lunge etsensiia augustati^j floribui mediocribua axil- 
laribus solitariis vel 2-3-nia, pedunculis quain folia brevioribui?, 
calycis parvi Jobis Icvissimo imbricatiis lanccolatk acutis, coroDa 
calycein muUo excedeiite a basi sat lata usque ad medium sensim 
ampliata hinc admodum attenuate, lobis abbreviatiy superioribufS 

minoribus et akius connatis lobo iufimo lateralibus distincte 
majori, ovulis collateralibus* 

Hah. Juxta Grnarlbine rcpperi cre.^ceatom meas< Sept. 

Frutex elatus, humancin altitudinem attingeaSj deorsum nudus. 
Eami erecti, sat teuues, aiigulatij liueis glandulosia muuiti, 
cinerei, juniores copiose re^iuosi. Folia rnodicj, circa 3*0 cm. 
long,^ 3-0'4< cm. lat., apice pungentia, coriacea, Irete viridiijj sub 
lento minute iurfuraceaj costa media pag. sup, impre&sa, pag. inf. 
eminent; petioli circa 0'5 cm. long. Pcdunculi usque ad 10 cm. 
long., plerique vero breviorcs^ sursum incrassati. Plores albi. 
Calvx 2 cm. long,, glaber. Corolla) in toto 0'8 cm. long, basi 
0'15 cm. medio 45 cm. lat. tubus intus dorso barbatus, lobi 
superiorea ovati, obtusi, lobus intlmua late ovatus, retusus, intus 
puberulus, stamina inclusUj didynama. Ovarium glabrum, calyci 
sequilougum. Stylus glaber, ovarium 2^plo superans, apice 

unciuato-iucurvus. Pructus nou vidi. 

A ratlier noteworthy plant, having much the general appear- 
ance of M^oporum plalycarpum^ 11. Br.; in fact it m remarkably 
homoplastic with forais of that species of which the leavers are 
serrulate, although it can be Lold at once by the curious lines of 
glands running down the stem from the points of insertion of 
the leaves. Of course the flowers are quite different in the two 
eases. Moreover, the inflorescence of iV^ saligna is peculiar. 

Ph. hoxioplastica, sp. nov* Prutico?a, copicse ramosa, 
ramulis tenuibus glabris, foliis minimis oblongis obtusis cauli 
arete applicatis vix imbricatis dorso tuberculosis glabris, floribus 
mediocribus axillaribus brevipedunculatia, calycis lobis (una cum 
pedunculis) laxe tomentosis oblongo-ovatis obtusis imbricatis, 
eorollie calycem yix triple excedentis tubo a l)asi sat lata sensim 
ampliato lobis ovatis obtusis^imis (lobo infimo revera late 
obovato rctuso), aupcrioribus altius counatis, staminibus inclusis^ 
ovulis coUateralibus* 



J . / 



JIah. Yigct loco liaud accuratius indloato inter Coolgardie et 
Mt. Margaret, ubi mens. Mart, floresccbat. 

Frutex aliitudinis iniiotatse. Eami pat validi, pennae corvlnse 
crass. J dense suberci ; ramuli circa 0*0(5 cm. diain., juniores foliis 
fere in toto abscondlii. Folia modica, 0-2 cm. loiDg., 0^075 cm. 
lat., dorso plus minus canaliculata, gbuiccscentia deinde auran- 
tiaca. Pedunculi 0-2 cm, long. Calycis lobi subsequales, vix 
0-25 cm. long. Corolla tota 0*7 cm. long., basi 0*12, sur.^um 
025 cm. lat., extra ct intus pubcscens, lobi superiores usque 
ad O'l cm, long., inter se liberi; lobi laterales 0*16 cm. long., 
lobus infimus latcralibus paiillo longior, Stamiaa didynama, 
propo basin tubi inserta. Ovarium glabrum, 0-16 cm. long. 
Stylus ovarium duplo supcrans, glaber, apice uncinato-incurvus. 


The liabit of this plant is almost exactly tliat of Pholidia gihhi- 

foUa^ P. Mucll. {Ercmopliila gihhosifoliay F, Muell.), and it would 
be difficult even for a botanist to tell the two apart until they 
flower ; then the difference is manifest, for the calyx of Ph. 
gihhifolia is glabrous and its lobes are almost setaceous; its 
corolla, glabrous outside, lias a sudden ba^al constriction, and its 
lobes are differently shaped, the lower lip's mid-lobe being niucl 
larger relatively to the re^t, and acute instead of retuae ; its 
anllierv-^, too, are much tim;iller and are set on longer filaments 
'wliicb arise considerably liigbei' up in the tube. I cannot but 
consider this to be one of the most remarkable cases of vegetable 

liomoplasy on record* 

By some mischance the collecting-note has got separated from 
the specimens, so that I cannot localize the habitat of this plant. 
I haA^e an idea that it was found somewhere near, if not at, 
Pendinnie soak. 

PuoLTDrA CEnrLEA, sp. nov. Suffruticosa, erecta, ericoidea, 
5iursnm copiose foliata, foliis sat magnis se?silibus approximatis 
JiUeruisanguste linearibus obtusis snbteretibusleviterglanduloso- 
tuberculosis cito omnino glabris^ floribus sessilibua ex axillis 
foliorum summorum nliquorum oriundis, calycia lobis ])arum 
imbricatis linearibus vel lineari-lanceolatis ciliatis, corolla? tubi 
parte attenuata calycem paullo excedente sursum subito aTiij)li- 

ficata, lubis superioribus altius connatis lobo medio reliquis 
majore intus barbato, antheris inclu>ii8 vel brevissime exsertis, 

ovuh"s collateralibus* 


iV " ■- 

< - _1V 

-u,- y- 




Ilab, Ad Gibraltar floret mens. Oct. Ejusdem invenlt speci- 
inina cl. Helms ad Warangering, 

Circa |-metra]ig; partes juuiores pubescentes mox glabrae. 
llami validi, oiucrei, reliquiis foliorum evauidorum crebro iuduti. 
Folia 0"6-l'0 cm. long., 0*18 cm* lat., ascendentia vel palentia, 
nee irabricata- Calyx vix 0*5 cm. long,, pubescens. Corolla 
caerulea, in toto 1"0 cm, paullo excedens, cujus pars coarctata 
0*5 cm, long, attinet; lobi ovati, obtusissimi, superiores 0'15 cm, 
long., 0'25 cm. lat,, lobus infimus vix 0-4 cm, lat. Stamina 
didjnama, superioracoroUae lobis sequialta. Ovarium vix 0'2 cm. 
long., villosum. Stylus I'O cm. long., basi ipsa barbatiis, De 
fructu inquirendum. 

To be compared with Pholidia microtheca, F. MuelLj and Ph. 

densifoUa, F. Mu 

From tbe former its larger, thicker, more 

closely pliced tuberculous leaves, larger flowers, hairy smooth 
ovary, and style hairy at the base may be cited among other 



calyx-lobes, corolla narrowed below for only a very small 
dij^tance, and its lobes acute. 

The Elder Expedition plant, of which I have seen a specimen 
at Kew, agrees exactly with mine. 

PHOLinriL Veronica, sp, nov. SufFruticosa, stricta, ericoidea, 

glabra, sursura folioaa, foliia minimis imbricatia pentastichis 
semiteretibus anguste linearibus acutis, floribus parvis sessilibus 
in axillis sum mis sitis, calycis lobis linearibus acutis levitcr 
imbricatis, corolhe a basi gradatim ampliatoD lobis superioribna 
altius connatis lobo infimo laterales vix excodente intus pubes- 
cente, antlieris breviter exsortis nee lobos excedentibus, ovuL's 

Sab. Heppori hand raram ad Gibraltar, ubi mens. Sept. flores 

Suff*rutex usque metralis. Kami deorsum nudi, validi, teretes, 
foliorum lapsorumreliquiis muniti, tandem conspicuerimati. Folia 
0'3-0*5 cm, long., 07 cm. lat., supra plana vel leviter concava, 
SLibtus carinata, erecta delude ascendentia vel patentia, Flores 
ca^rulei. Calyx vix 0*4 cm. long. ; lobis deorsum ciliatis, 
Corollae tubus 0*55 cm. long., noquaquam subito attenuatus, latere 
inferiore pubescens ; lobi late ovato-oblongi, obtusissimi, supe- 
riores 0'2, inferiores 0'35 cm. long, ; stamina didynama. Ovarium 

■T^ T fl-WT^T'TtT^ r^ - b--^^^ - 



■ Trr 

i ■ ^ ^ ^-.rr i_ 


^ . 

. 'J?: '^" 


^ - 




glabrum, 0*13 cm. long- Stylus ovarium quater escedens, glaber* 

Pructus desunt. 

lifoUa, P, Muell 

I ^ 

38 a true Eremophila, with flowers ou long petHceJs and foliaceous 
calyx-lobes. The affinity o£ Pholidia Veronica is doubtless closest 
with the species last described (P/^. ccerulea), from which it is at 
once distinguished by its different leaves, small flowers, narrow^er 
calyx-lobes, corolla not suddenly narrowed below, middle of 
lower lip subequal to its lateral fellows, and glabrous ovary and 

Pholidia iNTEESTA^s,8p.nov. Arborea^ sursum copiose ramosa, 
ramulis attenuatis una cum foliis minute arjienteo-furfuraceis, 

A . 

foliis alternis anguste linearibus apice breviter recurvc-unciuatls 
supra canaliculatis crassiusculis^ floribus mediocribus axillaribus 
solitariis raro biiiis, pedunculis brevibus, calycis lobis oblanceo- 
latis obtuse acutis subscariosis ciliatis, corolla tubularis abasilata 
levissime amplificata ejus lobis sequalibus vel paullo inaiqualibus 
superioribua parum altius connatis, stamiiiibus inclusis vix didy- 
namis, ovulis collateralibus vel superpositis. 

Hah. Inter Coolgardie et Gnarlbine floret mens- Aug. 

Arbor graciHs, stricta, circa 6-metralis, cortice crasso corru- 
gato cincta- Eamuli virgati, angulati, in sicco ollvacei. Tulia 
1*0-1"5 cm, long., ascendentes, sub apice subito recurva ibiquc 

decolora. Pedunculi 0'2-0*3 cm. long. !l^lores albi. 


totus 0'35-0"4 cm, long. ; lobi obscure reticulato-nervosi, post 
anthesin levissimo ampliati. Corolla tota vix 1*0 cm. long., 
extra et intus pubescens, ejus lobi 0"22-0"25 cm, long. Pila- 
mentabrevia, suba)quilonga,juxta basin corolla) inserta. Ovarium 
oblongo-ovoideum, pubescens, 0'17 cm. long. ; stylus glaber, 
ovarium 2^-plo superans. Ovula in loculis nunc collateralia nunc 
superpositus, Fructa ignotus. Hujus legi varietatem inse- 
quentem : 

Var* P^KVIELORA, Folia quam ea typi breviora ; flores miniati 
modo 0'6 cm. long, ; ovarium brevius et ovoideum ; stylus pin- 
guior, pubescens ; ovula collateralia* 

Frutex 2^-metrali3 juxta Grnarlbine mens. Oct, florebat. 

A plant intermediate in character between Pholidia and Eremo- 
philay hence its name* Except for the leaves being alternate, the 
habit, that is as seen in herbarium specimens, is much that of 
riu scopariay B. Br., or better of Ph. Dalt/ana, F. MuelL While 

■- L ■ h 



the calyx is decidedly that of Eremoplila, tlie corolla and 
siameiia are as clearly tliose of FhoUdia ; but the placentatioa 
is sometimes that of the one, and sometimes that of the other 
genus. In dissecting the type-form I have several times found 
in one cell of the ovary a couple of superposed ovules, while the 
other cell has had but one ; in other cases tliere are two super- 
posed ovules in each of the cells. 

Those who share the late Baron Mueller's views, as explained 
in his splendid monograph of the Australian Myoporinca3, will 
point to this case as supporting the contention that the species 
of Pholidia and Eremophila ought properly to be ranged under 
one genus. On the whole, however, I prefer, witli Beutham,',to 
keep the genera distinct, the Fholidias being easily recognized 
by their habit, small flowers with only the beginnings of zygo- 
morphy, and collateral ovules. 

Eremophila leucopiiylla, Benth. Creek between Wilson's 
pool and Lake DailOt, April. Near Kilkenny soak, June. A 
small shrub, up to 3-4 feet. Flowers jiale- or brown-pink. 


Suffrutlcosa, sur- 

sum foliosa, foliis lineari-lauceolatis obtusis vel acutis deorsum 
sensim in petiolum brevissimum attenuatis arete et minute stel- 
lato-tomentosis demum furfuraceis, floribus solitariis pedunculis 
brevibus a foliis multo superatis lanatis fultis, calycis extra et 

intus istellato-tomentosi lobis lineari-lauceolatis baud imbricatis, 
corollfe tubo extus puberulo a basi levitcr ac sensim amplificato 
calycem duplo superante, labio superiore usque ad medium 
bilobo lobo infimo latcralibus subfequali lobis omnibus obtusis, 
staminibus inclusis, ovario ovoideo-oblougo glabro, ovulis per 

paria superpositis. 

Ilah. Kepperi prope Mt. Margaret mens. Mart., necuoa 

mens. Jun. propre putenm " Doyle's well " dictum. j 

SufFrulex usque |-metralis. Eamuli glanduioso-tuberculati, 
dense ac minute tomentosi, deinde glabri et cortice crasso cinereo 
obducti. Polia 2-0-3 em. long., 0-2-vix 0-3 cm. lat., firma, ia 
sicco pallida, erccta. Pedunculi Oi cm. long. Florcs csorulei vol 
lavandulacei. Calycis lobi O'S cm. long., obtusi. Corolla) tubus 
1-2 cm. long., O'S cm, lat., intus faucibus pubesccntibus 
exemptis glaber ; lobi extra stellatim pubcscentes, superiores 

Stamina juxta basin tubi 

inserta. Ovarium vix 0-3 cm. long., a stylo puberulo 2^plo 

superatum. Pructus ? 


O'o cm., iiiferiores 0-0 cm. long. 




So far as concerns the general appearance and especially the 
foliage of this plant, it is much like EremopMla MaitlamH, 
r. Muell. Of this latter I have not seen flowers, but a glance 
at the plate devoted to it in Baron Mueller's monograph shovN s 


much larger flowers on long pedicels, the. calyx-lobes and coro'la 
U|iper4ip are quite different, the ovary etids acutely, and the 
style, provided at its base with a pilose ring, is remarkably 
dihited upwards. 


Fruticosa vel 

puffriiticosa, ratnosa, sursuni crebro foliata, ramulis dense f ulvo- 
toinentosis deinde glabris, foliiriabbreviatis oblanceolato-oblongis 
obtusia deorsum in petiolum breyissimum sousim coarctatis utriii- 
que dense fiilvo- vel albo-stellato-toraentosis, floribus solitariia 
pcdicellis foliis brevioribus suffultis, calycis stellato-tomentosi 
lobis late Hnearibus obtusissimis, corolla; tubo puborulo paullo 
supra basin coarctato hinc dilatato lobis superioribus usque ad 
medium inter se liberis lateralibus infirao suba^qualibus infimo 
obtuso reliquis acutis, staminibus exsertis, ovario glabro a stylo 
glabro nmltoties supcrato, ovulis per paria superpositis. 

Rah. Ad puteum " Pendinnie soak" nuncapatum repperi 
men^. Mart, flcrentem. 

EamuH rigidi, reliquiis fob evanidorum obsiti, deinde crasse 
corticati. Polia modica, O'S cm. long., 0-2-0-3 cm. lat., erecto- 
imbricata, marginibus parum revolutis. Pedunculi 0-3 cm. long., 
dense tomentosi. Flores puaicei. Calycis lobi I'O cm. loug.| 

utrinquc stellato-tomentosi. Corollaj tubus vix 1-7 em. lon^^, 

ima basi 0'25 cm. lat., paullo supra basin ad 0'18 cm. angustatus, 
eub lunbo 07 cm. lat, ; kbi omiies ovato-oblongi, infimo paullo 
latiore ot breviore, lobi siiperiores usque 0-35 cm. liberis, late- 
ralibus 0-8 cm. long. Eilamenta juxta basin tubi inserta, pube- 
rula, 2-5 cm. long. Ovarium oblongo-ovoideum, vix 0'3 em. 
long. ; stylus 2-0 cm. altingens. Pructus ? 

Allied to J?. MacUnUyi, P. Mueli.., from which it can easily 
be distinguished by its different leaves, the much broader and 
yevj obtuse, not so lengthily tomentose calyx-lobes, the exserted 
stamens, the puberulous not tomentose corolla, and the glabrous 
ovary and style. It also bears some superficial resemblance to 
small-leaved forms of E. LatroheL P. Muell.. which, however. !« 




a member of another section. From Eremnjpldla 3Iar(/aretJiw, io 
which it is closest allied, it can be told by means of the leaves 
the larger corollas with the tube narrowed a short distance above 
the base and then expanded again, essi-rted stamens, and greatly 

elongated style. 

Ekemophila oPPOSiTTFOLrA, B. Br., var. AKorsxiroLiA, noh. 
Between Doyle's well and Mt. George, June. Gibraltar, October. 
A i-hrub 4-5 feet high. Flowers milk-whito or pinkish-white. 
The leaves are narrowly linear, usually not exceeding a millimetre 

in wi 


E. Paisleyi, K Muell. Gnarlbioe, November. A shrub 
5 feet high. Flowers dirty white. 

■RT>ir*fnrrt«Arfis^ MTi^T AT>LICOKUM. SD. IIOV. SuffruticOBa, 


copiose r;.mo.>a, Pursuia foliata, ramis patulis rigidis, foliis parvis 
sersillbus lineari-oblanccolatis obtusis minute furfuraceo-pubes- 
ccntibus junioiibus viscidis, pedunculis solitariis tenuibus foha 
bene exccdentibus, calycis pubescentis lobis amplis basi imbri- 
catis ovatis vel oblongis obtusis meuibranaceis, corollae extra 
tomento^jB lobid superioribus altlus connatis lobo mfimo latcra- 
libuf^ ampliore, ovarium villosum, stylo puberulo, ovulis quove ni 
IlcuIo tiibus uniwerixtim insertis. 

Bah. Inter Wilson's pool et lac. Darlot fiorebat mens. April. 

SufErutex submetmlis. Eamuli furfuraceo-pubeseentes mox 
glabri. Folia modica 0-7 cm. long., 0-1-0-2 cm. lat., ascendentia 
vel patentia nee imbricata. PeduncuK 1-0-1-3 cm. long., gracil- 
limi, piloso-pubernli, pntentes vel nutantes. Flores cyanei. 
Calycis lobus superior ovatus, tandc n (sc. sub fructu) 0-5 cm. 
long., reliqui angustiores et vix 8 cm. long., omnes sub fruct-j 
cximie reticulato-nervo-si et uitiduli. Corollam maturam nou 
vidi. Fractus (an maturus?) ovoideus, obti!8us,a lateribus com- 
])ressus, in longitudinem rugatus, piloso-villosus, 0-6 cm. long., 
0-5 cm. lat., stylo O'S cm, long, coronatus. 

My collecting-note says that the flowers are blue, but by some 
means they have been mislaid, and only one small bud is available 
for examination. Nevertheless tlie plant seems so distinct that 
I do not hesitate to describe it. Its allinity is doubtless with 


different and 

not imbricated, the calyx is not quite the same, and the ovary 
and fruit are not glabrous and acumiuaLe. 

^ I 

■ * T 


T^^ . ;-rtl:™"=-*yr;--^ 

-^ --\rmn r^k^w/L-T-v - *^ATiK> -^-Tf 

frr,A X ^^TT-. i 

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I'- (■ 



Eremophila Latbobet, F. MuelL Plain south of Doyle's well, 
also near Kilkenny soak, June. Shrub or subshrub, 2-5 feet 
high. Plowers crimson. 

E. LATiiOBEi, F, Miiell 

TUBERCULOSA, fioh. Leaves 

linear, only l-O-l'O mm. -wide, with a row of prominent glandular 
tubercles on each side of the midrib. Between Wilson's pcol 
aud Lake Barlot, May. A ^mall shrub about 3 feet high. 
Elowers red. 

E. LONGiroLiA,i?l Jfw(?/;. Between Broad Arrow audUladdie 
soak, March. Shrub about a man'g height, Flowers pinkish- 

E. Drummoij^dii, F. MuelL Gibraltar, September. 

E. (§ Platycutlds) oeanitica, sp. nov, Eruticosa, viscosa, 
foliis alternis rarius oppo^itis vel subopposltis anguste linearibug 
obtusis supra excavatis, floribus solitariis longe ac graciliter 
pedunculatis, calycis lobis imbricatis amplis ovatis acutis utriu- 
que plus minus pubescentibus j^uberulisve post anthesin auctis, 
corolla calycem bene excedente extra et intus pubescente ejus 
tubo a basi amplo leviter et sensim amplificato lobis superioribus 
alte coDnatis lobo infimo quam lateralibiis majore, filamentis 
iijclusis puberulis, ovario denae sericeo-villoso stylo piloso coro- 
nato, ovulii:? per paria superpositis. 

Hal, Creiscit apudpeiras'graniticas *' Nine-mile rocks " dictas, 
ditioiie Coolgardiensi, ment;. Aug. florc&cens. 

Eruticoaa, erecta, diffusa, humanse altitudinis. Eamuli sub- 
teretes, glabri deinde cinerei, in longitudinem rimosi, ultimi 
attenuath Eolia (una cum lamulis) viscosa, sessilia, patentia, 
l"5-2'0 cm. long., raro 2*5 cm. attingentia, 0*075 cm. lat., in sicco 
olivacea vel olivaceo-atrata. ' Pedunculi usque ad 2*0 cm. long., 
compregsi, sub llore aliquanto incrassati. Elores pailide punicei. 
Calycis lobi ovato- vel oblongo-lanceolati, longiores 1-2 cm., bre- 
viores 0^8 cm. long., omnes membranacei et post anthesin reticu- 
lato-nervosi. Corolla tola usque ad 2'5 cm. loDg. ; tubus ad 
medium 0'8 cm, lat., labium superius I'O cm, excedens, usque ad 
0'25cm,, bilobum; lobi laterales oblongi, obtusi, lobo inSuio obo- 
vato a?quilougi. Stamina didynama, fdamenta I'Ocm.long., hand 
procul a basi tubi inserta. Ovarium anguste oblongum, 0'3 cm, 
long. ; stylus 1-3 cm. attingens. Eructua non vidi. 


P F 

J h 

■■■■ I- 



Near Eremopliila platycalyx, !F. MuelLj which is not viscous 
and has different foliage, and also shows marked inequality in its 
broader calyx-lobes, of which some are abnost orbicular. It also 
has a glabrous and relatively longer corolla-tube and a glabrous 
or slightly glandular-tomentose instead of densely villous ovary. 
^. Freelingii^ F. Muell., ha;', inter alia., entirely different leaves, 
marked inequality in its calyx-lobes, and mid-lobe of corolla 
nearly equal to the lateral ones. 

Eremophila Fraseri, F. MuelL Xcar Lake Darlot, ApriL 
A spreading resinous shrub, up to 8 feet high, though usually 
shorter. Flowers dirty white with maroon spots ; accrescent calyx 
red. The form gathered by me is that with narrower calyx-lobes. 

Fi. Browxif, F, MuelL Yilgangio claypans, February. A 
shrub about 4 feet high, with red flowers. 

E, Browkii, F. MuelL^ var. Leaves narrowly linear lanceo- 
late. Flowers considerably smaller than those of type. Q-ib- 
raltar, October. 

E. Olbfteldit, F. MuelL, var. aistgitstifolia, nob. Betw^eea 
Doyle's well and Mt. George, June. A shrub up to 5 feet or 
so* Leaves narrowly linear, 1 mm. wide. 

E, iiACiTLATA, F, MuelL Iscav Coolgardie, August. Between 
Coolgardie and Gnarlbice, September. 


Between Cool- 

gardie and Broad Arrow, and between the latter place and 
Uladdie soat, March* Copiously branching subshrub, a foot or 
BO high. Flowers pink or nearly white. 

■ E, latifolta, F. MuelL Betw^een Wilson's pool and Lake 
Darlot, May. Small shrub^ 3 feet or so high. Flowers green. 

E. ALTEUNiFOLiA, -B. Br. G-ibraltar district, October. Flowers 

E. ToTJNGir, F, MuelL Between Doyle's well and Mt. George; 
also Goose's soak, June. A spreading bush up to 6 or 8 feet. 
Flowers pale pink, 


SpAiiT0TnA;Nr^"r3 TEUcmrfLORus, F. MuelL (ex dcscrlpt.). 

"Pendiunie soak, March. Between Mt. Malcolm nnd Goose's 

soak, June, A plant not infrequently met with in the back 

^: i I . "- 




country as a subslirub up to 3 feet high. The flowers are white 
and swcct-scentcd : the berries black. 



Between Southern Cross 

and Siberia soak : alao between Ninety-mile lalto and Mt 


Subt^hrub or 

shrub 2-3 feet high, plentifully branched. I'lowers pale 
lavender or white streaked witb purple. 

P, WiLKiEANA ?, F, MuelL Between Uladdie soak and Til- 
gangie claypan^, March. Creek between Wilson's pool and 
Lake Darlot, April Small shrub, 3 feet or so high, llowers 
dirty wldte. Accrescent calyx lemon-coloured. 

I have not seen the type of this speciea, but Baron von 
Mueller*s description (Eragm. viii. p. 230) agrees fairly well 
with my »pecimens.- 

P. GrtlloanAj F. Muell (ex deaeript.). Siberia soak, January. 

Coolgardie district, September, 
high. Flowers dull red. 

Small shrub about 3 feet 

The specimens answer avbH to Baron von Mueller's description. 
Hemigenia (§ Euhemigenia) exilis, sp. nov. SufFruticosa 

SI] r s u m 

foliigera, foliis 

lineari-lanceolatls obtusis vol minute 
mucronulatis basi sonsim angustatis subcoriaceis glabris, floribus 
solitariia vel in verticillastris 3-4-floris dispositis, pedunculis 
nnam folia brevioribus juxta medium bracteolatis, calyce quani 
pi'dunculus breviore minute puberulo, corolla? minute pubescentis 
tub© calycem fere triple excedente, labio superiore bilobo labii 
inferiorls lobo intermedio baud lobato, antherarnm omnium con- 
nective inferne iequaliter vel suba^qualiter producto lineari raro 

clavato glabro. 

JIab. Crescit inter Wilson's pool et lac. Darlot, mens. Apr. 

floribns gaudens. 

Snffrutex altus fere metralis. Eamuli tetragoni, dein sub- 
teretes et cortice citiereo in longitndinem rimoso obducti. Eolia 
sessilia, l-O-l'S cm. long-, circa 0'2 cm. lat,, fere enervia, in sicco 
la;te viridia* Pedunculi 0'3-0'6 em, long., glabri. Bracteolae 

Bubulatfe, circa 0*1 cm. long. Elores purpurei, Calycis 0-3 cm. 
long. 0-2 cm* lat. lobi sub^quales, lanceolato-subulati, a tubo 
2plo Buperati. Corollse tubus attenuatus, O'S cm. long. ; limbus 

1 f,i 



Circa 0-5 cm. diam- ; labii superioris lobi late ovati, usque ad 0-15 
cm. liberi; labii inferioris lobi laterales orato-obloiigi, 0-y3 cm. 
long., lobus intermedium oblongo-obovatus, 0'4 cm. long., erosulus. 
Stamina breviter exserta; antherarum connectivus u?que ad 
0-1 cm. productus, interdum multo brevier vel subobsoletus, 
semper pilia carens- 

A very distinct plant, with leaves somewhat like those of Ilemi- 

genia B i d d ulphi ana , 1\ MuclL, but the flowers are altogether 

WESTRTxaiA CEPiiALANTHA, F. Muell Between Broad Arrow 
and Uladdie, March, Gibraltar, October. A ehrub 4 feet high 
or talJer. Plowers white. 

W. RiGiDA, B. Br. Gibraltar and Coolgardie, August and 
September, A small subshrub about 18 inches high. Flowera 



Plant A GO tabia, R, Br. 

Wilson's pooljMay 

T^ear Coolgardie, August Common in springtime in the Cool- 
gardie district. 


EnAGODTA BiLLAEDiERi, U, Br. Neighbourhood of Gnarlbiae 

September* A bushy shrub, 3 feet high. 

R. BiLLAUDiEur, R, Br,, var. lineauis- Gnarlbine, November. 
A small sbrub, 3 feet ia height, with green flowers. 

K. CRASSiFOLiA, B. Br. Gibraltar district, September. 


1^0 ore. 

p. 168. Kilkenny soak, June. 

Journ. Bot, xxxv. (1897) 


E. 9FINESCENS, B. Bt., var. A small subshrub between 

d Lake Darlot, May, A form with very small 



may perhaps be a new species, but the specimens have already 
flowered. The berries are white and very small. 

Dtsphania littoralts, R, Br. Bullabulling, September. 

Atriplex i^ummflaria, Lindl. Gibraltar, November, A com- 
mon shrub in various parts throughout all the districts visited. 

A, VEsiCARiA ?, Heward. Between Siberia soak and Mt. 
Margaret, and between Goongarrie and Mount Margaret, January. 


-^■-_ I T -1- 

'■ r» T^ ' r t '■ -r '_^fl rt -, ■ 



V ^ 

I- ■ L 

- ^> ■ ' 



Gibraltar, September. A subahrub usually about 2 feet or so 
bii>h. Tlic specimens are eitlier in flower only or in the early 
fruiting stage. Hence tlie doubt about the name. 


Enchtl^na tomentosa, B, Br. Near Kilkenny soak, June. 

KocnrA tillosa, LindL Between AYilson's creek and Lake 
Darlot, ]\Iay (flowers). Coolgardie district, August (fruit ia 
various stages). A lowly subslirub, with yellow flowers and red 


and green samaras. 

K. TiLLOSA, Lindh, var. Gribraltar and Coolgardie districts, 
spring. A variety with deuscly tomentose pink samaras. Perhaps 
better referred to one of the later described species of this 
difficult genus. 

K. SEUTFOLTA, F. MuelL Between Doyle's well and Mt. 
George, June. A small erect subahrub, about 2 feet high. 
Samaras pale rose. 

CuENOLEA scLEROLiEis-oiDESj F, Muell. Gibraltar, September 

ScLEROLiENA BicoRNis, Lindl. Commou in various parts of 
the interior. The specimens are from near Mt, George (June) 
and Coolgardie (August), 

Saltcoii:ma AnnuBcuLA, 72. Br. Common near claypans and 
on salt-bush plains. 

Salsola Kali, Linn. Between Broad Arrow and TJladdie, 

March. Occurs here and there in various places, but never 
in great quantity. 


Teichinitim obotatum, Gaudich. Kear Kilkenny soak, June. 
Plain south of Doyle's well, «Tune. Coolgardie district, August 
and September. This common Amaranth occurs in several 
varieties in various parts of the Goldfields. 

T. ALOPECUHOiDEUM, LindL Near Ninety-mile lake, June. 

T. coiiTMBOsuM,(9(7?^^/i?A, Between Broad Arrow and Uladdie, 
March. Bricke's soak, June. Coolgardie district, August. 

T. eremita, sp. nov. Herbacea, pusilla, ereeta, parum 
ramos.Tj foliis radicalibus et caulinis linearibus vel lineari-oblan- 

- i' 



ceolatis basi in petiolum attenuatis aplce spinuloso-apiculatia 
piloso-pubcrulis vel vix glabris, spicis abbreviatis late ovoideis 
paucifloris, bracteis bracteolu^que rotundato-ovatis breviter spinu- 
loso-acurninatis tenuiter scarlosis, perianthii straminei segineiitis 
fere omnino liberis extra deor^um piloso-hirsutulis intus glabria, 
antheris minutisj ovario glabro. 

Sab. Ad Gibraltar florcbat mens, Sept. 

K"ec ultra 5-0 cm. alt., plerumque vero liumilior. Eadix sim- 
plex, teimis. Folia pleraque O'5-l'O cm. long., 0'05-0'2 cm. lat., 
radicalia plerumque paullo majora, omnia in siceo Isoto virides- 
centia. Spicoe breviter peJunculata?, circa 07 cm, long, et diam., 
4-8-florse* BracteoLne vix 0-5 cm. long., glabrae. Perianthii 
segmenta oblonga, breviter acuminata^ vix carinata, medio viridia 
ibique tantum pilifera, 0-7 cm. long., omnia piloso-hirsutula, 
sursum glabra. Filamenta complanata, basi nuda. Ovarium 
depresse splia^roideunij pauUo ultra O'l cm. long, et diam. Stylus 
excentricus, quam ovarium 2plo longior, glaber. Stigmatis 
margo laceratus. 

Por a time I thought thid might be a very greatly reduced form 
of Trichinium corymhosum, Gaudich., which, apart from the small 
size, it resembles superficially to a remarkable extent. On close 
examination, however, some well-pronounced differences come to 
light. Thus all the perianth-segments are hairy on the back, not 
the three outer ones alone, as is the case with T. coryijxhosum^ 
which latter has anthers from four to ten times the size of those 
o£ T. eremita and longer fiiaments ; its style also is much longer 
and the edge of the stigma entire, not lacerate. Moreover, 
though the ovary of T. conjmhosum is said by Bentbam to be 
glabrous, I find a fringe of long hairs attached near the top. 
The ovule also of T. corymhomm is quite different, being only 
half the relative width and oblong in shape, instead of broadly 
reniftrm; and this, if it be a constant character, pomtg to a 
difference in the seed. 

TBicnixiUM: helipteeoides, i^. Muell, Near Kilkenny soaV, 
June. A form with small flower-heads. 

T. Drummondii, Mqci^ Not infrequently seen in various 
parts of the interior north of Pendinnie soak, where it flowers 
in June. A form with very small heads barely half an inch in 
diameter. An intermediate form was collected by the Elder 
Expedition at various camps in the Victoria desert. 



-^ -^ -- 


"J ^P'T'l 




Teichinium Carlsoni, F, MuelL Near Coolgardie, August. 
The flowers are sometimes yellow, sometimes orange-red* 

T. HOLosERiCETJM, Moq, The Forty-five-mile, June, Cool- 
gardie district, August. Some of the specimens vary from the 
typical habit, the stems shooting out to a length of 10-15 cm., 
and bearing numerous leaves as long as or longer than the radical 



EuMKx CRispuSj Linn. Bullabulllng, September. Probably 
introduced by teamsters. 

PoLTGOKTJM PEOSTEATTJM, B. Br. K"ear Kilkenny soak, 
June. A form with short ovate-lahceolate leaves, 1^-2 cm. in 


Peesoonia (§ Amblyanthera) Leucopogon, sp. nov. Suf- 
fruticosa sursum copiose foliata, foliis parvis imbricatis lineari- 
lanceolatis pungenti-acumiuatis subsessilibus obscure l-nerviis 
albido-tomentosis proventu dein minute furfuraceo-tomentellis, 
floribus solitariia brevipedunculatiSj perianthiis dense ferrugineo- 
tomentosisj antheris a perianthii segmentis pauUo superatig, 
connectivo obtuso, ovario glabro breviter stipitato, ovulis 2. 

Hob. Eepperi inter Uladdie et Tilgangie, ubi florescit mens. 

Suffrutex circa |-metralis. Eamuli circa 0'2 cm. diam., rigidi, 
sursum ramulosi, juniores appresse tomentosi proventu plus 
minus pubescenles. Folia circa I'O cm. long., vix 0'2 cm. lat., 
basi revera usque ad 0*1 cm, miniata, rigida, plus minus curvata, 
margine inorassata, pallida. Pedunculi 0'25 cm. long., dense 
ferrugineo-tomentosi. Flores lutei. Perianthium I'O cm. paullo 
excedens, utrinque angustatum. Glandula hypogyna minuta. 
Antherae 0*5 cm. long. ; connectivus apice hand apiculatua. 
Ovarii anguste ovoidei 0'175 cm. long, stipes vix 0*2 cm. attin- 
gens. Stylus pinguia, glaber, 0*C cm. long. De fructu sileo. 

This is a Biugular-looking plant, and not likely to be mistaken 
for any of its congeners. In habit it reminds one slightly of 
P. angulata^ E. Br,, but the tomentose leaves are very much 
emalier and twisted. This twist, which is well marked in the 
case of most leaves, probably has heliotropism for its cause. 

1" ' 



The connective ends as a liardcned obtuse point extending no 
further or at most a fractioQ of a millimetre further than the 
cells. Consequently the plant U rightly referred to the section 


MuelL GaarlbiaCj Novemhor, 

Slender tall shrub, 10 feet high- 

Flowers cream-coloured, 
sA'eet-scented. Differs from the type chiefly in its longer leaves 
and broader spikes, though in these points my specimens more 
closely resemble those of the Elder Expedition, which arc named 

as above. 


garded as a distinct species. 

Eruits of this were secured, but the seeds had dropped from 
them. The follicle is ovate, to some extent bilaterally asym- 
metrical, and with a straight ventral suture. It is 1*5 cm. loug 
and a little over 1 cm. wide. 

Gr, (§ pLAGioPonA) EXTORRis, sp. Bov, Fruticosa, sursum 
foliosa, ramulis pubescentibus mos glabris, foliis anguste line- 
aribus apice puugentibus corlaceis plauis appresse sericeo- 
pubescentibus puberulisve, glomcrulis Bubsessilibus umbellatia 
axillaribus paucifloris, pediccllis quam perlauthium brcvioribus to- 
mentellis mox appresse pubescentibus, periauthio extra appresse 
ferrugineo-hirauto intua supra medium pulvinato-barbato ejus 
tubo a basi leviter ac sensim ampliato sub limbo attenuato, toro 
obliquo, glandula eemilunari parum eminente, ovario breviter 
stipitato appresse albide sericeo-villoso, stylo perianthium multo 
excedente, atigmate laterali breviter conico. 

Hah. Hepperi inter "Wilson's pool et lae. Darlot mens. Maj 

Erutex humauce altitudinis vel humilior. Eami leves, ciaerei, 
deorsum nudi. Eolia 5'0-7'0 cm, long., 0'2 cm. lat., deorsum 
sensim et leviter attenuate, subtus 4-caualiculata, rigida, glau- 
cescentia. Peduuculi nee ultra 0*2 cm. long., plorique vero 
breviores, sericeo-tomentosi. Pedicelli modici 0*3 cm. long., sub 
flore amplificati. Perianthium circa 0'8 cm. long,, purpurasceus ; 
limbus ejus globularis. Ovarium 0*13 cm. long., stipite 0'15- 
0'3 cm, long, fultuin. Stylus usque ad 2-0 cm. long., plerumque 
vero brevior, glaber, sursum leviter attenuatus. 

G. haplantha^ E. Muell,, has much the same inflorescence, but 
its leaves are different, being shorter, narrower, and not so 


■Ti -,W 

I . 

jr^w^TTi^-^jm ^j^ T-r, ■ -■ 

i.-p— r^'-^.ini-r' — '<^ 


V . 'n 





markedly channelled beneath; its perianths, ioo, arc much 
broader, and the ovary, placed on a shorter stipe, is ti)iekly 
covered with long coarse yellow hairs, and is crowned by a longer 
and pubescent or villous style. 

GnEYTLLEA (§ Plagiopoda) aculeolata, sp. nov. Frutico?a, 
copiose ramosa, ramulis puhegcentibus niox glubrit^, foliis parvis 
linearibus apicc piingenti-spinulosis margine arete revolutis siibtns 
gericco-pubcsccniibus rigidis, glomerulis terminalibus paucifloris, 
pedicclUs folia suba^quantibus vel iis brevioribus. perianthio extra 
vix omnino glabro intus in toto pubcsconto doorsum gradatini 
anipliato surpum recurvo, toro oblique, glandula planata, ovario 

glabro brevissinie ^tipilato. 

Hah. Legi inlcr Wilson's creek et lac. Darlot, ubi flores 

rubros proforcbat mens. Maj. 

Itainuli rigidi, cinerei, iu longitudiruin rlmo-^i. Folia approxi- 

mata, I'O cm, long., 0*1 cm. lat., ^essilin, supra fere glabra, deiudo 

subnitentia, subtus pallida, patentia, rigide coriiicea. Pedicelli 

vix usque ad 0'5 cm, long., aacendentcs. Periantlui tubus circa 

0"8 cm. long., dcorsum vix 02 cm. diam., sursum usque ad O'Oi 

cm. coarctatus; lobi autheriferi ovati obtusi. Ovarii stipes O'OtJ 

cm. long-, tori ninrgine superiore in?erta. Ovarium 0*13 cm. et 

stylus crassiusculus 1^2 cm, long. Stigma obliquum, orbiculare, 

convexum. — IIujus ext^tat varietatem inscqueutem : 

Var. LONGiFOLrA. Folia spar^in, l'5-2'0 cm. long. 

Inter "Wilson's pool et lac. Darlot mens. Maj floret. 

To be distinguished from O-. aeufma, F, Muelh, cliicfly in tlic 
different juniper-like leaves and the broader perianth puhesceut 
witliin throughout, not bearded to below the middle only, and 
provided with a more prominent limb. 

Except for its somewhat smalhr leaves white underucath and 
the shorter and slenderer stvle, there is little to distinq;uish the 
present plant— and especially the var. lo^^gifolia — from the Elder 
Expedition plant referred to Q-. acuaria^ which in all proba- 
bility is a variety of the plant here described. 

G. (§ Caigthtrstjs) Sartssa, sp. nov. Fru^icosa, rannilis 
pubescentibus deinde glabris, foliis clongatis auguste lincarlbus 
omnino intcgris aidce spinuloso-pungentibns marginibus arete 
revolutis glabrit*, raccmis terniinalibLis abbreviatis paucifloris 
yolitariis, perianthii glabri tubo a basi usque ad apicem sensitu 
alter.uato, toro obliquo, glanduhi paruni eniinente, ovario glabro 
stipiti elongate gcniculatim inserto. 



II(ib> Ad Gribraltar florebat mens* Sept. 

Prutex altitudinis iiiuotatse, liamuli rigldi, sursum crebro 
foliosi. Folia erecta, 16'0 ern. long., O'l cm. lat., basibus uli- 
quantulo dilatatia iiiserta, in sicco lute^centi-viridia. Fiorum 
rbachidis usque ad I'O cm. long., tomentosa. Florea pateates 
1'5 cm, long., deor^um 0'4 sursum 0'2 cm. lat. Ovarii stipoi 
0*5 cm. long., toriapici insert lis, parum curvatua. OvariumO'l cm* 
long., stylo incrassato sursum sensim attenuate 1*0 cm. cxcedente 


Stigma obliquum, convexum. 

Fructus ambitu 

ovatus, vis 1*5 cm. long. 

The same plant is among the specimens brought back by the 

Elder Expedition. It has been called ^' GrevUlea Huegeliil' I caii- 

uiot but think wrongly. The leaves of G, Iluegelii are altogether 

different, its perianths are hairy and much smaller, the torus 

and gland are smaller^ the stipe is thinner, the ovary smaller, 

and the smaller style is set straight upon the stipe and not 


The Elder Expedition specimens are of two kinds, shorter- 

and longer-leaved. The tbrmerj with leaves reduced to 7 cm, in 

length and sometimes bifurcate (in one case trifureate), but then 

with narrow-linear lobes and thus quite unlike the leaves of 

G, Iluegelii^ may be distinguished as var. hrevifolia of the species 

here established. The fruit has been described from Elder 

Expedition material at Kew. 

Hake A (§ Grevilleoides) suberkAj sp. nov, {H. lorea^ 
E. MuelL & TatOj non 11, Br.). Arborca, foliis elongatis tcreti- 
bus integris levibas, cicatricis punclis vaseularibus ternis medio 
lateralibus approximatis a basi remote, racemls axillaribus cylin- 
dricis densifloris, rhachide pedicellis perianthiisque dense stra- 
mineo-tomentoslsj pedicellis perianthia hand excedentibus, 
perianthii tubo anipliato basi dilatato sursum revoluto, lobis 
obovatis obtusis, tore parum obliquo, glandula hypogyua magna 
hippocrepiformi, ovario subses^sili. 

JIah, Cre&cit in vat i is locis in solo granitico, mens. Apr. flores 



OS nraj 


Arbor usque ad sexmetralis cortice maxime crasso alte rimoso 
obducta. Eamuli angulati, dein subteretes, breviter tomentosi 
cito glabri. Folia hac atque iliac cougesta, usque ad 25'0 cm. long., 
apice pungentia, in sicco pallide virescontia. Haccmi 7'0 cm. 
long, ve] ultra; rhachis 0*2 cm, diam. Pedicelli 0-5-0'6 cm: 
long.j patentes, Perianthium basi usque ad 0*3 cm. amplificatum ; 

r .P- I 

^ i 

224 , Ml?. S. MOORE OlS THE FLOR^ 

pliyllaloiigepost anthesin colitcrcntia, l"2cm. long., lobi antheri- 
feri alte excavati, 0*25 cm^ long. Ovarii stipes 0'15 cm. long. 
Scylus crassus, dcorsum 0*1 cm, diam., 1'7 cm- long. Stigma 
obliquum, conicum, rugatum. 

Specimens of the same tree were obtained by Mr. Helms o£ 
the Elder Expedition In the Cavanagh and Barrow Eanges. In 
the report of that Expedition these specimens are referred to 
ILahea lorea^ U, Br., a course I find it impossible to acquiesce in, at 
the same time feeling doubta as to wliether there can be authentic 
specimens of //. lorea at Melbourne. Two congeners more 
easily separable it would be scarcely possible to find. The chief 
differences lie in the shorter and slenderer leaves of II. sulcrea, 
its short stout pedicels not longer than the perianths, the latter 
organs larger and much broader with a dilated base, the larger 
anthers, the bigger gland, subse^^sile ovary, and elongated stout 
style. Moreover the distribution of the vascular scars left upon 
the stem atter the fall of the leaves, a point to which Meissner 
attaches importance, is different in the two, IL suherea being, in 
this respect, more like //. Cunninghamii^ K. Br. 

This tree was seen from the Black Gin soak, between Goon- 
garrie and Mt. Margaret, northwards to our farthest point 

some high granite rocks fourteen miles north of Lake Darlot. 
AVherever it occurs, subteiranean water is su|)posed to be some- 
where in the vicinity, and experience has, so far I believe, justified 
the supposition. 

My specimen — unfortunately only a single one and not very 
good — agrees perfectly with that of the Elder Expedition in the 
Kew Herbarium- 


PiMELEA TKicnosTACiiTA, LindL The Brook, Mt. Margaret, 

P. MiCROCEPHALA, B. Br. Between AYilson's pool and Lake 
Darlot, May. Plain south of Doyle's well, and near Goongarrie, 
June. A small shrub about 3 feet high. Elowers yellow-green 
or dirty white. 

P. (§ Ditualamia) TnESioiDES, sp. noT. Eamosissima, fere 
omnino glabra, ioliis plerisque oppositis parvis sessilibus lineari- 
lanceolatis vel linearibus obtusis, capitulis parvis terminalibus 
plurifloris, involucri bracteis plerumque 4 foliis consimilibus nisi 

. J**"*- T 

i ^ 

T 1 




brevioribus et latioribus, floribus dioicisj, periantbio masculo 
alteuuato bracteas excedeiite glabro, periantbio f cemineo masculo 
vix subsequilongo deorsum ampliato sursum attenuate glabro. 

Hab. Eepperi inter Coolgardie et lac. Darlot, sed ob acbedulara 
pra^termissam locum aecuratius indicare ncqueo. 

Verisimiliter frutex deorsum nudus surdum creberrime ramosus. 
Eamuli diffusi, attenuati, angulati, ipsis yub capitulis sa^pe piloso- 
puberuli. Folia 0'5-0"S cm. long,, 0"l-0*2 cm. lat., margiue sub 
leute minute crenulato-undulata, in sicco flavescenti-viridia. 
Capitula 0*5-0'7 cm. diam,, piloso-puberula vel breviter scriceo- 
villoma. Involucri bracteie 0*4-0*7 cm. long., glabra), usque ad 
0', obtusse vel acuta^, nonnunquam breviter acuminatse* 
Plores verisimiliter viresccntes. Periantbii masculi tubus 04 cm. 
long., 0'05 cm. lat. ; limbi 0'25 cm. diam., lobi obovato-oblongi, 
obtusisaimi, 0*13 cm. long, Perifintbii foominci tubua mox usque ad 
circa O-l cm. expansus, deorsum ad 0"1 cm, angustatus, sursum 
Bubito ad 0'03 cm. coarctatua, ejus lobi pei breves, late ovati, ob- 
tusisaimi. niamenta brevissima; autherarum connectivus an- 
gustus. Stigma breviter exs^ertum. Drupa nondum matura 
0*3 cm. long. 

Differs from Pimelea mzcrocepJiala, H- Br., on account of its 
extremely ramose habit, smaller leaves, short glabrous male 
flowers, and entirely diiferent female. For the same reasons, 
except the presence o£ hairs on the perianth ai:id witb the addition 

of larger more-flowered heads, it can readily be distinguished 

from P.paucijlora^ E, Br. 



LoRAiJTnus Li:^EABTFOLTus, Roolc. Near Goose's soak. 
South of MacAuliffe's soak. Plain south of Doyle's well. All 
in June. The hosts were species of Acacia not in flower. 
Flowers red. 

The same individual host at the Goose's soak also supported 
the following, viz. : 

L. MuREATi, F. Mnell, Sf Tate, var. pauyifloea nol, (Z. 
miniaUis^ nob-, in Journ. Bot. xxxv. (1S97) p- 170.) Near 
Goose's soak and Kilkenny soak, June. Flowers pale greenish 
below, yellow^ or orange above. Berries dark red. 

Since writing my memoir {vide Joe. cit.) on the camel-fodder 
plants of West Australia, I have had the opportunity of seeing 
at Kew specimens of L* Murrayi^ the affinity of which with my 


r- : 

■ ,,¥r 'V^ ■ ■ .* ^-M^ 

^1 >-n Tl ^" ■ f 

- ■ . ■ -\ - 

■ p . 

r ~ _ 




supposed new species, Loranthus miniatus^ I had already alluded 
to, I find that the Elder Expedition specimen referred to 
X. Murrayi has the peculiar hahit of minej viz,, leaves crownii 
fiubobsolete branclies ; and as the flowers, except for their reduced 



flowered variety of the South Australian. 

LoRANTnus LiNOPiiTLLiis, Feuzl. kSiberia soak, January. 

Between Yilgangie claypaus and Pendinnie soak, March- Flowers 

L. PENDULUS, Sieh,^ var. pakviplora. IS^ear Mount Malcolm, 



June. Parasitic on the Quandoug {Fusanus per8icarius\ and 
liomoplastic with it. Plowers red. 

L. QuANDANG, Lindl. "Wilson's creek, and creek belween 

Wilson's pool and Lake Darlot, April The host is a Grevillea, 

probably G. aculeoJata, S. Moore. Perianth green ; stamens 

A flowerless specimen, ' apparently to be referred to this 
species, was found growing on an Acacia out of flower. It was 
strikingly homoplastic with its host- 

L. Nestor, >S'. Moore, in Journ. Bat. xxxw (1897) p. 170, 

Near Bricke's soak, between Goongarrie and Mount Margaret. 

Santaltjm lanceolatum, li. Br. The Brook, IVIt, Margaret, 

February. A branching slirub, 8-10 feet high. Flowers and 

fruit yellow-green. 

EusAxrs PEHsiCARius, _F, MnelL A shrub up to 6 or 8 ftet. 
Common in various districts. The '^ Quandong.'* 

E. SPiCATUs, B, Br, Common from Pendinnie northward. 
The red flowers appear from February to May. *' Sandal- 

ExocARPUS APiiTLLA, B. Br. Gibraltar, September. Not an 
xincommon shrub in various districts. 


MoKOTAXis LUTETFLORA, _F. MuelL Between Broad Arrow 
and Uladdic, March. 

4h' -^ 



3 I 



Phyllanthus LACuyARis, F. MtielL Bo'Aej rocTvs, between 

Gooiigarrie and Mt. Margaretj Juiie. 


Parietauia debilis, Forst Nine-mile rocks nearCoolgardie, 




TuELTMiTRA LONOiroLiA, Forsf. Guarlbiiio^ September- 
Tii. ATTTENXIFERA, Iloolc.f, Gnarlbinc, September. 
Pterostylis pyramidalis, LindL Nine-mile rocks near 

Coolgardic, August. 


DiA?fELLA revoluxa, B, Br, Gibraltar, September. 

A^^GiJiLLARiA DioiCA, 7^. 7ir. Betwceii AVilt^ouy creek and 
I;ake Darlot, May. Kilkenny Boak and Donkey rocks, Juno. 
]Most of the specimens have (short sheathing bracts and solitary 
octamerous and always hermaphrodite flowers. 

Arturopouium cuitTiPKs, sp. noy. 

Yix -^-motraliB, n;dici- 

bus ?, fullis linearibus, circa lO'O cm, long, et 0-2 cm, lat., pedi- 
cellis plerisque binis deinde recurvis, bracteis foliis similibus 
uiai mnlto brevioribus, antlicris quam filamcnta brevioribus his 
\h omnino dense hmatis, ovarlo c}lindrico-oblongo. 

Jlah. Prope Cooli^ardie (lores purpnreos profert mens. Aug. 
Near A., Br., and A, minus, R. Br.; the 
three being distinguishable in the following way : 

A^ paniculatum. Flowers usually two or three to each tract. 
Bracts minute. Filaments tomentose in their upper half 
only. Anthers linear-oblong, more than half as long as the 
filaments. Ovary ovoid. Style long and slender. 
A. minus. — Flowers smaller than those of A. panicidatitm 
and usually solitary. Bracts 5-10 mm, long. Filaments 
tomentose to a little below the middle. Anthers oblong, 
half as long as the filaments. Ovary ovoid. Style short 
and compaiatively thick. i 


1 r -■ 




Arthropodium curvipes. Flowers of A. mlnas^ but usually two 
to each bract. Bracts up to 15 mm, in leugtli. Filaments 
tomentose almost to the bottoiu. Anthord obloug, sm ill, 
about a quarter the Jength of the lilamcnt:^. Ovary 
cyliiidric-oblong. Style abort and comparatively thick. 

TnYSANOTus Patersoxe, B, Br. Gibraltar, October. 

BoRTA NiTiDAj LahUL Between Southern Cross and Siberia 
soak, January, Nine-mile rocks ne^ir Coolgardiej August. 
Seen also on otlier gnanuna-rocks. 


Xantiiorruce.v, sp, A grass-tree or ''black-boy" — probably 
X> Preissiiy Endl. — was seen sparingly ia a narrow strip of country 
between Southern Cro^^s and Siberia. A few individuids were 
also seen between Uladdie and Tilgangie, Specimens were not 
brought down. 

JcNCUS BUFOXius, Linn. BuUabuUing rocks, Scpteuiber. 

Centrolepis MUTiCA, Ilierou. Bullabulling, September* 

SciRPUS cartilagineus, Spreng. Bullabulling, September. 

S. CERNUTJS, ValiL JSiile-mile rocks near Coolgardie, August. 
BuUabulling, September. The spikelots are longer than those of 
specimens from ether parts of Australia, though not than those 
of some exutic specimens, as Mr. C. B- Clarke showed me. 


Panicum LEUOOPniETJM, II. B. K. Siberia soak, January. 
Creek between Wilson's pool and Lake Darlotj May. 

P* GRACILE, M. Br. Between Southern Cross and Mt. 

Aristida arenaria, Gaudich. BuUabulling, September, 

Stipa scabra, Zindh Near Coolgardiej August. 

S. ELEOANTissiMA, LalUl. Near Coolgardie, August 
Gibraltar, September. 




Stipa hemipogon, Benth. Gibraltar district, September. 
Deteuxia ToESTERr, Bentli. BuUabulliiig, September. 
Dantiionia setacea, B. Br. Gibraltar, September. 


Pappophohum kigricaxs, B. Br. 

Between Broad Arrow 

aiidUladdie soak, March (the form with pale ghimcf^, P.^mlli- 
dum, E, Br.). Near Wilson's pool, Ma^^ (typical form). 

Eeiachne ovata, Nees, vnr. ijana, noh. Coolgardie, August. 
Gibraltar, September. These are dwarf specimens to which there 
is nothing similar, neither at the British Museum nor at Kew. 
The tallest of thorn is only some half-a-foot high, the smallest 
barely an inch. 

E. OBTTJSA, B. Br. Siberia soak, January. Leaves very 
pungent pointed, more so than in the type-specimens, 

EiiAGROSTTS ciiiETOPHyLLA, Stcud. Between Broad Arrow 
and Uladdie, March. 

Briza MAXIMA, ii««. Gnarlbine, September. Probably intro- 
duced by teamsters. 

BuoMUs AEENARius, LaUll. Near Coolgardie, August. 
Teiodia ireitans, B. Br. i'requent in various parts north 

of the thirtieth pnrallel: rarer in the south. " Spinlfex." 
Specimens were not brought down. 



PEEyELA eobusta, A. Cutin. Between Wilson's pool and 
Lake Darlot. Shrub, about 8 feet or more high, with pyramidal 


EiLiCES (dot J. G. Baker)* 

Cheilaktres Siebehi, Kunze, Creek between Wilson's pool 
and Lake Darlot. 

NoTHOL^NA DTSTAXS, B. Br. Doiikey rocks bet^veen Goon- 
garrie and Mt. Margaret* 

1 ^r' 

'■\,i 1 

■ ^ 

^ - -i - T" ^ 

L ' 

l" "|I 

ir~.i ^ ■* 


MR. s. :moohe ox the flora 

NoTHOL^NA Vei.lea, _2. ^r- Bctv\^eeii Wilson's pool and 
Lake Darlot. 

Gtmxog]ramme PozoTj Xi/w;re, Kcar Siberia soak. Ninc- 
Jiiile rocks near Cook^ardie. BullabuUino^. 

Statistics of the West Austealian Desert Floea. 

Thanks mainly to the labours of tlie late Baron von Mueller, who 
lias given us descriptions of the plants brought down by travellers 
in the interior of the Colony from the time of Porrest and Giles 
until his lamented decease, supplemented by contributions by 
Professor Tate, Mr. Luehniaun, and myself, we are now in a 
])osition to form some idea of the flora of the West Australian 
interior as a whole. For my present purpose, I have collected 
all the references I could find to species having their habitat 
cast of the 118th degree of longitude; but as this line passes 
close to Albany, I have, so far as concerns the country south of 
the 32nd parallel, taken the hue of 119° as forming the western 
boundary of the desert, which extends eastward to the boundary 
of South Au8trah"a in long. 129°, and northward to the Tropic of 
Capricorn, bo far as known, the flora of this district, some 
4;")0,000 square miles in extent, comprises 8G7 species, a number 
no doubt exceedingly small in view of the immense area indicated 
above ; but when we consider how small a part of the interior 
has been scientifically explored— of the northern parts we know 
next to nothing— and consider also that every traveller has 
hrought down with him a fair proportion of new species, there is 
justification for the belief that many species still remain to he 
discovered. I venture to think, therefore, that at least eleven 
or twelve hundred species will eventually he obtained from this 
part of Australia, and this is a considerable number, bcarin"' in 
inind the extremely scanty rainfall. 

In his ' Handbook of the Tlora of Extratropical South Aus- 
tralia/ Professor Tate demarcates the area t-ecupied by the 
Eremian or desert flora o£ that Colony. The region held by thiy 
Eremian flora corresponds with the *' salt-bu^h '^ country of the 
pastoralist, and is approximarely delineated by the rainfall line 
of ten inches. South of this line, that is, in the more humid 
districts, and except in the extreme south, the Euronotian flora 

is met with. 

Ihe Ercmian region is further subdivided into 

4 .- 




meutioRcd line to the latitude of Engoordiua- To the nortl 

several smaller areas ; but the only ones having special interest 
for U3 here are a northern and a central, the dividing line be- 
tween which runs through Charlotte Waters (lat, 2(5*^ S.). In 
his Report on tlie A\^ork of the Horn Scientific Expedition to 
Central Australia, Professor Tate pro2)osos to shift thid last- 

this lies the Larapintine region; it extends to the Macdonnel 

ranges, close to the Tropic of Ca])ricorn. The central Ercmian 
region has for its douiiaant feature the prevalence oE Salsolaeeous 
plauts ; these are replaced in the Larapintino by grasses, of whicli 
order the " spinifex'^ is a characteristic member. Species repre- 
sentative of the Larapintino flora's arboreous vegetation are 

Brach/cJnton Gregorli {Sterculia diversifoUa)^ Eucah/pfus {ter- 
minalls and OUfieUii), CantUmv latifolium, Grevillea striata^ 
Flcus jplatijpoda, Casmrliia Decaisneana, Livistona Ularlcr, 
Encephxlartos Jlacdonnelli^ &c.; while Cassia pJu/Uodlnea and 
Eticahjptus rostrafa here respectively replace (7. eremophila and 

How far the West Au3- 

E, microtheca of the central reirion. 

tralian desert flora agrees with that of the neidibourin'^ Col 



it is impossible to say in the present st:ite of our knowledge. 
Several scientific expeditions have penetrated the solitudes of 
South Australia from south to north almost to the Tropic of 
Capricorn; but hitherto travellers in the AVest Australian 
desert have moved either east or west or approximately so. The 
most northerly point reached by us was, a^ ne:ir as possible, in 
27'^-5 lat, ; so that, supposing the lloristie boundaries to run 
roughly east and west, we did not arrive within the Larapintino 
region at alL The bulk of the plants brought down by me are 
therefore central EremianandnotLampintine; but some approach 
to the Larapintino flora is aijnounced by the presence, in the 
northern parts of the district visited by me, of ihe '' spinifex " 
plains already alluded to, although the occasional abundance of 
'^ salt-bush " there shows that we were still within the central 
Eremian boundary, I have, however, found records of several 
Larapintine plants which pass over iuto northern portions of the 
West Australian desert, and of these a list will pre^^eutly be 

My sources of information are tlie followiuf^: 
1* Mr. Bentham's * Flora Australiensis/ 

2, Baron von Mueller's lists of plants collected by Mr. Ernest 

Giles (Journ. But. xv. 1877)- 

r ^ r-#_- 




3, The 'Fragmenta Phytographise Au^tralise/ the Second 

Systematic Census of Australian Plants, and various 
other contributions of the same author, 

4. The Eeport of the Elder Expedition : Botany, by Baron 

von Mueller and Professor Tate. 


6. My own collection- 

Of the 867 species comprising the flora, 7 only are vascular 
Cryptogams, the rest being Phanei'ogams, The Phanerogams 



Icdones, the proportion of the latter to the former being as 8*4 
to 1, That is to say, while 89'3 per cent, of the flora is dicotyle- 
donous, only 10-59 per cent, is monocotyledonous *, These 8G0 
Phanerogams, disposed among 73 orders, are distributed among 
319 genera, giving aa average of only 27 species per genus t ; and 
while 180 of the genera (5G*42 per cent.) are also extra- Australian, 
139 (43*57 per cent.) are confined to the island-continent. No 
less than 140 of the species, or 17 per cent., are endemic in the 
West Australian desert. 

There are no natural orders peculiar to the desert, neither is 
tliere much reciprocal ordinal exclusion in the parts of it respec- 
tively north and south of 30°, I find records of 8 natural orders 
confined to the desert north of 30'', and of aa many vs^hich, at the 
present time, are not Itnown to overstep that parallel in a north- 
ward sense. The exclusively northern orders are as follows : — 

1. CupparidecB. Represented by Folanisia viscosa, Linn., a 

common weed in tropical and warmer extratropical Aus- 
tralia, but not reported from the S,W. corner J. 

2. Cucurlitacedd, This order has two reprcseutatives, which 

advance no further than the Ashburton district. 

3. Araliacece. As the last, but with one representative only. 

4. fTasminece. 


5. Bi<jnoniace(s. One species {Tecoma australis^ E. Br,) widely 

This is a yery low proportion* Cfr. Hemsley (Biol. Centr.-Amer. vol. i. 
p. xix), who finds that Europe and four other areas have from 17-32 to 23-43 
per cent, of Monocoty led ones, while Australia has 18*5 per cent, 

t Heiusley (I. c, p. 3xiii) gives the following numbers of species per genus : — 
in India 60 ; in Mexico G'4 ; in N. America 6-2 ; in Austraha 6'4. Tlje low 
proportion of Hpecics per genus in the West Australian desert is in accordance 
with the rule which prevails in the case of all small floras. 

I The term '* S.W. corner " is used to denote the tract of land lying south of 
30°, and west of the desert as already defined. 



distributed in Australia, but absent from the S.AV. corner. 
Reported from the Barrow Range, at the eastern limit of 
the W, Australian desert. 

6. Acantliacece. Represented by two species which advance 

no further south than the Ashburton, 

7. Nyctag\n€<s, Of Boerhanvia diffusa^ found all over Australia 

including the SAV. corner, I find no record from the 

desert south of 30"^. Moat probably it has been over- 

8. Fluviales, One representative found in extratropical 

Austrah'a, includiug the S-\V. corner. 

I find no desert records north of 30^ in respect of tlie following 

orders r 

!• JJilIeniacecc. Probably overlooked, A thorough exami- 
nation of the Murchison district would probably bring to 
light some members of this order, 

2. Tr€mandre(B, 

3. GeraniacecB, Probably overlooked. 

4. TiOganiacead* Ditto, 

5. Qentianece. Represented by one species of wide distribution. 

A probable oversight. 

6. OrohancliGiJC* One widely distributed species, 

7. IrideiB. One genus {Patersonia)\ but inasmuch a?i this is 

also known from Borneo, it should be found in the det^crt 
N. of 30°. 

8. GentroJepidcd, Probably overlooked. 

Of the 180 exotic * genera : 

164 are the more widely distributed outside Australia. 

4 [^Eriostemon^ Duboisia^ Xerotes^ Grevillea (which is in New 
Guinea as well)] are common to Australia and New 




and New Guinea. 

13 [^Phelalium^ PlagiantTius^ Swainwna^CUantlius^ Pomaderris^ 

Braehycome (also in S. Africa), Olcaria^ Logania^ Pimelea^ 
Persoonia^ Fusanus^ Pterostylis^ ArtJiroj)odiunf\ are 
common to Australia and New Zealand. 

* This term is applied simplj to genera and species occurring in Australia 
and beyond its borders, and without any implication as to an assumed place of 

r* ; 

; J 




6 [Ilihherfia (Madagascar, also N*e\v Caledonia), Kemu- 
drenia (Madagascar), JfeUplerum (Cape of Good Hope), 
Brachycome (also ^. Zealand)^ Cnjptoslcmma (a Cape 
introduction), G^jesia (Capo of Good Hope)] are common 
to Australia and Africa. 
Of the endemic genera : — 

117 are more or less widely distributed in Australia. 
15 \_Men]cea^ Sollya^ Wehlta^ Balaustion^ Galathamnus, File- 

anthus^ Microcorys^ Oligarrkena^ StirUn;/ia, Dryandra^ 

Synaplica^ Cahjcopeplus^ ConostyJis^ Aniyozanthes^ Tri- 

honanthus^ Anarfhria] are confined to Western Australia. 

4 [FetaJoslylh^ Astrotriche^ Bertya^ Adrebla] are not found 

in the S.AY. corner. 
2 \_IIemlp1iora^ Wria:onia\ are endemic in the Western 
Australian desert. 

Of the 860 species : — 


373 are at present known to occur north of 30^^ alone. 



>J JJ- 15 ov^«.v^» ), 

220 have been met with both norfcli and south of 30^. 

The species may bo thus arranged : 

K. Species exdemtc tk Australia. 

a. 146 are endemic in the West Australian deserb. Of these: 
41 have been found north of 30^ alone- 






fiouth „ 

both north and soutli of 30' 

S. 36 are restricted to the Larapintine region of South Australia 

and the West Australian desert* 

28 of these have occurred in the West Australian desert 
north of 30"^ alone. 
4 o£ these have occurred in the West Australian desert 

south of 30° alone. 
4 of these have occurred in the West Australian desert 
botli north and south of 30^, 

c. 4 [^Keraudrenia infegrifolia^ Uelipterum Fltzyihhoni^ Zobelia 

heterophylla^ Eucalyptits pyriformis (this is also found 
in the Lake Torrens basin)] extend from the Larapin- 
tine rt'gion llirough the desert, and more or less into tlio 
S,\V. corner. 


. T 





30°. Of these : 

39 occur in the desert north of 30° aloue. 






buth north and south of SO'^. 


e. 14 desert species are endemic in S.AV. Australia north of 30'' 


8 of these have been found in the desert north o£ SO"" alone. 













both north and 
south of 30^ 

f, 103 deaert species are endemic in S.W. Australia south of 



alone. Of these : 

15 have been found in the desert north of 30"^ alone- 











both north and south of 30° 

Thus 233 species of the West Australian desert are endemic in 
S.AV, Australia. This is roughly one-quarter of the flora. 

And 379 species — roughly iive-twelfths of the flora — are 
either restricted to the desert aloue, or advance more or less 
into the S,AV. corner of Australia, and have not been met ^ith 
outside these limits. 

g. 27 species of the West Australian desert range through both 

"Western and South Australia, and in the main south of 
30"^ in both Colonies. 

6 of these have been found in the West Australian desert 

north of 30° alone- 


south of 30^ aloue. 

4 of these have been found in the West Australian desert 
both north and south of 80°. 

A- 7 species have a similar distribution to those under g, 

except that they range north of 30° in both Colonies. All 
of these have been met with in the West Australian desert 
north of 30*^ alone. 

u 9 species are endemic in the AVest and South Australian 



■^-^7- "-try ■ - '=v" "F^^r. f T^TTjT'' T- 

^" -K 

jf ^ "jiiny^ 

> I "^ 


■1_ J 

I I 

-r-— in-j 

■tj ■ ^(^ ^^ 


■ r^*T - .^ 




deserts mainly soutli of 30^ and do not advance into (he 
S.AV. corner. Of these : 

3 [^Ilaloragis acufangula, Helichrysum Lawrencella^ Fros- 
tanthera WilMeana] have been found in AVest Aus- 
tralia north of 30^ alone. 
5 [Melaleuca qnadrifarla, Baeclda crr/ssifolia, Ilelipferuvi 
TroedcUi, Ilelichrysmn Tepjjeri^ Ileliptervm hetera?2fJium'] 

have been fouud in West Australia south of .':0'' alme- 
1 [Schoenia Cassiniana] is endemic both north and south 
of 30^ 

Ic. 11 species are endemic in tropical Western Australia, whence 

they advance into the northern part of the West Austra- 
lian desert. 

9 of these ITrihulus plafi/pfcrus, Ahutilon mnplum, Gossij- 
pium Rohinsoni^ Asirotriche Ilamptoni, Goochnia 



Clerodendron lanceo- 

latuniy Eremophila Frascri, Fimelea Foj^restiana] are 
found in the desert north of 30° alone ; 

and 2 [SfacMousia Brunonis, Solanum lasiophjllum'] advance 

south of 30^. 

I, 2 species \_Ptilotus lemistcirus, Gyrostemon ramulosus\ with 

the Fame distribution as those under Jc, extend into the 
S,W. corner and also into South Australia. 

m. 3 species [Goodenia heierochila, G, micropiera, Jasminmn 

calcareufii] are endemic in 



whence they pass into the northern fringe of the desert 

and ou to the Larapintinc region of South Australia, 

, 98 species are endemic in tropical and subtropical (or tem- 

perate) Australia, and occur also in the West Australi 


desert. Of these : 

51 advance to the S.W. corner of Australia. 
47 are not found in the S,AV. corner. 

Of the 51, 9 are not known from the AYeat Australian desert 

south of 30° ; 

11 are not known nortli of 30°; 

while 31 occur both north and south of 30° in the desert. 

Of the 47, 23 have been found in the desert north of SO"" al 











both north and 
south of 30°. 

J f 

1 ^ 

^- 1- f" 

, r' 



0, 111 desert speciea are species endemic in extratroplcal 

Australia, including the SAY. corner. Of these : 

17 are known from the desert north of 30"* alone. 











both north and south of 30''- 

j), 10 species endemic in extratropieal Australia, and in the 

extratropieal coast-region of AVest Australia, advance 
into theWeat Australian desert, hut not to the S.W, 
corner. Of these : 

5 are known from the desert north of 30^ alone. 

- 1 









both north and south of 30°. 


q. 21 species endemic ia extratropieal Australia including the 

the S,\V. corner, and extending into the desert, are not 
known from the coast-region of the Western Colony 
north of 30^. Of these: 

3 are found in the desert north of 30^ alone. 



3J 5J P^w^^.L J, 

1 occurs in the desert to the north and south of 30"^. 

r. 66 species endemic In extratropieal Australia adA'ance into 

the West Australian desert, but are not found cither 
in the S.W. corner or in the coastal region of West 
Australia, Of tlicsc : 

23 occur in the desert north of 30^ alone. 








both north and south of 30° 

1 J 

s. 3 


species [Sida canliophjUa^ EaxoJus interru^ius^ Gom- 
phrena canescens] are endemic iu tropical Australia, and 
pass into the northern part of the West Australian desert. 

/. 3 species [Mirhelia oxyclada^ Indigofem enneaplylhi^ CcfSua- 

rina Decaisneana], endemic in tropical Australia, pass 
thence into the Larapintine region of South Australia 
and into the northern part of the West Australian desert. 

«. 8 species endemic in tropical Australia extend thence into 

the Larapintine region of South Australia and into the 

West Australian desert. Of these : 


■r n 


P I *T - h 

,> vr"7Y ^ , V 





6 [Trihulus macrocarpiis^ Sida inclusa^ Acacia patens^ 
A.pi/rifoJia.Dicrasfylis ocfirotriclia^Pimeleaainmocharis] 
are known from the desert nortli of 30° aloue. 

2 advance into the desert south of 30^. 

V, 9 species arc endemic in temperate Australia north of 30^ 

and extend into the West Australian desert but not to 
the S-AV. corner. Of the^e : 

7 are laiown from Ihe desert north of 30^ alone. 
2 advance into the desert south of 30°, 

B. Species not peculiar to Austt?alia. 

a. 9 species [I^olanisia viscosa, lonidium enneaspermum^ 

]?olycarp<Ea indica^ 31alvasfrum spicatum^ Vtgna lufea^ 
Drosera indicay Trianthe^na crystallinum^ Cueujnls acidus^ 
McIofJiria 7}iadera,^patnna] are found in the tropics o£ 
the Old and New Worhl, and reach tropical and sub- 
tropical Australia, and the north and north-east outskirts 
of the "West Australian desert, but not the S.W. corner of 
the Colony. 

J. 9 exotic species occur in tropical and cxtratropical Australia, 

includinn; the S.W. corner, (The extra- AustraHan distri- 
bution of these is indicated below.) Of these: 

1 \_Sporoholiis virginictts (Asia, Africa, America)] occurs in 

the desert north of 30'' alone. 
5 [Tetragonia expansa (Japan, N, Zealand, Polynesia, 

extratropical S. America), OnapJialium japonicvvi 
(Asia, N. Zealand), OrohancJte ccrmia (India, Medi- 
terranean), Scirpus car/ ilaffineus (Afviva, N. Zealand), 
Aniliidiria ciliaia (Asia and Tropical Africa] are known 
from the de&ert south of 30° alone, 
3 \^IIypericum japonicum (Asia, N- Zealand), WaJilen- 
Icrgia gracilis (East Indiepi, N, Zealand), Tricliodesma 
zeylanicum (Tropical Asia and Africa, Polynesia] occur 
in the desert both north and south of 30°. 

c. 1 species [Zejndium ruderale] occurs In all parts of Australia, 

including the SAV. corner, and in Europe, the Orient, 
and temperate Asia. 



d. 5 species are found in extratropical Australia, including the 

S,AV. corner and the dcaert, and also in JS^ew Zealand, 
Of which : 

3 \Microserh Forsferi, Deyeuxia Forsterij Agropyrum 
scahruvt] occur in the "West Australiau desert south of 
30° alone ; while 

2 [Senecio lauius^ Junciis pcdJidus] occur in the desert 

both north and south of 30°. 

e. 2 species IMesevihryanthemum australe^ Tlielyviiira Jongifolid] 

range over extratropioal Australia, including tlie S-AV. 
corner and the dei=ci t youth of 30°, and extend to New 
Zealand and Polynesia* 

/. 1 species [Tillcia verticiUaris] is extratropical Australian, 

including the S.A\^. corner and the desert hoth north and 
south of 30°, and extends into New Zealand and extra- 
tropical South America. 

g. 13 species of wide extra-Australian distribution are widely 

distributed in Australia including the S.AV. corner and 
the desert. Of these : 

3 \TriliiIns ierrestris, Gmj^haUmn luteo-alhum^ Boerltaavia 

difasa] are known from the desert }iorth of 30"" alone. 
7 [Alyssum linifolium^ Sj^>ergitlaria ruhra^ Oocalis cornicit- 

laia^ Eryllir<Ba sjilcata^ Limoaella a<iuatica^ Juncus 

hvfonius^ Schjms cernuus'] do not advance in the 
desert noith of 30°* 

3 \J)odon(Ba viscosa^ SahoJa Kali ^ Par Iclayiia dchilis] occur 
in the desert both north and south of 30°. 

A. 1 species [HJtgncJiosia 7ninima~\ has the distribution given under 

y, but excluding the S.W. corner, 

i. There remain 11 species, all of which, with two possible 

exceptions, are introductions. Thcjare Eaphanussativus, 
Silene gallica^ Erodium cicutarium^ Malva ^arvljlora^ 
Medicago denticulata^ Sonchus oleraceus\?\ Crypiostemma 
calendulacea^ Senecio vulgaris [?], Anagallis arvensis, 
liameoo crisj)us^ and Briza maxima. 

The species may be further arranged in tabular form in the 
following manner : 

T > 

t:^ t - bh j 







? O 


4 * 




o t u 

f2 ^ ^ 

i -* 














^ = 


IT) .b 


Iso in 




1 • 

EC , 

3 - 

1-^ c3 


^_ </, o; +? 

*^ ■ 

QD '^^ 

"5 ' 

O — 



o a ■::; ^ 

T^ fr- R ^ 



c .^ 

J- . ^ 05 








_ L 






S : 







S -2 ^ 

^ '?3 








a fe 



















I — 1 D 

•r o 

^ CO 



£ S 

be 2 










, ^ 

4- ^^ 




a; ^ 






CO o 


o ■ 



^ .Ti ^ ;:; 

OQ P t^ O 









I ^^ 


















e ^ 














[= . 
















5 S 

^ o 

S c 

















i ■: 

^ T 

OE THE iin:ERioii of westery austealta. 


The species endemic in tlic AV". Australian desorfc ^ortK of 
lat. 3 J^ are the foUowinir : 

Bui'tonia simplicifolia, 
Phjllota humilis. 
Jacksonia rhadinodada. 
Acacia sclerosperma. 




Crvptandra petra^a, 
TlnyptomeQe Ilelmsii, 



Wehlia coarctata, 
Calythrix brevicoHis, 
„ pluinulosa. 
Bieckia ochropetala. 
Eucalyptus Rameliaiia. 
Canthium siuvcolons, 
Ilelichrysum Gile^sii. 
Iluraea grat^illima. 
Velleia Daviesii. 



Stemodia linophylla. 
Ilemigenia brachyphylla. 

Ilemigenia exilis. 
l*ro3tantliera Ee^kerslyana. 
Wrixoni:i prosLantlieroides. 
Chloanthes lialgaaiacea. 
EremophiLx Forrestii. 







Pholidia homoplustica, 
Rhagodia coralliocarpa. 
Loranthus N'estor, 
B.inksia E.dcriana* 
Persoonia diadema, 

„ Leucopog.:)!!. 
Grcvilloa oxtorris. 


Schocnus hexandrus. 





The foUowiag arc endemic in the W. Australian desert Soath 
of lat. 30^ : 

Menkea coolgardicnsis. 
Lepidium Merrallii. 
Comesperma visciduluui, 
Tetratheca Ilarpori. 
Plagiaiithus ropens. 

„ Ilelmsii. 

Sida Kinnfih 

Rulingia coacta. 
Oxylobiiun graniticum, 
^^^belia min'ophylloides. 
Pliyllota lycopodioides. 
Daviesia Croninlana* 
Dillwynia acerosa. 

Cassia cardiosperina. 
Acacia laclinophylla. 




Pomadcrris Forrestiana^ 



Trymalium Myrtillus. 
Danvuiia LuehLnaniu, 
Verticordia Rerinleana, 



Calythrix Watsoni. 




Thryptonicne hym':3nonemi. 



Baeckia cryptandroides, 
Leptospermum Roei. 
Eucalyptus Campaspo. 

„ torquata. 

J, corrugata. 

,j Youiigiana. 


_1^ T <^ 

^'. *^^^, 7* - ■■ 



Eucalyptus orbifolia. 
Didiscus Croniiiianus, 
Trachymene juncea, 
Athrixia chsetopoda. 
Elaclianthus occidentalis. 
Gnephosis intonsus. 
Ilelichrysum puteale* 



Ilelipterum Battii. 







Stvlidinm liinljatum. 
Scsevola oxycloiia. 
CJoodenia Elderi. 
„ Watfioni. 



Styphelia Kinpiana. 
Solanum niimmularium, 
Anthocercis Odgersii. 
Cliloantlies Elderi. 

„ Depremesnilii. 
yj Teckiana* 

Cliloanthes cscrulea. 

Heniiphnra ElderL 

Newcastlia hexarrhena. 

Eremopliila Deuipsteri. 

„ granitica. 
Pliolidia saligna. 






Ilalgania rigida. 



Tricliinium eremita. 



Kochia glomerifulia, 
Grevillea Sarissa. 




Calycopepliis Ilelmsii. 
Alonotaxis luteiilora, 
liertya quadrisepala, 
Casuarina acutivalvis. 
Caisia rigidifolia, 
Artliropodium curvipea. 

Species endeiDic in the W. Australian deiecrt Loth North 

and South of lat. 30°. 

Comniersonia craurophylla. 

y, nielanopetula 

Jacksonia ncniatoclada. 

Oastrolobium seoisifoHum. 
Isotropis canescens, 

Daviesia acanthoclona. 
Actus Tielkiensii. 

l^hyllota Liieluuanni, 

liurtonia goniphololiloides. 

TIaloragis coufertifolia. 

Darwiuia puqiurea. 

Thryptometie stenocalyx* 

Melaleuca leiocarpa. 

Eeaufortia interstang. 
Goodenia xanthospernia, 
Velleia discopliora. 
Dauipiera lateiflora. 
ProstP^uthera firylloaua. 
Dicrastylis Nicholasii, 
Chloanthes stacliyodes. 



Newcastlia clirysotricha 
Eremopliila Youugii. 
Conospermum Toddii. 
Eertya dimerostigma. 
I Casiiarina corniculata. 

■- \ ' 

I T ^-^ ' 

■^ ^ ■ 


Some jtotewortht points as to the Conj^ections of 

THE Desert Flora. 

A. Connection letween tlie West Australian Desert and 

New Guinea^. 

Exclusive of widely diffused genera of Grasses and Sedges, 
57 phanerogamous genera of the desert are also found in New 
Guinea. Of these : 

3 only {Kennedija^ Styphelia^ and Banlcsid) are absolutely 
restricted to Australia and New Guinea; they are all 
represented iu the desert, but the species are not 

2 genera (GreviUca, Xerotes) are restricted to Australia, New 

Guiacaj aud New Caledonia, ^\n\e Arthr op odium is found 
in New Zealand as well ; all the desert species are different 
from those of New Guinea. 

2 genera {Olearia^ Pimelea) occur in New Zealand as well as 

in Australia and New Guinea; but the former of these 
should more properly be merged into the widely distributed 

genus Aster. 

3 more {Vittadinia and MueMenhecJcia) are native in America, 

as well as in Australia, New Guinea, and New Zealand. 

Of the 57 genera 40 have a more or loss wide range in the 

Old World outside Australia; wliile 7 of ihevn {Commersonia^ 
Baechia^ Melaleuca^ Eucalyptus^ Stylidium^ Sccevola^ and Gasua- 

rina) are pre-eminently Australian. 

The above 57 genera have 124 New Guinea species, of wliicli 
only 20 are confined to Australia and New Guinea, while 48 
others which occur in Australia are also of more or less wide 
extra-Australian di:?tribution. 

Only 11 species are common to tlie AVest Australian desert 
and New Guinea, viz. : — 

Polanisia viscosa^ lonidinm enneasperminn^ Trihiilus terrestris^ 
Oxalis corniculata, Drosera indica^ Melothria maderaspatana^ 
Eucalyptus terminalis^ GnapJialium luteo-alhum^ WaJilenhergia 

* BibliograpLy : Baron Mueller's 'Descriptive Notes on Papuan Plants.' 
The same writer's ' Eocord of Observations on Sir William MacGregor's 
Highland Plants from New Guinea*' Sclmuianu & Tlulrung, * Die Flora v^ 
K. Wilhelms Land/ 

Lk 7 

- p. 


.*^r; .- - ™- I 

■ sra 

■^ "t-^*r 


- J n. 

rir I 



</mciUs, EdoUuIus Unifolius, and Huxolus inierrupius. 

these : 


3 are not found in the South-west corner, one of them {Evol- 
vulus Unifolins) being of wide extra-Australian distribution; 
while Eucalyptus ierminalis and Euxoliis interruptus, which do 
not extend beyond New Guinea, only reach the northern and 

eastern outddrts of the desert. Tiie rest are widely distributed 

Indirjofera linifolia, a species widely diffused la Australia, is 
the only one, so far as I have been able to find out, which is 
common to New Guinea and Australia, including the South- 
west corner, yet is not known to occur in the intervening desert. 

13. The Connection loith Africa is slioicii hj citations Wee 

the following, 

lUhhertia has two Madagascar species. 

Keraudrenia has oue species in Madagascar ; it is allied to a 
Queensland one. 

Zijrjophullum. Australia and the Cape are the hcadquarlerg 
of this genus, which is well represented in the desert. 

Aizoon, essentially an African genus, is represented in the 
desert by a species nearly allied to one from South Africa, and 
the same remark applies to Mesemhryanthemum. 

Ildipferum is an Australian and South African genus, 

Brachycome has one species in South Africa. 

Athrixia is common to Australia, Madagascar, and South 

Cryptostemma calendulacea is an introduced South African 

AnguiUaria is a genus closely allied to, and by some considered 

J_r III n.B 


Cassia is a small African and Australian genus. 


ZealaudJ ; Scirpiis cernuus is an extratro]);cal World form ; while 
Sporoholus lirginicus and Anthistiria ciUata are grasses of wide 
distribution, including Africa in their rain'-e. 

C. Connection tvith Eastern Ada and Japan. 
This connection is but slight, as, exclusive of world-wide 
specnes or species of generally wide distribution, I fiud only 

; ^■ 

r r 

; _ I ■ 





IFf/pericum japonicum and GnaphaJium japonicum common to 
toinptrate Eatstern Asia and the desert; it may be added that 
both species extend into Kew Zealand. A slight connection is 
aldo shown by the genua Lej)idosperma^ which has one Souih 
Chinese species, and by Gentrolepis, with one species fram 

D. Connection tcitli ilte Mediterranean Region, 
The following t^hort list of species, and to it must be added a 
few introduced plants and some world-wide forir^s, shows how 




hanche eernua. AYith the exception of Lavatera pleheia^ all these 

hare a wide range of distribution* 

E- Connection with New Zealand. 
The following species are common to the desert and Ne.v 

Zealand : 

Ilypericwn japonicum, Tillcsa verticillaris, Tetragonia expansa, 
Senecio lautus, Gnaphaliiim luteo-album, GnapJialium japonicum, 
Wahlenherqia gracilis, Thehnnitra lonqifoJia, Lemna gibba^ Janciis 


cartilagineus^ Bromus arenarius, Deyenxia 


Forsferi, Agropgrum scabrum^ and the terns 

Chcilanthcs iSitheri, Gymnogramine Pozui, and Ggmnogramme 
leptopliylla. Ent of these Lenina gihba alone is restricted in 
Australia to the Wc^^tern Colony, though in all probability it 
will sooner or later be found in the other Colonies. All the above 
have a wide extra- Australian distriburion, aud, with the exception 
just noted, are also well diffused through Australia. 

F. Connection tvifh South Georgia. 

It would be travelling beyond the scope of this essay were an 
attempt made to trace the relations between t!ie desert flora and 
that of all Antarctic lands. AVe may, however, take the flora of 
South Georgia* as a type. Of the 11 genera in Professor Engler's 
list, not one of the Ji of exclusively or predominantly southern 
distribution \^Colohanthus, Accena, Eostkovia) is represented in the 
desert. Of the rest, only Juncus, Festuca, and Foa are desert 
genera, and none of the species arc common to the tw^o regions, 

* Engler in Bot. Jalirbiichcrj 3d, vii. p. 281- 

J. -- y-T-r:T r TTii^'- -^w ^ ^ w, ' - - j-j-r h, '"Wr^ -ly^-Ti^ * " _r -._-_-,- j, . _ ^ t- - . - ^^. ^ ^.^.^, 







The following orders have been selected by way of comparison, 
primarily between the Desert flora and that of the moister Soutli- 
west part of Western Australia. 

Dlllen iace<s. 

Only 4 out of 4G of the S.AV. species of lUhhertla (as under- 
stood by Mueller) reach the desert; all 4 are found south of 
lat. 30° alone, and none advance eastward of the West Australian 
boundary. The other genera (/. e., those, exclusive of Candollea, 
Adrastca, and Pacltyneura, wliieh are combined by Mueller with 

llihhertia) are Euronotian and have no representative in tlie 


CO species ranged under 7 genera are known to occur in West 
Australia : 5 of these genera have between them only 6 desert 
representatives. All the desert genera, except Geigcra, are 
represented in West Australia as fully as, or more so" than, in 
any other part of Australia. Moreover, all the desert species 
occur also in the Soutli-w^cst corner, and two of them extend iuto 
the South-east, 

Legiminosco, tribe Podalt/riccc.. 

Of this tribe West Australia has 245 species referred by 
Mueller to ]9 genera: 12 of these genera are represented in 
the desert by 37 species, and no less than 15 of the latter are 
endemic in the desert, while of the remainder 18 are shared 
between the desert and the South-west corner. 


Of the 3 West Australian genera 2 are dcin'zons of the desert. 
llalorarjis with 27 South-western species, most of which do not 
pass over into the South-cast, has 5 desert species, but 1 only of 
them is exclusively South-western ; 2 are endemic in the desert, 
and the 2 remaining reach into South Australia. 2 out of the 
3 known species ai Loudonia s^vii found in the South-west; both 

of these occur in the desert, and one is restrictedly South- 

* The statistics in this section arc compiled largely from Mueller's 'Second 

i^'^-r r . r' -r -^^z 


. This is an order but poorly represented in tlie desert by 10 
species referred to 6 genera. Western Ausfralia has 8 genera, 
containing between tKem 52 species. Of the desert species 5 
are restrictedly South -^vestern, and 1 extends from the South- 
west into South Australia south of 30°; 1 is extratropieal 
Australian, including the South-west; 2 are endemic in the 
desert; while the 10th, known only from the northern and 
eastern outskirts of the desert, is an extratropieal Australian 
species not found in the South-west corner. 



211 species. Of these genera 32 have desert representatives, to 
the number of 97 in all, but only 12 of the species are endemic 
in the desert; while, strangely enough, no more than 11 are 
restrictedly A\resfc Australian forms. 35 of the remainder are 
extratropieal or tropical and extratropieal Australian including 
the South-west; 14 have the same distribution, except that they 
are absent from the South-west ; 12 range from the South-west 
into South Australia ; 4 are West and South Australian desert 
species, 1 of them extending into Wcsteru ]S'cw South Wales- 



piutine refjioii of South Australia, one of tliem (PlucJiea de7ifex) 
rebelling Queensland. The rot?:ainder are introductions or 
sj^ecies of world-wide distribution. 


This predoininantlj South-western order 13 poorly represented 
in tlie desert. The two AVest Australian wnera hare in all 70 

specicg. Both genera occur in tlie dessert: 1 {LevenlwoJcia) 
represented by a single, the other {Sfylidinm) by 5 species. All 
the desert species are South-wetitcrii, except one which is 


6 of the 11 genera of this predominantly South-western order 
are found in the desert, and 42 species as compared with the 
130 South-western ones. 11 of the species are endemic; 2 are 
common to the "West and South Australian deserts ; 1 is a Lara- 
pintine species ; 15 are South-weatern ; 2 are tropical and extra- 
tropical Australian, including the South-west; 7 are tropical and 



1 -w* » 

■ '- 

.•r^'r^'.t%\''^. ^"^ ■ '. 


r - - 1 - I -I ■_ 




extratropical Australian, but excluded from tlie Soutli-west 
corner; while 4 are natives of the North-west tropics, wlicnee 
2 of them extend iuto the Larapintine region of South Australia, 

An order very sparsely represented in the desert. 11 genera 
(as understood by Mueller), with 152 species between them, are 
kiJown from the South-wetit. This number dwindles in the ilcsert 
to 3 fienera and 4 species ! One of the 4 is endemic; tlio re^t 
are South-western forms. 

This order is represented in the desert solely by the predomi- 
nantly West Australian genus Logania^ of which three species 
have been met w^ith in the desert, all of tliem south of 80°. 
One of these is South-western; the other two range eastward 
into South Australia, one of them reaching Xew South AVales 
and Victoria. 


7 of the 8 South-western genera of tliis order inhabit 
the desert, where they are represented by 18 species — there 
being 27 West Australian species in alL Solanum has 12 desert 
representative?, a?^ contrasted with only 9 in the South-west. 
1 of the 12 is endemic; only 1 is restrictedly West Australian 
including the South-west; 2 are West and South Australian 
desert species; 2 arc extratropical Australian, including the 

South-w^est; and G, while extratropical Australian, are absent 

irom the South-west corner. 



This order, which is somewliat better represented in the West 
Australian than in the other Colonies, appears in strong force in 
the desert, where all the 3 Australian genera are found and 35 
Rfiecies. Of the^e no less than 15 are endemic in the desert of 
West Australia ; 1 is restricted to the West and South Australian 
deserts ; 2 are Larapintine ; 5 are South-western ; 4 extratropical 
or tropical and extratropical Australian, including the South- 
west ; and 7 the same, but excluding the South-west corner ; 
while one is a North-west tropical species which advances into 
the desert north of 30° only. 

' V 

i " k ■■■ 



I- vr 

^ . 

. ■ 




Pairly well represented in the desert by 4 genera sharing 14 
ppeciea— the South-west having 47 species referred to 8 gen^era. 
2 of the desert species arc endemic ; 3 are South-western ; 6 are 
extratropical or tropical nnd extratropical Australian, 5 including 
and 1 excluding the South-west j 2 are tropical Australian forms 
which penetrate into the northern part of the desert; and 1 
ranges from the North-west tropics through the northern part of 
the West Australian desert into the Larapintine region of South 


In the South-west there are 12 genera, according to Mueller's 
classification, and Gl species. 8 of these genera, with 81 species, 
are found in the desert. Only 2 of the species are endemic in 
the West Australian desert, 2 more are restricted to the deserts 
of West and South Australia, and 1 species is Larnpintine ; 14 
are extratropical or tropical and extratropical Australian, inclu- 
ding the South-west ; and 8 have the same distribution, except 

that they are not known from the South-west corner. SalsoJa 
Kali has world-widfi Hisfri'Viiit^nn 



All the South-western species of Loranflms reach the desert 

only 5 South-western aud North-west tropical 

there being 

species altogether, whereas 8 species are now known from the 
desert. One species is endemic in tlie West Australian descrf, 
and two are shared between it and the desert of South Australia' 
while a third extends into the West Australian desert from the 
south of South Australia. The 4 remaining are distributed ovc r 
tropica] and extratropical Australia, and all the 4, except 1, are 
found in the South-west corner. 


Bearing in mind the richness of this order in the South-west 
corner of the continent, it is very poorly represented in the 



than 307 species of West Australian Proteacea*, referred to 15 
genera, and nearly all of them are exclusively West Australian, 
11 of these genera occur in the desert, but only 47 species. 12 
of the species are endemic in the West Australian desert ; 3 are 
shared between the West and South Australian deserts, and J of 


^ - 




■ T - -I 



the 3 readies the South-west corner; 28 are South-western 
species; 2 are extratropical Australian, including the Soath- 
w^est, and as many are extratropical or subtropical Australian, 
l)ut abseut from the South-west corner. 


West Australia has 13 genera with 51 species. 9 genera and 
19 species are found in the desert: oFthe 19, 4 are endemic and 
6 are South-western species; 3 arc extratropical Australian, 
iiicluding the Soutli-west; and G are similarly distributed, except 
that they are abseut from the Soutb-west corner. 


Mueller enumerates 15 species as natives of West Australia. 
There are 8 desert species, and of them 2 are endemic in the 
desert; 3 are South-west species; 1 is South Australian, and 
extends into the desert south of 30^; while 2 are tropical and 
extratropical Australian, excluding the South-west. 


As might be expected, there is in the desert a great falling off 
in the number of representatives of this order. Only G species 
belonging to 4 genera are reported from the desert, as against 
18 genera and 75 si)eeics in the South-west ; 4 of the desert 
species are South-wcc^tt-rn and 2 are extratropical Australian, 
including the South-west corner, 1 of the 2 reaching Polynesia 
and K'ew Zealand. The genera represented in the desert arc, it 
may be added, Thehjmitra^ Plerosf^Iis, Diuris, find Microtis^ and 
only the latter is known from that part of it lying north of 30°. 


3 of the 5 A\^est Australian genera have desert representatives, 
but only 5 of the 5G Souih-western species advance into the 


The 15 desert species (referred to 13 genera) contrast poorly 
with the 25 genera and 7G species from the moister parts of 
West Australia. Only 1 of the 15 species is endemic; 7 are 
South-western species ; G are extratropical Australian, including 


the South-west; and 1, while widely distributed over extra- 
tropical Australia, is not found in the South-west corner* 

*-,. i' 



^ -r 

. y 

. 'm 




The 3 genera and 14 species of the South-west dwindle in 
the desert to 2 genera, each with a single species. Botli the 
latter are found iu tljc South-west corner. 



There are 11 genera and 47 species of Ecstiacea? in tlie South- 
west, but only 2 of the species (referred to 2 genera) advance 
thence into tlic desert. 


The o desert genera and 14 species contrast poorly with the 
14 genera and 123 species known from Western Aui^tralia as a 
whole. Of the 14 species 1 is endemic and G are South-wcstcni ; 


while 7 are distributed over extratropical Australia, 3 of them 
not reaching the South-west corner. 



West Australia has 38 genera of grasses and 115 species ; in 
the desert there are, exclusive of Briza maxima^ 21 genera and 
41 species. No species is restricted to the West Australian 
desert, hut 3 are West and South Australian de&:crt grasse?. 
Moreover, 3 only are South-west species, while 23 are extra- 
tropical Australian, including the South-west. The 12 remaining 
are extratropical Australian species which do not roach the 
South-west corner. 


Only 6 genera showing 11 species (according to Mueller's 
estimate) are natives of West Australia. From the desert G 
species are known belonging to 2 genera. Of the 6, 5 are widely 
distributed in Australia, while 1 is a Lariipintine species reported 
from the West Au^trallau desert only close to its eastern 

The majority of the orders just mentioned are either predomi- 
nantly South-westeruj or they arc orders represented in the 
desert by genera predominantly or at least strongly represented 
in the South-west corner. This remark applies specially to the 
following ; — Dilleniacese, Eutacea?, Leguminosao, Podalyriese, 
Haloragcae, IJmbellifertc, Stylidea% GrooJeniacese, Loganiacea?, 
Epacridese, Amaranthacea?, Proteaceae, Euphorbiacea?, Haemado- 
raceae, LiliaccT, CentrolepiJie, and Cyperacca?. The following 
are worthy of special notice. 




-\ f 1 

-^nq| ^Li ^p^pjr-^^ 


" r ^'}^ 





Half the desert species are distributed tlirougli Australia, but 
of these rather less than \ are not found in the South-west 

Only -^ are Soutb-westcrn species which penetrate into 


the desert but do not range beyond it. 


Tlie desert species of Solanum outnumber those in the South- 
west, and only ^ of these occur also in the Soutli-west, while | 
are known from the Eastern Colonics. 


^ of the species are restricted to the desert, a remarkably high 
proportion; while if we include species coufiued to the deserts 
of Soutli and West Australia, ^ the Myoporineous flora is 


endemic. Only ~ of the desert species occur in the South-west, 
while nearly \ arc known from the Eastern Colonies. 


Tlie dwindling of this order in the desert is very remarkable, 
it being represented there only by between 2 and 3 per cent, of 
species advancing from the South-west. 


Noteworthy as being better represented in the desert than in 
the South-west. | the desert species are found in the Eastern 
Colonies, and § in the South-west. 


There are more than ^ as irany desert as South-western 
species ; § are South-western, and as many arc found in one or 
more of the Eastern Colonies, but not in the South-west corner. 

Only 8 per cent, of South-western species occur in the desert. 


Tina order falls off greatly in the desert, the percentao-e of 
desert to South-western species being between 4 and 5 only, 


Thi^ order is noticeable for the small number of South-western 
species wdiich advance into the desert and do not penetrate east 
of it, less than j\ of the grass-flora consisting of such species. 

1 ■ I 


i X. 



General Coxclustoxs hespectixo tke Desert Plora. 

Trom the table on p. 240 we learn that of tlie 819 plianero- 
gamons specie.^ — exclusive of introductions— composing the flora 
of the West Australian desert, 537, or 03-2 per cent., occur in 
the South-west corner, while 371, or -i3"7 per cent., are met with 
in the Eaatrrn Cohmies. Moreover, wdiile of tlio 537 8outh- 
wet^toru species, 276 are not known from the Eastern Colonie.% 
except that 43 of them extend into South Australia, of the 371 
Eastern species only 100 are not found in the South-west. 
Viewing the flora as a whole, tiien, it Avould seem to consist of 
two elements — a main one, derived from the Soutli-west, and a 
Bubsidiarj one, pawning in from the East. To this must be added 
an endemic clement, amounting as we h'lve seen to 14G species, 
or 17 per cent Doubtless this is only a rough method of statin<^ 
the case, for it may well be that some of the species restricted to 
the desert and the South-west may have originated in the desert 
and mif>rated tlie::ce ; and the remark applies with equal force to 
some of the Eastern species wdiich do not penetrate beyond the 
desert into the South-west corner. It is, however difUcult ta 
understand wdiy a species should have migrated from the de>serfc 
in one direction rather than in the other; and inasmuch as the 
chances of extension in cither direc^'tiou w^ould be approximately 
equal, the statement given above probably represents the real 

The orders best represented in tlie desert are, Coyi^positce: witli 
97 species (11 per cent.); Leguminous, with one less ; and Miir- 
tacecp^ with 80 species (rather more than 10 per cent.) • and 
between them these monopolize the flora to the extent of nearly 
^. In the second flight, w^ith 35 species and over, are five orders ^ 
Amaran/hacece and Froleacece, each with 47 species (rather moro 
than 5 per cent.) ; Goodeniacece, with 42 species (5 per cent) - 



cent.). These 8 orders have 494 desert representatives, or nearly 
58 per cent, of the whole flor;i. The remaining 42 per cent, is 
thus shared between no less than Q\^ orders. 

The prevalence of Compositse, and the relatively large number 
of its desert species with a wide range of distribution through the 
island-continent— the^c facts arc doubtless due to thepippus with 
which the aclienes of these plants are provided. The statement 


'^' '^ 


of the late Mr. Eentliam* with reference to the conipurative 
worthlessne&a of the pappus does not ap[}ly to a coai]try where 
rain and dew, which in moistcr climates so rapidly cause the 
pappus to collapse, are of but rare occurrence, where wind-storms 
frequently prevail, and f:i:entle bx^eezes, sufficient to waft the 
downy plumes over considerable distances, are constantly re- 
curring. Absence of the insects necessary for pollination is 
probably the reason for the extreme scarcity of species belonginf^ 
to orders such as the Epacridese, Stylidea", and (to a certain 
extent) Proteuceae — scarcity one would hardly have ventured to 
predict in view of the relative abundance of allied plants in the 
ISouth-west. The flowers of the relatively abundant Luguminosse 
and Myrtacea3 are, I believe, to a large extent wind-fertilized. 
la fact, after paying considerable attention to the subject, I came 
to the conclusion that self-fertilization almost always obtains in 
the desert. I noticed, indeed, that the flowers of various species 
of Acacia, as also those of SccevoJa spinescens, were visittd by the 
small butterfly Catachrysojps biocellatciy IVld., in some numbers, 
and the flowers of the latter were also attractive to the handsome 
Delias aganippc^^ Donov. On only one other occasion did I 
notice insects on flowers. That was at Grnarlbine, clo&e to per- 
manent water, and here the cloying]y sweet spikes of Grevilha 
nematophylla had attracted quite a number of winged visitors^ 
True, ants are abundant, and stragglers from their ranks may 
occasionally be discovered within corollas, though tliese are by no 
means eff'ectual pollinating agents. But although the frequency 
of insects* visits may be a matter of great importance to herbs 
with flowers adapted to entomophily, and althougli shrubs and 
trees with such flowers will stand a better chance of distribution 
in space the more bountiful the supply of insect-life in the 
districts inhabited by them, yet insects are not of such moment 
to shrubs and trees — and shrubs and trees especially abound in 
the desert — because of their perennial habit, and their more com- 
plete exposure to winds, which, by agitating their branches, shake 

* Journ* Linn. Soc^ Bot. vol. siii. (1873) p, 573. 

t Messrs. Butler and Kirby kindiy gave me these determinations. I also 
secured two or three specimens oiJimonia vellida^ Fabr.^ a species which settles 
on the ground, never, so far as I saw, on flowera. Besides the above I did not 
see more than two others^ and these I failed to secure. Curiously enough, not 
one of my three species figures in the list of Lepidoptera brought down by the 
Elder Expedition. 

h I 

^ ■■ 

r-^;^ . 

?1 r 



tlie pollen out o£ the anthers and giro it a chance of reaching 
its destination. A shrub and a tree might thus be enabled to 
slowly extend its area if the necessary crossing were effected by 
Tcry rare visits from insects; and this at most is, I think, all that 
can obtain in the desert, at least in places removed from a pcr- 
raauent supply of water. Coleoptera, it may be added, are more 
abundant in the desert tlian are other insects, nearly 200 having 
been secured by the Elder Expedition*; but I doubt wbetlier 
many of these insects visit flowers — at least, except for the case 
at Gaarlbine already meutioaed^I do not reaiember to have seen 
one upon a flower. 

The comparative abundance of Lorantliaccrc in the desert has 
beeu already mentioned; one has not to go far in search of a 
cause for this. These ])arasites obtain all the water they need 
from their hosts, and, provided that the latter can maintain their 
existence, the parasite is safe. The seeds are probably diffused 
bv tlie few fru<i:ivorous birds that haunt tlie desert solitudes. In 
Brazil I was struck by the extent of the ravages inflicted by 
these parasites upon their hosts. I saw no signs of such destruc- 
tion in Australia: indeed, their usually small and leathery or 
voolly leaves are evidently adapted to keep down transpiration, 
and thus to reduce to a niiniuium the injury they inflict upon the 

plants which support them. 

It luis already been mentioned that in tlie desert shrubs and 
trees predominate over herbs ; indeed, no less than 538 of the 
819 indigenous species have one or the otlier habit. Moreover, 
a considerable proportion of the 311 herbs are perennials pro- 
vided Avith woody rootstalks, so as in their habit to approach 
underslu'ubs. Annuals enjoy but a precarious existence during 

probably some years are 

the cool w^eather 

of early spring; 

more favourable to them than others, at least I infer this from 
their greater abundance during the first spring I w^as in the 


Adaptation to drought is shown in many ways by the plants of 
the AVest Australian desert, and I propose here briefly to reca- 

Many of tliese, however, came from South Australia. The fauna as a 
whole may be desciribecl as maitily Lacerliliaii and Coleopterous {vide Elder 
Expedition Report), 



'm ■_ 

T^^ ■ 

■:-■.■» 'W^ ^ 

I ^ 

T J .- 



pitulate the cliief of these adaptations, adding a few examples of 
each Ly way of illustration. 

(a) Diminution of the transpiring snrface. 

ITihhertia glomerata^ Tetratheca efoliata^ Mirhelia eipp*, Jack- 
sonia spinosa^ Daviesia hi^cvifoJia^ Cassia spp,, Loudonia aurea and 

Roci^ Myrtacca? Chamselauciese, Grevillea Pj^p., Ilakea spp.^ 
Exocarpus spartea, 


(b) Spines and tliorns. 

Spiny plants arc remarkably few in numher, and iu most 
oases tlic armature is not \ery j)roniinent. Sonic examples arc: 

Hursaria spinosa (this also occurs with spines along the moist 
Australian littoral), Gastrolohhcm cdycinnm and G. spinosmn^ 
Mirhelia micropliyUa and 31. microphylloides^ Jacki<oni(i spinosa^ 
Acacia erinacea^ Crrjpiandra peiraay Sca^vola sj)in€sc€ns^ Solannm 
spp- (thorns). 

(c) Aphylly. 

This also is not so common as might bo supposed ; as instances 
may be cited : 

Tetratheca Jlaiperi^ Bracliyscma Chamhei^sii and S^daviesioidcs, 
Daviesia aphylla^ Templetonia eycna^ Spartotliamnus tencriiforus^ 
Exoca}piis apliyUa^ Casuarlna spp. 

(d) Phyllodes or leaves oriented in the manner of 


Gasirolohiiim lilolvvfj Tlylloia lycopodioides and other Legn- 
minos^e Podalyrica?, Acacia spp., Eucalyptns spp,, Asfroloma 
Gandolleanum^ Persoonia Leucopoyon^ Lysinema ciliatum^ Gi^evillca^ 

{e) A thick tomentum. 

Sida spp., Ililiscus KriclauffJanus^ Kerandrema inieqrifolia^ 
liidingia coacta and other spp., Sicamsona ^)^.,FsorQjea crianiha^ 
GnepJwsis spp., Anyianilivs icmcnfoans^ Gnaphalodes spp., Sola- 

num spp., Yerbenacese, CLloanlhea>, Zwi^^/Aws gihhcruhis and 

X. Nestor, 

(/) Leaf-surface reduced, the leaves being of the rad 


DodoTKLa fiUJolla and D, steno:tyya^ Verticordia spp., Galytlirix 
spp*, TJfvypiomenc spp., Melaleuca uncinata &c., Grevillea nema- 
topJfylla &c., Ilakea lorea. 

" ^ 

"i - 


{g) Coriaceous leaves, 

Gastrolobiufu spp. and other Legumiaosae Podulyrlcsej Can 
thium spp,, Ali/xia huxifolia, ProteaecL^, 

(h) rieslij leaves. 

Calandrinia spp-, ZijgopliyUum spp., Tillcda verficillaris, 
JiaecJcia crassifoUuj Tetragonia expansa^ MesenibryantJieinum 
australe, Triantliema crystaUuta^ Atriplex spp., Rhagodla crassi- 

folia^ Kocliia^^}^,^ SuUcornia spp., Suhola Kali. 

(i) Glands secreting essential oils. 

Boronia ccerulesccns^ Friostemon nodijlorus^ Pkeballum tuber- 
culosum and other liutaceaej Myrtacoa) Cliamaalaucieae, Eucalyptus 


(h) A viscid secretion. 

Dodoncea spp.j GompJwlohium vlscldulum^ Acacia spp<, FhoUdia 
saliyna^ Eremoplula Fraseri^ Beyeria viscosa. 


(/) Cell-sap containing a relatively large percentage of 

saline matter. 

Tetragonia expansa, Clicnopodiacese* 

(m) A thick coating to fruits. 

Melaleuca, Eucalyptus^ Eremophila^ PhoUdia^ Proteaceae, 
Casuarina^ Callitris verrucosa, 

{n) Papery iavolucral scales or perianth. 

Species of Tlelichrysu^u^ llelipteram and other Composita^j 
Ftilotus^ Trlchinium. 

(o) AVater-rescrvoirs in root or stem or both root and 


StercuUa diversifolia^ Eucalyptus spp* 

(p) Stomata in pits. 
Proteacese, Casuarina, 

Dkseut Plants pkovided avith Means of Diffusion by the 

Agency of Animals. 

The fauna of the de.^crt being such a poor one, one would 
naturally expect to find that fe\s^ of its plants enjoy any provision 
for diffusion of tlieir fruits and seeds by means of anitnals. The 

J-^ ^ 


k F 




list hew given is, it is believed, almost exhaustive. It may be 

til us summed up : 

Burred fruits 10 

Adhesive j, , , 
Plcshj „ . . 
Succulent speeds 



The 10 plants \vith burred fruits are: — Trihulus ierresfris^ 
Daicciis hrachiatus^ Tracliymcne ccdrulea^ Cahtis erinacea^ C. phi- 
mulifera xvw\\. C. hispidula^ EcldnOHpermum concavuni^ Sclerolcdna 

hicornis and S. diacantha, Sahola Kali, 

All the above, except Traclnjmene C(Erulea^ which is restricted 
to Western Auatralia, and Sclerola'na hicornis^ absent from the 
South-west, are widely distributed through the island-continent. 

The comtuou tropical weed Folanisia viscosa is^ I believe, tlie 
only desert plant provided with adhesive fruits. 

The fleshy-fruited species are : 

Sollya lieteropliijUa^ SccBVola spinesccns^ Jasmimnn caloareiim^ 
Ahjxia huxifoJla^ Solanum (12 sj)p.), Duhoisia Uopicoodi^ Ilha- 
qodia (3 spp.)? MuchJcnhecJiia adprcssa^ Pimelea (9 spp.), Cassytha 
(2 spp.)? Loranthiis (5 spp.), Exocarpus (2 spj),), Anthoholus e.vo- 
carpoideSj Santalum lanceolatum^ and Fusamts persiccu^iiis. With 

tlie exception of the SoUya, the Jasmine, half the Solanums^ and 
7 of tlie PimeleaSj all the above are more or less ^vide]y distributed 
over Australia* 

PiUosporiun phyllyi^eoides^ T\xdl diffused over Australia, is tlie 
plant with seeds immersed iu a succulent pulp. 

It should be noted, however, that in few only of these oases is 
the fleshiness at all marked* 



miglit be seen on examination of tlie plates accompany in 
Mueller's fine monograph of the Myoporinese, quite unlike any 
other PJioJidla previously described, The chief peculiarity 
resides in the leaves, which are much reduced, appressed to the 
stem, and curiously tuberculated. Had the specimens described 
by me in this memoir as PholuUa homoplastica not been in flower 
^vhcn they were gathered, I should have concludedj without liesi- 
tation, that tliey must be referred to Mueller's species; for in 
habit, as in leaf, the two seem absolute counterparts- The 

■^ '^■' ;a^ - 

t 7-^ 


. - -.1 




flower.s liowever, are quite different, and, indeed, a more extra- 
ordinary resemblance in vegetative characters, rescmblauee not 
involving tmy protective function, lias never come under my 
noiiee. Another of the new Mjoporinea?, Fholidia salit/na, is 
treaclierously like Myoponm platijcaqnim, E. Br., except as 

regards the floral cliaraeters. 

The frequent close resemblance between certain species of 
Loranthus and their liosta was also noticed by me; nor was it 
without interest that I learnt, on my return home, how the same 
fact had been alluded to by that sagacious observer, James 
Urummond *, more than half a century ago. The two species 
showing this resemblance best are Loranthus pendulus, Sieb., var. 


Quandong. and 


the leaves are 

strikingly similar to those of its host, an Acacia, Eut it may be 
doubted whether mere homoplasy is in point here, seeing that 
the parasites are greedily eaten by camels t, and so are, in all 
probability, equally attractive to vegeiivorous marsupials. In 
these cases, therefore, the resemblance may possibly be pro- 
tective, and may have been i)erfected by means of natural 
selection. The attraction probably lies in the flowers, which 


contain much nectar and are very sweet in eonseo^uence. 

It may also be mentioned that some Proteacepe, Grevillcas and 
Ilakeas especially, can scarcely be distinguished from Acacias 
when not in flower or fruit. 

TnE DiSTKiEUTiox OF Dkseut Plants in Eela^tion to 

Tnifi Soil. 

Allusion has already been made to the prevalence of Myrtacea? 
in certain districts between Southern Cross and Siberia ; and I 
propose now to describe briefly the peculiar flora found in the 
immediate neighbourhood of the large granite outcrops known as 
gnamma-rocks. The red soil, so common elsewhere, here gives 
place to soil of a pale-yellow colour, and this change is invari- 
ably accompanied by a change in the flora. 

* nooker*3 Journal of Botany, ii. (1840) pp. 347 & 360, 

t Camels will browse upon the ])ar:isites and leave the hosts quite untouched, 
although the latter are themselves cxcellont food, 
support for the suggested mimiery were the host distasteful ; but the parasites 
have, it mu3t be remembered, only a small range of selection, iP any. 

There would be stronger 

4 P ■ ' 


■ Ti^r .^^"T. ■ ^!r^ ' 

; t 

. li- 



I J -I 

2 GO 


The eiclii&ively gnamma-rock plants observed by me arc the 


OAVing : 

niiica^ Prostantliera 

I ri ■ ■ ■ I ri 

. -m-^- r* 

Keratidrenia integrifolia^ StacJcliomia spp., Cryptandra petr(jea^ 
OxyJolium cjraniticum^ Mirbelia microj>hylloidcsy Drosera spp., 
Iviinzea scricea^ Podolepis pallida^ TIelichrysum semipapposunu 
Jlidiptcrum Mcmrjlesii^ Goodcnia liederacea^ Dampiera lavandu- 
lacea^ Isotoma petrcea^ Solanum ladopJtyUum^ Jiremophila gra- 

liaxteri^ OreviUca nemaiophylla^ Ilakea 
sulerea^ Parietaria dclilis^ Thehjmiira longifoJia and T. anten- 
nifera^ Pleroi^tylis pyra?nidalis, Borya nitida^ Juncus Ivfonins^ 
Centrolepis mtttica^ Scirpus cartUagineus and S. cernuus^ Noiho- 
licna distans^ Qymnogramme Pozoi. 

The presence at the rocks of many of the herbs vci this list, 
CfApecially the Droseras, the Orchids, Parietaria dehilis^ the 
C}peracOcT, and the Perns, is undoubtedly due in part to the fact 
that tlic places where they have managed to establiah themselves 
are specially favoured by their position, and are enabled to retain 
moisture longer than other spotn ; in the case of ferns, too, shade 
as well as moisture is essential. One finds such plants, tliere- 
fore, only in crannies between the rucks, or on level spaces 
abutting upon a sloping rock-face down which the water pours 
during a storm. But this explanation will not eufTiee for Ilalca 
sulerea which is a tree, nor for such large shrubs with long roots 
as the Keraudrenia, the O.cyJolium, Kunzea sericea, Ercmopliila 
granilica, and Grevillea nematoplnjUa, AVhy, too, should we fitid 
such lowly herbs as Podolepis pallida and Ileliclirysum semipap- 
posum near gnamma-rocks, it may be weeks after rain has fallen 
and all snrface-water has drained away, while on red soil not 
more dry, their place is taken by IlcUpterum Fitzgihhoni and 
rulellum, Sclujenia Cassiniana and Cephal^pieritm Brummondii? 
I know of low-lying spots between Coolgardio and Gibraltar 
where rain-water lies for some time, and where in the spring 
there is a perfect carpet of flowering herbs, yet not one of them 
is identical with a gnamma-rock species. Professor Tate* met 
with a somewhat sianlar rock-flora in Central Australia; but I 
cannot ngree with him in thinking these plants to be representa- 
tives of an ancient flora driven, by gradually increasing drought, 
to take refuge among the rocks for the sake of the supposed 
larger amount of surfa'^e water to be found there, though in a 

* i 

Botany of the Horn Expedition/ p. 120, 


r ■ n r 

-. L" 


1 ^ 



few case?, as already mentioned, proximity to the roclis is a great 

advantage. M 

view, to explain why all the ground near rocks is not densely 
clothed wiih vegetation. One would think that, in a country 
where the rainfall is so small, and where, for all their adapta- 
bility to resist the effects of drought, plants undoubtedly suffer 
during long dry intervals, there would be, as it were, a general 
movement towards places wMiere injury from this cause would be 
reduced to a minimum. This is, however, not the case : indeed, 
the neighbourhood of the rocks is almost always remarkably 
bare, and far more so than the surrounding co\intry. Tlie facts 
are only to be explained on the supposition that the red sod 
contains ingredients which are unsuited to the rock plants, while 
the "ranitic soil is not favourable to plants which flourish in red 


The prevalence of Myrtacea^ on stretches of pale soil where 
there are no outcropping rocks has already been mentioned. 
Directly one arrives at such a stretch of country, the gum-trees 
drop off and disappear entirely or almost so, and are replaced by 
shrubs, usually Myrtaceous. Singular as it may seem, I do not 
remember to have met with one of these Myrtacero near a 
gnamma-rock, and the only explanation one can find for this is 
tliat there is a third kind of soil speciidly suited to this :\Iyrta- 
ceous vegetation. The ch;inge in the flora is often very striking ; 
tims I recall one place, between Coolgirdie aud G-ibraltar, where 
the thickly growing Myrtaceae ended quite suddenly and stood 
like a battalion of troops drawn up on parade, and they were 

visible in this order for a long distance. 

To a few species the nature of the soil seems immaterial. 


liave noted Sterculia 


tuhercuJosum, Sccevola spinescens, TricUnium ohoi-atum, and 
certain grasses as flourishing near gnamma-rocks and also in red 
Boil, without any spe.ial preference for either si; nation. 

■ T^-m^-T ■ 1 I - - ^_ h 


On the Production of i\pospory by Environment mAlJi^rium. 
FiUx-foeminay Tar, uneo-glomeratinn, an apparently barren 
Pern. By P. W, StansfieI^, M.B. (CommuuLcated by 
a T. DiiUEKY, F.L,S.) 

[Eead 2nd February, 1899.] 

The form of lady-fern wliicli is the subject of the present paper 
is of such a remarkable character that it will be well to I'ive 
its history ; and fortunately this can be done in very few words. 
Its pedigree commences with A, Filix-foemina, var. acrochdon, an 
extremely ramose, or, as fern-fanciers would !^ay, a ramosissimum 
form, which was found wild in Yorkshire in .18G0 by Mr. C. 
Monkriiau. Until about 1S77 acrodadon was supposed to be a 
barren fern, and w^as propagated only by division. In 1877 my 
brother and I noticed spores upon a plant of it, and these were 
carefully collected and .sown. Prom thiw sowing there resulted, 
in the fullownng year, a fair crop of plants, of which about one- 
third \vere ivwe acrodadon. The lemaining two-thirds were mostly 
weeds— ^\ €, irregular forms, worthless from the decorative point 
of view. There were two plaiit.^, however, which were conaidered 
to be advances upon acrodadon in tlie matter of extreme develep- 
meiit. One of them ^vas A. Filix-faimlna, yar. unco-ylomeraium, 
so miUK^d by the late Colonel A. M. Jones because, along with 
the glomerate character of acrodadon, it possessed the peculiar 
subdivision of parts wliich is characteristic of the variety unciim 
of Barnes. Whether it was the result of a cross between 
itncum and acrodadon it is impossible to say, but it is not 
improbable that this was the ca^e, inasmuch as the parotjt acro- 
dadon was growing in a house with a large number of other 
ferns; and under these circumstances (or, indeed, under almost 
any circumstances) it is impos^sible to exclude stray spores of 
other feras which may settle upon the spore-bearer. 

A, Filix'foemina^ var. unco-ylomeratum proved to be a very 
beautiful form, but exceedingly refractory in the hands of the 
propagator. During nearly twenty years only some three or four 
divisions were obtained, and two years ago there is reason to believe 
that only two or three plants were in existence. The plant had 
shown in my hands no tendency to produce spores or bulbUs, nor 
did there seam the slightest reason to suppose that it was capable 

--PC i..■J^■ ■ , 

r^ ^ - ^ 

"* =*hl| 




of apospory. All its vital energy aeemed to be expended in 
branching and subdividing, so that a frond consisted of a solid 
niaes of ramifications ending in myriads of minute green points. 
Matters were at tliis pass when in October 1896, as the plant 
in my garden was dying down for the winter, I noticed that, lu 
the case of one or two immature fronds, although tlie greater 
part of the frond wns turning brown, the extreme tips were still 
green and formed little knots of living tissue each about the 
i of a pin's head. It occurred to me that if tliese could be 
kept alive until the spring ihcy might develop into bulbils, and 
so form independent plants. Under the influence of this idea, 
on November 5thj 189C!, I laid down in a pot a portion of a 
decaying frond w*ith the green bud-like bodies attached, the 
latter being brought into contact with the soil, and the whole 
covered closely with a bell-glass. 

I quote now from my journal the notes made at various stages 
of the culture : 

Dec. 1, 1896.— The bud-like bodies are evidently the unde- 
veloped parts of the frond to which they belonged. They are 
beginning to unroll, and look green and healthy. 

Feb, 5, 1S97. — Development has been going on slowly all 
through the winter. The growths are branching and continuing 
to unroll. They look like bits of frond still only partially 

June 6, 1897. — The pieces are now luxuriant and healthy- 
looking masses of branches, each about ^ to | of an inch in 
diameter; they are still growing, but there are no roots nor 
root-hairs visible, nor any bulbils or new axes of growth. It 
has been, so far, a process of continued unrolling. 

I^GVn 5, 1897.^The basal parts of the pieces of frond are 
beginning to decay. The tips are still alive and green, and con- 
tinue to expand, but this process has apparently nearly reached 
its limit. The tips are thin and pellucid, and have a seml- 
prothalloid appearance. There are no buds nor root-hairs to be 

March 1, 1898. — The cultures have been almost at a stand- 
still during the winter. Only the extreme tips of the growths 

are now alive, though the bunches of frond are still discernible 
in a half-decayed condition, 

April 30, 1898. — Several of the pieces have died altogether. 

-¥7ITB» -^ :-_t,m V - ^' ^J3 

' 7^^ ^-^ 


J ■- — r? 



.f I .rr. 

■ '-■■^'- '-.■ ■ 



r\v- ; 

1 r 



One or two of the tips of those still living are expandincr laterally, 
and have a distinctly prothalloid appearance. Two or three 
other tips have run out from the rhachides into long slender 
ribbon-like processes which branch diebotomously though at 
longer intervals than in unco-glomeratum. 

May 5, 1898, — One of the tips has assumed the character of 
a definite prothallus. It has increased considerably in size, 
being now about \ of an inch in diameterj and root-hairs are 
visible upon both its upper and lower surfaces. A tiny bud, 
I think, can bo perceived at the bifurcation of one of the ribbon- 
like processes noted April 30. 

Jane 1. — The largest prothallua has a bud upon its upper 
surface near the sinu?, but not proceeding from it. 

June 3. — A tiny frond is emerging at tlie sinus from tlie 
underside of the prothallus. The bud on the upper surface is 
more distinct and shows white silvery scales. 

%^ 1. 

Fit' 2. 

Fiff. 1.— Side Tiew of prothallus dereloped from extreme tip of pinnule. 

May 5. 

F!g. 2. — Development of prothallus. June 3, 

June Q. — The tiny frond is beginning to branch, being now 
bifurcate and still unrolling. The bud upon the ribbon-like 
procesPj noted May 5, has developed into a ramulose frond 
characteristic of tmco-glomeratam. Ihe process from which it 
sprang is decaying without having produced any prothallus. 

July 4, — The frond from the sinus of the prothallus is ra- 
mulo&e and characteristic; another is pushing up alongside it. 
The bud on the upper surface is throwing up two fronds. A 
curious fleshy translucent process is emerging from the side 
opposite to the sinus of prothallus No. 1. One or two other 
prothalli are developing root-hairs ; one other prothallus (No. 2) 
is g of an inch in diameten 

July 10. — A bud is visible on the upper surface of prothallus 
No. 2, Two other bulbils have appeared on the growths from 


i ' 

/ tL 

b "k 

P I 

\' : 


tlie old rhaclildes; none of these liave produced protTialli, At 
Mr, Druerv*s sugj^cstion I replanted the old pieces of froads in 
order to bring the living tips into contact with the soil. 

Fig. 3. 

Fig. 5, 


Fig. 3,— Plaiitlet developed from bulbil on ultimate division of frond. 
Fig. 6. — Another prothallus with two asexual buds und subsequent deyelopment 

of same. 


August 10. — Another bud liaa appeared, to the firc^t, on 
the upper surface of prothallus No. 2; the lirdt bud h sending 

Fig. 4. 

y\cr, 4. —Fuller development of firat prothallus (fl^. 2). 

up a frond. Several otlier prothalli are developing from the old 
tips- The fleshy process on prothallus No. 1 is forking near its 

'W « 

■ - . T--^ T -c- 




base ; the enlarged process begins to look like tLe stnmp of a 
frond, but is not circinate. 

Sept, 1, 1S9S. — The fleshy process from pro+liallua No. 1 hag 
asfcun:icd the form of an axis of growtlij a bud or crown forming 
at the bifurcation, and the blunt processerf assuming the character 

of fronds. 

Oct. 1. — The pinnulets or leaflets upon the various fronds 
from tlie prothallus and buds are eemi-lransluctnt and 
lacerated at their edges. I am pinning down a few of them to 
see it thfv will develop into prothalli. The fir^t bud which 
appeared (not from a protliallus) is now a den^c tuft of rymulo^e 
fronds like the parent nnco-ghmeratum. Prothallus No. 1 has 
three distinct a:5es of growth, from all of which ramulose fronds 
are arifclin<^ The protliallus is beginning to shrink. 

Q^^l^ 28. — Some of the pinnulets which I pinned down on 
Oct. 1 are obviously growing at their edges, and one or tAvo 
whicb do not quite touch the soil are developing root-hairs. 
These are, however, sbort and scanty, 

j<^g^^ Q, — ^ frondlet is emerging from tlie sinus of a third 

prothallus. There does not seem to be any functional diiference 
between the upper and lower surfaces. Close to the sinus the 
prothallus has t^vit-ted upon itself, the under surface coming 
uppermost and taking on the smooth shining character of the 
noimal upper surface. Eoot-hairs are emitted from what was 
the upper but is now the lower surface, 

2)^c. 8.— The root-hairs which Avere visible a month ago on 
one of the pinnulets from prothallus IS'o. 1, w^hich was not in 
contact with the soil, have perished. Those in contact with the 
soil are living and presumably rooted, but very little growth is 

BOW going on.) 

Su:mmaby of Eesults of Experiment, 

(1) The fact that detached portions of frond from a deciduous 
fern can be kept alive for over eighteen months is a little re- 
markable. Had they been left on the parent phant they would 
undoubtedly have perished the first winter. 

(2) Influence of cnvirorment on the development, 

(3) The rupidily and energy w ith which the isolated protoplasm 

. ■ ' I ■ ■ ■ , ^ 

r- • . r^-' ■. '. ' ' 

H k 

-n J J 


breaks out when once the tendency to Lrancliing has been 
exhausted and a frea cellular tissue produced. 

(4) The variety o£ ways in which this occurs, viz. : 

(1) Grenunation from the rhaclus without production 

of prolljalli- 

(2) (a) Apogainic buds from the protliallus. 
(h) Normal sexual axes of growth from prothallus. 


(5) The ease with wliich apospjry is induced in the primary 
fronds as compared with the extreme dilTiculty in the ease of the 
adult fronds is charactei'istic of all aposporoud ferny, so far as I 
know, 1 have at various times succeeded in raising plants by 
apospory from eight dilTcrent ferns — four forms of Polystichum 
angidare^ one of Lastrea paJeaceay and three o^ Athi/rium Fllix' 

faemina ; and in every case I have noticed that if the first fronds 

from the prothallus were pinned down (and^ indeed, frequently 
"without this special treatment), the edges rapidly developed intu 

prothalli. Assuming the truth of the recitpitulation theorv 
(i.e. that ontogeny is an epitome of phylogeny), tliis would seem 
to suggest that apospory is an atavic trait in ferns— a character 
wliich may have been general or even universal in the infancy of 
the race. This idea is also borne out to some extent bv the faot 
tliat apospory is favoured by a uniformly hnn:iid atmosphere, a 
condition which probably prevailed in early geologic (say Silurian 
and Devonian) times. 

(6) ^he prima facie unlikeliness o? A, Flllx-faemina yslt, unco- 
glomeratum as a subject for apospory leads me to suspect that 
that phenomenon could be induced in many — possibly in most — 
ferns by taking suflielent trouble* This fern lias apparently 
nothirg in common witli the other abnormal forms which have 
nianife?led apospory. All these, so far as I know^; belong to the 
j^lumose or ultra-plumose seclious of varieties. It is true that 
among th^m are two other crested ferns, viz., Cropper's Lastrea 
paleacea var. cristata piilclierrimaand Scolopendrium vav. erispum 
Drummondice] but both these are specially modified forma, whose 
appearance at once suggests to the experienced eye that they 
are likely subjects for apospory. It is evident that there is a 
wide field for further experiments in the cultural inducement of 
apospory. Some of these further experiments I hope to make 
^nd to record results in due time. 



z^wy j^ ' r^ -v u ^-fiv T---^r-^^'^t"._«^i^T-i--_'. r-_i- ---™ Tf- r "^" ^.^r. - ^ — _. ^^- ,.. ^^ 

268 MESSRS. I. n. eurtctll and c. tt, wrtqtit oi^ 

XoTE.— On December 18, 1898, 1 took up one of tlic original 
protlmlli whicli had not yet produced either frond or bud, shaved 
off the root-liairs, and examined it with tbc microscope for arclie- 
gonia and antberidia. I found the "cushion" crowded w^itb 
archegonia, in some of wbich the egg-cell could be diatinctly 
seen. A few antberidia were found in the usual situation, 
but they were apparently not yet mature* 

On December 29, 1898, I went round my garden and snipped 
off portions of fronds from some eight different ferns, the only 
principle of selection being to take fronds which were devoid of 
any trace of sori, and w^ere not too mature to allow any hope 
of farther growth. They were well washed by a stream of 
water to remove any adherent spores of other ferns, and were 
then pinned down in a pot and covered with a bell-glass. 

Examining these on January 12, 1899. I found thjit in the 
case of one fern, PoJf/pocIium vulgare var. grandioeps^ Parker, 
two translucent (presumably protlialllc) growths were already 
proceeding from the termination of a veinlet near the edge on 
the upper surface of the frond. These growths, as well as the 
piece of frond from which they grew, I regret to say have been 
since destroyed by fungoid growth. I hope, however, to repeat 
the experiment. 

On some African Laliat^B with Alternate Leaves* 
By L H. BuEKrlL, P.L.S., and C. H. A\^igut, A.L.S. 

[Eead Ifith February, 1890.] 

(Plate 6.) 

A suoKT while ago M. llua described as the type of anew genus 
a Labiate from "West Tropical Africa, and named it Icomum 
j)aracloxum. The character upon which he laid most stress is the 
alternation of the leaves ; and on account of this deviation from 
what is almost universal in the order^ he chose the specific name. 
At the time when his paper* was published we were aware of 
two Labiates from Africa possessing the same peculiarity; and 
further search in the herbarium of the Eoyal Gardens, Kew, 


* "Nouveaiix matennux pour la Flore de TAfrique Fran^'aise," Bulletin du 
Musaim d^histoire naturelle, Paris, 1897, p. 321). 

^T ■■ ■ ^ * 




liai a^lded yofc two mare. M. Haa, witli great courtesy, sent us 
drawin^^ of Tcomum paradox um; and by means of tlicm we are 
assured of the distinctness of it £ro:n any of tliose which we shall 
here describe. Thus we kaow of five African Labiates which 

possess alternate leaves, 

AbernatioQ of leaves is not by any means an unknown con- 
dition in this order. Penzig* remarks its moderate frequency 
as an abnormality^ and enumerates the following genera in which 
it has occurred : 

Mentha. IIussodus. Mt 

stegia^ Leonurus^ Lamiiim^ and Dusophylla, Benfcham also 
described an anomalous Ilyplls under the name of //. anom%Ia f, 
reduced later to H, confertci %, which possesses alternating leaves. 
Alternation of the flowers of the inflorescence, and of their bracts, 
is well known in Scutellaria, where it characterizes a section 
(Heteranthcra), and it also occurs in ^Ejlanthm. 

AH these observations have served as a caution, which we have 
not disregarded. Tet it seems to us best to retain the genus 
Icomum, and under it we place four of the five plants above 


Tcomum is apparently closely allied to Mjlanthiis~% genus 
confined to Africa, where most of its species occur within the 
Tropics, AVe thus diagnose the first-named, and arrange the 
plants by which it is constituted : 

IcoMUM, Una (Joe. cit.), Lablatarum-Ocymoidearum genus, 
Molantho m^^im^ afBnc: distinguendum foliis alternis saepissime 
an^usti:^, floribus in spicis sine ordine obvia aggregatis, bracteis 
floribus longioribus angustis : cseteris ab jEolantlio non diversum. 

Spike compound. 

Corolla-tube narrow throughout I, paradoxim. 

Corolla-tube wide above /. salicifoUuuu 

Spike simple; corolla-lube ouly narrow in 
its lowest third. 

Leaves linear ^. Uneare. 

Leaves oblunccolate-obovate , J. subacaule. 

* Pflanzcnteratologie, ii. (Genoa, 1894) p. 231. 

t Labiatarmn Genera et Specled (Loudon, 1833), p. 113» 

1 Benthaui in DeCaidolle's * Prodromus/ iil (Paris, 1848) p. 112. 

V 2 


1. IcoMUif PAEADOxrM, IIuQ^ ill Bull. MusGum, Paris, 1S97. 

p. 329. 

ITalK Timbo, on tlie river Timbo, one of tl^e upper tributarica 
of the Senegal. Br. Miquel, 13, in herb- Mus. Paris. Flowering 
in June, 

2. LsALTCiFOLTiTM, JiurUll (PI. 6. %s. 1, 2.) CaiiJes (pan 
latcrales) 6-10 poll, longi, dccunibentes, teretes, dense pubes- 
eentes. Folia cauljiia^ sessilia^ lineari-lanceolata, alterna, apice 
acuta, basin versus angustata, margine utroque dcntibus 2-3 
instructa, pubescentia vcl glabrcscentia, 1-1^ poll longa, 2-2^ lin. 
lata, InJJorescentia spicis densifloris aggregatis composita ; spica 
terujinaliH 2 polL longa ; spica^ laterales ad 1 poll, longge j bractca? 
Ibliid similes sod minores. Calyx tubulosus, ad os paullo constric- 
tu9, rnargine leviter sinuatus et pilis conspicne ornatus, florcna 
14 lin. longus, fructifer ad 2^ lin. auctus et rima a^qnali ad basin 
dissolutus. Corolla extus fere glabrae tubi 3| lin. longi dimidium 
inferius angustum, dimidium superius ex inferiori abrupte 
expansum ; labium snperius 1^ lin. longum, dentibus 4 apice 
rotundatis ; labium inferius 2 lin. longum. Staminum filamenta 
1 lin. longa. Ovarii nucula) ovoideae ; glaudula late linguifonnis. 
^olantJius salicifolius, Baker in Kew Bulletin, 1S9S, p. IGL 

llah. British Central Africa : North Nyasaland, Nyika 
plateau, 6000-7000 ft A. Whi/le, 107. Commencing to fruit 

in July, 

3. L Lii^KA.-RV., Burl' ill (PL 6. figa. 3, 4.) Eerha spithamca. 
Catties erecti, foliis sat crebri, pilis albis aliquo modo puberuli. 
Folia caulina, linearia, aessilia, 4-7 lin. longa, glandulis numero- 
sissimis inconspicue nolata. Spicce ramos foliatos terminantes, 
simplices, 1-1| poll, longsc ; bracteso foliis similes sed pubescen- 
tiores, breviores (2-2| lin. long?e), paululo latiores ; flores ad 15. 
Galycc companulatus, rnargine leviter sinuatus, florcns | lin, 
longus, basi rlmre indicationem demonstrans, Corollce extra 
pubescentis tubus ad f angustus, dein decurvatus ampllatus, 
3^-4 lin. longus; labium superius 4-dentatam, 2 lin. longum; 
labium inferius superiori longius 2| lin. longum, antheras 
includens. Staminum filamenta 2-2^ lin. longa. Ovarii nucui^e 
ovoidcse ; glaudula linguiformis. 

Hah, British Central Africa : Nyasaland, near Port Young, 

Dr. T, O. J^iclwUon. Plowering in September. 




4. Tcomum: subacaule, Bnrl^ilh (PL 6. figs. 5, 6.) Ilerha 
Bpithauioa vol ultra. Folia 6-7, ut vidctur omnia radlcalia, oblan- 
ceolato-oblonga, apiee obtusa vel rotunclata, basin versus longo 
sensim angustata, utrinqiio glabra, gbmdulis conspieue notata, 2.|- 
3 poll, longa, 8-iO lin. lata ; petiolus 9-12 lin. longus, Spic(JO 5-6, 
simpliccs, longe pcdunculata} ; pcdunculus 4-5 j poll, longus, 
bracteag lineari-lanccolatas alternat'm 3-G irregulanter gereus, 
pilis parvis sparse tectas ; bractese stcrilcs et ecD flores subtcn- 
dcntes 2^-5 liiu longa), glabra), liricarca ; flores ad 50. Calux cain- 
paimlatus, margine leviter sinuatus, aliquo mode bilabiatus, 
floreiis vix 1 lin, loniiju^, basi rima? indicationem demonstrans. 
Corollw extra pubosccntis tubus ad ^ angustus, dein fortitcr 
decurvatus ampliatus, 4 lin. longus ; labium superius 4-dciitatuin, 
dentibus rotundatie", 1| lin, lougum ; labium infcrius superiori 
longius, antheras includena. Staminum filamenta l-l|-lin. longa* 
Oram nucnlae apicibus obtusa? ; glandula linguiformis. 
traatJnis suhacaiilis^ Baker in Kew Bulletin, lb95, p. 73. 



Hah. British Central /Vf rica : Fwambo, near Lake Tanganyika, 
Rev, A. Garsoji, 33, G5. Flowering in January. 


^EolaufJius shows in many species eharacters leading to Icomum, 
it is not difTicult to define the boundary between the two- 

In ^okmthiis are two very closely allied species — A, amiusfns, 
Oliver, and A. virrjatus^ G iirke ; so closely are tbey allied that one 
may only be a varieiy of the other, and Briquet* is certainly 
wrong in making for each of them a section, Those two wpecie.s 
approach Icomim in the narrowness of their leaves and in their 
inflorescences. In the accompanying woodcut, fig. 5 represents 
a portion of the inflorescence of A, virgatm. As seen in it, the 
bracts are paired and opposed, but tlie flowers are solitary — one 
to each node. There is then an alternation of the flowers, though 
not of the leaves. In addition, the branches of the lateral axes 
similarly alternate, though the leaves from which they arise are 
opposed ; while ou the main axis, and now and then on the stronger 
lateral axes, the branches arc opposed : so that one may trace a 
relationship between the vigour of the shoot and the possession 

* In Engler u. rranll, rflanzenfamilion, iv, 3 a (Leipzig, 1897), p. 349, 
There is little except the size of the caljx by which tlie two species can bd 


^ I ■» 

f ^ 

^^ \ 



of two or one branch (or flower) at eaeli node. But ib must be 
remarlved tliat there is a tendency to ani&ophylly, tlie brger leaf 
(bract) being that without any flower. The difference in size, 
which is but little, ia shown in the figure. It is in no way 
so obvious aa in another member of the Labiatie — Fogostcmon 
panicidattim *• 

The position of the flowers is interesting, for, as shown in the 
diagram (fig. G), they occupy oiily two faces of the obscurely 


1, Portion of the inQ or ^sceiice of jEo Ian f7ais Cameronii, ehowing tlie basts of 
the calyces of sis flowers. 2 & 3. Tbe axis in section, in two cousecutiTe 
inlernodes. 4. Diagram of pcsilion of flowurs. 5. Portion of inflorescence 
of J^olanthus virgatus, tliOMing anisopliylly and alternate flowers. 6, Dia- 
gram of position of flowers. 7. Portion of inflorescence of ^Eolanthts sp., 
showing flowers and bracts. 5 and 7 slightly reduced. 

quadrangular stem ; neither of these faces in the case of lateral 
axeis is tiirued towiirds the parent axis^ 

The arrangement of the flowers in two rows is common in 
jEolanthus. Another form in which the bracts are approximated 
is shown in fig. 7, taken from an undescribed species. In 
eeveral others of the genus the bracts alternate, as do the 

Interesting forms connecting these with a more normal arrange- 
ment are seen in A. Camerom'i\ described be]o\r, and A. zanzi- 
harictis^ S, Moore. "We ghall take first the la^t-niimtd* 

Cf, also Eriquet, *]\Ionograpliie du genre Gakojms' (Pd^nB, 1S93), p. 35, in 
which genus a tendency in the same direction occurs. 

^ -q I 



"■ ^'d 



Oi ^olantltus zanziharicus we bave seen specimens collected 
by Hiidebrandt (Kingaui river, 12(35), Johnston (Ivilimanjaro 

Exped.), and Hokt (U;^ambara, 29-57). All bave tlic leaves 
opposed, "bnt in the inflorescence lose this cbaract^-r* At the base 
of the spike teradnating the axis a pair of lateral spikes spring 
from oppo.dte sides of the stem ; souietimes these agiiin branch, 
but more often they are simple. Examining the terminal spike, we see that the lowest flowers are soniutimes opposedj but 
more often alternate ; at about the middle tbe deeusf^atioa of 
paired flowers is regular, but apt to become irregular again nei:r 
the apex. On the lateral axes we see invariably a solitary flower 
at the first intcrnode, which is situated immediately above the 
bract in the axil of which the axis arose ; next, to right and le:t, 
a pair of flowers: then one over the first flower; then a pair; 
and so on. The sterile face of the axis is that directed towards 

the parent axis. 

In A. Cameronii^ we find a similar arrangement, but all the 

lateral axes which we have seen possess a sterile face wbich is 

turned towards the parent axis. Fig. 1 of the woodcut show^s a 

portion of an axis bearing six flowers ; at the \qvj base are two 

branches; then a solitary flower; next a pair of flowers; then 

* yI^]oLANTiiU3 Cameroxii, BurkllL Caides erecti vcl subereeti, pilis per- 

parvis puberuli, obscure angulati, interiiodiia luuj^ia. Folia ovata, apico 
acuJiuscuia, basi obtusa, margine irregulariter serrula, utriiupie miiiutissinm 
puberala, 10-14 lin, longa, 4-6 liu. lata ; p^tioius G-8 liu. loiigua. Spure 
candelabri modo coinpositai; q:iica (teriniiuiliri ?) ir>-lG llii, longa ; epic£e latc- 
ralcs 8-10 lin. loiiga', iuferiores ad apices pedunculuruiu longorum seniel et 
iterum trifurcata^ ; brauteie i -1 lin. lougic, cito decidiiiVj subulata; vel inferiorcs 
lanceolatiE, fioros dorsiventraliter in foveolis axi, nodis nunc siiiguli nunc biui 
alternatiua dispositi. Cal^x bidentatus, pubesceiia, florena vix 1 lin. IongU3. 

CoTolliB tubus 1 lin. longus nee ampliatus ; iubiutn suporiusrotundatum, margine 
leviter 4-lobatuni, 1 lin. longniu ; labium inferius superior! pauluio longius. 
^iamimtm filamenta | lin. longa. Ovarii nucula^ ovoidoiii. 

Jlah, British Central Alrica: Shiri Iligliland:^, Namadi, K. J. Cameron^ 18. 

It is probable that we only possess lateral branches of this plant, in whieh 
case the terminal inflorescence of the main axis may differ in detail. A. Can-- 
ddahrum, Briquet in EngL Jahrb. :xix. 180, eeems to resemble it in habit, but 
diilcrs much in the flower. The extreme delicacy of the calyx at tlie time 
of flowering is very noticeable ; and under the microscope a scries of large 
fitomata are seen on the tenninations of conspicuous anastomosing veins, 
apparently hyduthodcs- 

1 1." 

V- -J" 

^ * 




a solitary flower; nnd so on. Piirtlier, the axis is peculiarly 

grooYcd as the rhacliilla of a grats-sjjikelet, yo tliat ilie flowers 

fit into the hollow spaces, and llio face towards the parent axis is 

much hroader tlian the others. In fig. 4 the position of the flow'Crs 

and their caducous hracts is marked diagrammatically. It is to 

be noted that no trace of a bract pcr.^ists where the flower is 
absi nt. 

Qhcse are some modiricatioua of the inflorescence wln'ch we 
have noted in JEoJanihiis. They are of special interest iu 
showing an alternation of parts by abortion of one member of 
the pair, AVe have introduced them licre that they may afford a 
contrast between what we see in Icomum, in ^l^olanthus, in such 
abnormalities as t!ic condition of IIj/plis conferta mentioned above, 
or that of StacJijjs circinata described by Clos*, and in others 

where torsion is associated with alternation of the leaves 
a CoUinsia described by De Vries t- 

Schlechtendal long ago spoke of the leaves of Labiates as 
pseudo'opposite, meaning thereby tliat there is no connection 
between the two members which oppose one another. Perhaps 
there is something in the idea underlying this. When torsion 
twists the stem of a Labiate the leaves often cease to be opposed, 
those of each pair becoming separated. This is the commoner 
abnormality; rarer is separation of tlie leaves without torsion 
a condition w^hich we see in the Ilj/ptis and SlacJff/s named in tlio 
last paragraph. Quite another condition is the alternation by 
abortion of one of the paired organs, such as we have seen 

m ^^olanthus ; and 

distinct again 

is the alternation which 

apparently has a spiral arrangement, present in Icomum^ iu 
the inflorescence of Scutellaria § IhleraiUhera and iu an inter- 
esting abnormality of Fhjsostegia described by P. Duchartre :J:, 
in which the number of leaves at a node was multiplied and 
these spread out in a spiral. 

So much for the 

genera Icomtun and yEoJanthus. 



remains yet to be described a species of the genns Fleet ranthus, 
in which tlie leaves are irregularly scattered owing to the unequal 
development of the internodes, and are never truly opposite. 
The aspect of this plant is similar to that which is often met with 
in Linaria vulgaris, Milk, but the 4-lobed ovary and g^nobasic 

* *' TliL'Orie des F^oudurcs/' Ann. A<?na. Toulunse, 8me ser. i. 1879, j). 140. 
t **Bijdragen tot de leer van den klcuidraai," Bot. Jaurboet, JS92, p. 101. 
{ EulL Soc. bot. France, xixix. 1802, p. 120. 

, r3-.--ci 

J "-T^T^t^. 






' '-^\^ ^ 



M, Smitt^, ael 





\ ■ 

- r 




style leave no doubt as to its belonging to the Labiatae. In tlie 
dried state the stem h more or le^s striate, and it is upon the 
striatioiis that the leivca are home. The tiowers are alternate 
aiid somewhat distant^ but occasionally a second bract occnrs 
opposite to that which subtends a flower. 

PLECTHA^yTJLUS INSOLITUS, C IL WrlgJiL (PI. 6. figs. 7, 8.) 

Ilerla glabra- Caulis crectus, 9 poll, alius, basi raniosus subli;^- 
nosus, siccitate striatus. Folia alterna, linearia vel Icvitcr iaicata, 
acuta, basi attenuatn, .Integra, 1^- poll, longa, 1 lin. lata. Macemtis 
terminalis; bracteo) sicpius alternae, rarius opposit^ne, una vacua, 
ovato-lanceolata?, quam pedicelli breviores ; pet-liccHi tenucs, 

3 lin* loiigl. 


campanulatus, extra glandulosus ; 


Buperior integer, latus ; lobi inferiores anguste triai^gulares. 

CorolUe iuhua prope basin 

contractus, deinde 

campanulatns ; 

labium interius extra glandulosum, integrum; superius dentibus 
4 suba?r|nalibii9 obtusis pra>dLtuun Filamenta basi brcvissiuie 
connata- Ovarium (novellum solum visum) profnude 1-partitum. 
Hah. Angola, Welwitsch^ 5593. 

It may be thought that the shortly united fihiments forbid the 
placing of this plant in Plcctanthus, But the genera CapUanija^ 
JLuglermtnim^ and Solenostemon^ in which this form of union 
occurs, are unlike it; and we have preferred to be guided by 
other characters in leaving it thus as a doubly aberrant form of 

the large genus Plcctranthus, 

The chief interest of our paper centres in Tcominn; and tlio 
increase of its species from one to four establishes the genus 
upon a firmer basis as a peculiar development of the Labiata>, 
confined to Africa. "We do not consider that the relationships of 
the order are in any way explained by it, as there is no evidcutto 
for regarding it as primitive. Still the recognition of a genus 
in Labiatee characterized by the possession of alternate loaves 
lessens the distinctness of the order in Avhat is certainly one 
of its most j)romineut features. If, at a later date, Ave are able 
to investigate the anatomy of the stem, we shall seize the 

To M. Henri Ilua, for the kind way in whicli ho has given us 

information about Icomum paradoxum^ and to Miss M* Smith, ^vho 

has drawn the plate illut>tratiiig the ibrms we describe, we desire 
to express our most ;?incere thanks. 


■■ * a ^r ' ^r^ 

^ -U^"!^! ™^^ ^ 

^ J 

ji'- , -rii^ 

--1 ". 

1 I 




Fig. L Icomnm mlidfolktm, ktcrnl epike, in fruit. Nat, size. 

2. FlowLT of the same ; the calyx in part removed to expose the narrow 

half of the tube of the corolla, 
y, Icomum Uncare, Wat. size. 

4. Flower of the same. 

5. Icomnm suhacaule, K"at, size. 
C. Flower of the same. 

7. PlectraJitliKs inaoUius, flower, 

8. Corolla of the same. 








Note on tlie Irish Careoc rJiyncJiopJiysa, 
By G. Claridge Druce, M.^., 1\L.S, 

[Read 2nd March, 1899.] 

In tlie ' Journal of Botany ' for 1893, on p. 20, an editorial note 
'■v\'as inserted to the effect that Mr. E. Lloyd Praeger " had been 
fortunate enough to add this well-marked species to our British 

On pp. 33-35 of the same journal a description of the 
plant and an account of its discovery is communicated by tho 
finder, Mr. E. Lloyd Praeger. A fignre of it with a rather 
featureless drawing of the perlgynium is supplied by Mr. Arthur 
Bejinett, who, Mr, Praeger states, ''has now submitted the 
Sedge to the most rigid examination, and though hesitating at 
first to add a new phmt to tlie British flora on the strength of a 
t-ingle specimen without the clearest proof, is now convinced of 
its identity with Care.v rlynchophysa^ 

It was discovered in a ten-foot drain with a bottom of deep 
soft mud and soft peaty sides, which communicated withMullagh- 
more Lough iu the central part of Armagh, growing in the 
neiglibourhood of Cicuta virosa and Castalia speciosa. Only one 
patch, several feet in diameter, was noticed, but this was '' imme- 
diately distiugui^hed from the groves of Carex ro&trata which 
grew around by its taller growth and more glaucous leaves." 

Tlie distribution of the true Carex rliynchophysa is distinctly 
northern and eastern. In Fniland, as Mr. Praeger points out, 
it occurs in ten provinces, w^hcre it is found on the river- and 
lake-shores in deep bogs. It is also found in Lapland, Norway, 
Sweden, Eustiij, tSilesia, Transsjlvaniaj Sibeiia, and Dahuria. 

1 , 

.1 I 

i r- 

I "^ 

^ ' 1 




The alleged discovery of this plant in Ireland was therefore 
an interesting fact in phyto-geography, as one would rather have 
expected it to be fuund in the northern and eastern parts of 
Scotland than in the central part of Northern Ireland; unles:^, 
indeed, it beloni^ed to that abnormal group whicih comprises 
Inula salicina and Carex fasca {Baxhaumii)^ which are ahno:3t 
inexplicable outliers from their ordinary range of diytribution. 

Mr- Praeger's original gathering consisted, aa has been said, 
of a single specimen, but he found it in one or two additior:al 
places at Mulhighmore in succeeding seasons. Last August, 
having to attend a conference at Belfast, I resolved to search 
for this rare and interesting Sedge, and with only the details 
given in the ' Journal of Botany' to assist me in the quest ; but 
after a careful examination of some Finland specimens, and the 
figure and description in the * Journal of Botany,' I set out 
from Belfast to the remote locality indicated, very near to Lough 
Swilly Station, not far from which I came upon the Lough* 
Notwithstanding the dry season, the water in the marshes at the 
head was rather higher than was formerly the cabc, owing, as I 
was informed, to the drains at the outlet being overgrown with 
vegetation, I commenced a search for the Sedge, which lasted 
between three and four hours. In this comparatively thorough 
investigation I could not help admiring the magnificent tufts of 
Cicuta, and in addition Potamojetoii oltusifoJhts and Utricularia 

major were noticed; but the plant of the marshy borders of the 
Lough was Carex rcslrata, which I had never previously seen so 
luxuriant, nor, indeed, so variable in size. 

In what I took to be Mr. Fraegcr's Iccalily, I found a tuft of 
a broad glaucous-haved Sedge which answerv d to my recollection 
of the figure in the ' Journal of Botany/ The thicker spikelets, 
large fruits, and very hroad leaves, in some cases nearly | inch 
broad, with thick spongy stem, measuring in the submerged 
part between 3 and 4 inches round, appearing very different from 
Carex rostrata as seen in our Midland bogs ; and ^et it was difll- 
cult to see any sharp line of demarcation between these specimens 
and others whicli grew in shallower water, or again between the 
latter and plants growing in the marsh itself. Even in the 
marsh the leaves of plants having the spikes and fruits of 
ordinary rostrata had the leaves somewhat broader than our 
usual English form, and they were decidedly glaucous. None of 

w ■ 1 r -- h^ h 

'^. cpr^ 



these plants, whether growing in the marsh, or in shallow water, 
or in the deeper water of the clraia itself, showed the peculiar 
outline and sliape of the fruit which I take to be eliaraou^ristic 
of the Finland and xs'orth European pLant; althougli those from 
tlie drain, and others also growing in other ditches and drains 
near the Longli, seemed to be, so far as my recollection went, 
identical with the plant figured in the 'Journal of Botany' as 
O. rliyncliOjjhysa. The spikes also varied considerably in s!iape, 
some with large fruit being much longer and comparatively thinner 
than those figurcdj while others with shoit, stout spikes had 
smaller fruit. 

Therefore, after the somewhat prolonged search, I came away 
very sceptical as to having gathered the true C. rhjncliopli\jm\ 
and on reaclung home, a comparison of my specimens with 
Finland, Swedish, and Eussian plants convinced me that I had 
been un.sncce.^sful. On the other hand, my specimens appeared 
to be insepnrable from the plant figured in the ' Journal of Botany' 
as C. rhjnclwphysa. I therefore communicated with Mr. Praeger, 
and he kindly told me that he had presented specimens to tho * 
herbaria of Kew and the British IVIusenm. At the earliest 
opportunity I consulted the herbaria of the latter institution^ but 
found that the Irish Carex rhyncJiophysa had not yet been placed 
amongst the British plants. At Kew I was more fortunate, for, 
kindly assisted by Mr. C. B. Claike and Mr. N. E. Brown, I was 
enabled to examine Mr. Praeger's specimen. This, with all 
deference to Mr. Arthur Bennett's well-known knowledge, is in 
my opinion not the true G. rhjncltophjsa of North European 
botnnists, but an extreme form of Carex rostrata, Stokes, which 
has been called var. latlfolia by Aschcrson, and agrees exactly 
with some of my specimens of that plant collected at Mullagh- 
more and corroborated by Pfarrer Kiikenthal. Mc=isrs. Clarke 
and Brown also agree with nie in referring my own plants and 
that of Mr. Praeger to C. rostrata, and in considering that 
licither is identical with true C. rliynchoplnjsa from Northern 
Europe. Erom this it differs, as Mr. Brown observes, in tho 
spikes of the Irish plant being not so stout in proportion to 
their length, in being uisually longer, in the utricles being not so 
crowded as they are in C. rhyncJiopTiysa^ thus giving the spikes 
a different appearance ; in tho utricle of the Irish plant bein^r 

not so abiuptly contracted into a beak, and in tho beak beiuL^ 



■'^^ -> 





pliortcr and much less deeply bifid than in C. rlyncloplnjm. 
It also appears to be ratlier more slcndur than in that species. 
I therefore venture to contend that C. rlnjncliopljym of Fisch,, 
Mey. k Ave-Lalh Ind. Seni. llort. Petrop, ix- Suppl. 9, i« «tili 
a desideratum to the flora of Great Britain and Ireland. 


A. further Contribution to tlie Preshwater Alga? oP the "West 
Indies. By W. AVj^st, F.L,S., and G. S. West, B.A., 


[Read IGth :\T;ircb, 1899,] 


The Alga? included in this paper were collected mainly in tlie 
Island of Dominica by Mr. AV, E, Elliott in January and Feb- 
ruary, 1896, and consisted of dried specimens, numbered and 
localized. The numbers foUowing the localities refer to the 
numbered sheets at the British Museum, at which place tlie 
Bpecitnens can be consulted. 

In 189i we published a short paper " On some Freshwater 
AlgiB from the West Indies " (Journ. Linn. Soc, Bot. vol. 5xx.), 
in which G3 species were recorded from the islands of Dominica 
and >St. Vincent, and the present paper considerably enlarges 
our l^nowledge of West Indian species of these plants. Of the 
63 species mentioned in the previous paper, 21 have been found 
in other localities, and GO additional ones are recorded, the latter 
beijig prefixed by an asterisk i^). One species {Rhaplddimn 
fractum) and two varieties {Mesol(€nhim Kramstai^ Lemmei-m., 
var. hrevis, and Cylindrocystis tumida^ F. Gay, var. domini- 
censis) are described as new. One alga, Lynghya majuscula^ 
Harv., is truly a marine species, but it was found in the collec- 
tion, and is therefore recorded. 

A number of both Desmids and Diatoms were noted from 
subaeriul habitats — a sure indication of a constantly moist 
atmosphere; these occurred chiefly among patches of Scyionema^ 
ScJdzotJirix, and other filamentous algae, and often on trees. 

In the measurements given of the Myxophycea? iu this paper^ 
"crass. fil" = the diameter of the sheath containing the trn 
chomcs, and ''crass. trich." = the diameter of the cells without 
the sheath. 


. ■". "1 .?■ 

L, -;¥^ 

Tipr'— '^■ 

-L rn 

■ H 

J ■ ^ 

. I 




Ord. Coif FEET A.CE^ IsOQAMiE, 




Sot. Geselhcli. v. 18S7, p. 417. — Conferva abbreviata, Bahcnh. 
Krypt. Flor. v. Sachs. 18G3, p. 24-6; Flor. Europ. Aljar. iii. 

p. 323. 

Hah. On roadside near Eoseau Lake, Dominica (2700 ft.). 

K"o. IIGO. 
*2. MiCHOsroRA PAcnxDERMA, Lngerl}. I. c. — Conferva pacliy- 

derma, Wille^ '' Om UvilecelL Jws Conferva^^^ Ofocrs. af K. Vet,- 
Akad. Forh. 18S1, no. 8, p. 20. 

Hal. Onroclvs,^Castlel3ruce Elver, Domiuica (2000-3000 ft.). 

Ko. 1C07- 

Earn, CimoOLEPlDACEiE, 

3- TRENTEPOnLiA TiLLOSA, Be Toni^ SylL Alf/ar. i. p. 239. 
Chroolepus villosa, Kuetz, Phyc. gener* p. 284; Spec> Alf/ar, 

p. 428. 

Crass, cell, veget. 18-22 //. 

Ilab, On trees ia woods round Eoseau Lalvc, Dominica. 
Ko. 1164, — On trees, St. Aromeut, Eof^caUj Dominica. No. 1254. 

A species "was noticed on banks at Emsol, Eoseau, Dominion, 
Is"o. 9SG. The specimena were probably younr; forms of T. 
vilhsa. Brancbes few, short, and situated at long intervals 
along the primary filaments. 

Crass. fiL 18-20 /i. 

*4. TREXTEPoniiA sp. 

Specimens very fragmentary; thickness of cells 8 5-14'5/i, 
li times lontrer than their diameter. 

Hal. Eoscau Yalley, Dominica, on bark. Ko. 1344. 

Earn, CxADOpnoRACE^. 

*5. EinzocLOMiJM HiEROGLTPincL'M, Kiiciz. Fhyc. gener. 
p. 205 ; S])ec. Algar, p. 385 ; Stockmayer^ ^' Ueler die AJgen- 

-__ -n- I ^ -r^ - ^ F 




p. 578. 


Var. TORTUOSUM, Stoehn. in VerJu zool-hof. GeseUsck Wien, 
1890, p* 583. — Eliizoclonium torfcuosum, Kuetz. Phyc, Oervi. 
p. 205 ; Spec. Alqar. p. 38 L 

Short lateral branches entirely absent; cell-membrane lainel- 

Cras^. fiL 25-32-5/1 ; crass, membr. cell 3'5-5^5/x. 

Ilah. Growing iu small stream, Eoseau Valley, Dominica. 
No. 1176. 


Fam. Zra:!^EMACE^< 
*S. MouaEOTTA sp. 

Crass, cell, vcget. 8-G/j. 

Hah, On leaves in warm stream, r-)ad to Roseau Lake, Domi- 
nici (2503 ft). No. 1178^ 

4 - 




Crass, coll. veget. lG-22 ^u.. 

Hah, On bank, road to Lake, Dominica. Xo. 1222.— In 
stream, Wottea "Wavon, Dominica. No. 12iS.--0n j^round, 
crater, Grande Soufricre, Domiiiica. Nos. 1835 and 1810. 

*8. SpinooTEA NEGLECTA, Kuefz. Species AJrjar. iStD, p. 411. 
Zygnema neglecta, Ilass. Brit. FresJuo. Alj. 1815, p. 112, 
t. 23. ff. 1, 2. 


West, " Welw. An 

AI</." Journ. Bot. xxxr. 1897, p. 41.— S. teruata, Uipart, in 
Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. sxiii. 187G, p. 1G2. 

Crass, cell, veget. 44-57 /x ; long, zygosp. 84-100 yn ; lat 
zygoap. 48-54 /x. 

Hah. In stream, "VVotten "Waven, Dominica. 

No. 1248. 



p. 887.— Couferva stictiea, Engl, Bot. Clioaspis serpentaria, 
8. F. Oraij, Arrangement Brit. PI. 1821, vol. i. p. 299 (nomen 
prius). Sirogoniutn sticticum, Kuetz. 


'_- ^|^^^ ^j ^ - - -- s , ^- ■■ ^^ r t- ■ _- - r ■ '■ i r. 


Crass, cell, vcget. 3G-41 // ; long, zygosp. 90-104 /ii ; lat 

zjgosp. 57-Gl ^. 

//ffi. On bank at roadside, Emsol, near Roseau, Domiuica- 

No. ys3. 

Gray^rt description of Choaspis is a very good one of the plant, 
and Is twenty-two years previous to Kuctziiig^s description of 
8irogonium. We tliiiik ihat the peculiar conjngation sufficiently 
separates llus genn^i from Sjyirogijra. 


*]0. GoxATOZYGON IvALFsii, 'Dg Bctvy^ ConJ. p. 7G-7, t. 4- 

ff. 23-25. 

Long. cell. 224 n ; lat, 12'o /t. 

Jlab, Head of Castle Bruce Eivcr, Dominica- No, 11S4, 

*11, MEsOT^iMiTMENDLTcnEuiAXUM, JS/a^, Gattunf/, ciuz, Alg^ 

1849, p. 109, t- vi. B. 

Hah. On banks, Morno Mieotrlu, Dominica. Xo. 1109, 

*12. M- Kka]\istat, Lemmermann^ ^^ Zur Algcnjl. des Eiesen- 
qebirges^''^ ForscltungshcricJite am der Biol. Statu zu Plan, iv, 

1S96, pp. 115-117, c. fig. 
Yar, BiiEVTs, van nov. 
Var. cellulis angustioribus brevioribusquc. 
Long. 25-34-5 fj. ; lat. 0'5-7 fi< 
ILah. On bank, Mornc Micotrin, Dominica. No, 1109. 

13. M. MTCROCOCCUM, A7rcA7L Alg- Seldes. p. 134. — Palmogloea 
inicrococcaj Kuett, Tab. phjcolog, i. p. 20, t. 25. f. 5. 
Long. 17-18^; lat. S-S'o ju. 
Hah. On bank, road to Lake, Dominica (2700 ft.). No. 1222. 

*14. CYLiNDKOCYSTrs TUMiDA, F. Gay^ ^ Fssal mortogr. Toe. 
Coiij,,' Montpellier, 18S4, p. 52, t. L f. 1; '' JSote Co?y\ du midi 
France^'' BiilL Sac. hot, Fr. vol. xxxi. p. 334. 

Var. noMTNICE^^SIS, var. nov. 

Var. cellulis multe minoribus, diametro 2-2^-plo longiorlbus, 
ad medium leviter sed distincte constrictis. 

Long. 42-5-48 /i ; lat. 20-21 /z. 

Hah. On rocks. Castle Bruce Biver (2000-3000 ft.), Dominica. 

No. 1G97. 



t' r 

*15. PE^ruM CURTUAT, Breh. in Kuetz. Species Algar. 1849, 
p, 1G7, — Closterium curtuin, Breb. 18 iO- Cosmariuiu curtum, 
llalfs, Brit, Desm. p, 109, t. 32. f. 9. 

Hab. With the preceding species. 

*16. P. DiDYMoCAUi^UM, Luiid,^ '' DesM. Suee.^^^^AcL Beg. Soc. 
Sclent. Vpsal 1870, p. 85, t. 5. f. 9- 

Forma cellulis latioribus ; loag. 29 /li ; hit. 17 /x. 


No. 1109. 

This form is somewhat similar to the ''' Benium sp. ? mit 
Benium didijmoearpitm Lundell verwantU" figured by Heimeri 
in Verhandl. zool.-butan. Geselisch. Wicii, 1891, t. 5. f. 5, but is 
comparatively a little broader. 

*17. P. Xayicula, Breh. in Mem. Soc, Sc, Nat. Cherhonnj^ 

vol iv. 1856, p. 116, t. 2. f. 37. 

Long, 30 /x; lat* 11'5^, 

Ilab. Among TrentepohUa villosa^ De Toni^ on trees in woods 
round Eoseau Lake, Dominica, No, 1104. 

18. Tetme^iIORus LiEVis, Balfs, Brit. Desm. p. 147, t. 24* f. 2. 
JIah, On banks, Morno IVIicotrinj Dominica. No. 1109. 

*19. T. ORANULATUS, Balfs in Ann. ^ Mag, Nat, Hist, voL xiv. 
1814, p. 257, t. 8- f. 2; Brit. Desm. p, 147, t. 21. f . 2, t, 33. 
f. 1. 

Forma minor, NorJst. Alg. Sanddc. p. 10. 

Long. 100// ; lat. 2G'5/i. 

Hab. On roadside near Eoseau Lake (2700 ft.), Dominica. 
No. IIGO. 

20, GosMARirii PSEUDOPrRAMiDAxrii, Lund., '* Desm, Suec.y* 
Act. Reg. Soc, Scient, UpsaL 1870, p. 41, t, 2, f. 18. 

Mah. On banks, Morne Micotrin, Dominica. No. 1109,— On 
bank near Eoseau Lake (2700 ft.), Domiuica. No. 1180. 

A proportionately longer form was noticed: long. 57 ju; lat. 
28 /i J lat. isthm. 12 /u 

*21. C. QUADRATUAi, BaJ/s in Ann, ^ Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. xiv 
1844, p. 895, t. IL f. 9. 

A small form: long. 40 ju ; lat, 2G'5/x; lat. Isthm. 12 /x. 


^ r 

■KT ■T/t-T.r- 

\ > 

■^ T ■-- rS- 



Ilah. In warm stream, road to Eoseau Lake (2500 ft.), 
Dominica. No. 1177. 

*22- CosMAMUM BECT^KGULAHE, GruTt. in Babenli. Flor 


Hurop. Algci'^. iii. p. 16G. 

Sv, Vet.-Jkad. llandl Bd. i. no. 1, p. 60, t. 4. f. 14. 

A form somewliat approacliing var. africamnn^ \\ est & G-. S. 
West ("Alga? from Central Africa/^ Journ. Eot. xxxiv. 1896, 

p. 379, t. 361. f. ]4). 

Long. 31 \i ; lat. 23 \i ; lat. isthm. 10 //. 

Hob. On banks, Morne Micotrin, Dominica. No. 1109. 

23. C. OBLTQrriy, No-rid.^ '^ Norges Desmid.,'' Acta Univ. 

Lund, vol. ix. p. 23, t. 1. f. 8. 

Long. 19-22//; lat. 160-17//; lat. iatlim. G'5-8 /i ; crass. 



No. 1109.— On 

rocks, Castle Bruce Eiver (2000-3000 ft.), Domluica. No. 1697. 
*24. C. L.TTE, Salcnh Flor. Europ. Algar. iii* p. 161 ; Nordd. 

in Ofvers. afIL Vet,-AJcad. Fork, 1876, uo. 6, p. 29, t. 12. f. 4. 
LoBg. 30 i^t ; lat. 19 // ; lat. isthm. 7 //. 
Ilah. On leaves, AVotten "Waven, Dominica. No. 1240. 

25, C* Ais-xuLATUiT, Lc Bavg, Conj. p. 46. — Dysplunctium 
aunulatum, J^(ig* Gaitung. einz, Alg. p. 110. t. P. 

Var. ELEGANS, N^ordst.y *' Norges Desmid.^^^ Acta Univ. Lund^ 

vol. ix. p. 23. 

Long. 36-39 ju ; lat. 19-21 /i. 

Ilah, On rocks, Castle Bruce Eiver (2000-3000 ft.), Dominica. 

No. 1097. 

*26. HrALOTHECA DTSSiLiETs^s, Bvcb. in Balfs^ Brit, Vesm, p. 51, 

t. 1. f. 1. 

Lat. 17 ^. 

JIah. On loaves in warm stream, road to Eoseau Lake (2500 ft.), 

Dominica. No. 1178. 

Ord. Protococcoide^. 

Fam, Palmellace^. 

*27. EnAPniDirM tractum, sp. n. 

B, cellulis semper singulis, gregariiPjlcvitcr curvatisj diametro 

- -M -k "H" _ , - n I 

r ^ k ■■ _ 



No. 1249. 

7-10-plo longioribus, apices versus plus incurvatis, apicibus 
acutis ; contentum clilorophyllosum cellularum viride, in partibus 
subjequalibus quatuor distincte divisum. 

Long. 19-3G-5 fi ; lat. 2-6 3-4 /x. 

Kab. In stream, Wotten "Waven, Dommica. 

This species is nearest to Bhaphidium Bmunii, N'iig. (in Kuetz. 
Spec. Algar. p. 891 ; Eabenb. Flor. Europ. Algar. iii. p. 45), but 
the form of the cells, which are narrower, and the peculiar 
division of the contents easily distinguish it. Some speeimeas 
were noticed in which the contents were divided into 3 or 5 parts, 
but these were abnormal and very scarce. 

■ *28. OocYSTis soLiTAEiA, Wlftr. in Wlttr. ^ Nordst. Ala. 


Rah. ( 
No. 1164. 

trees in woods rouad Eoscau Lake, Dominica. 

• * 

Forh. 1883, no. 2, p. 63,— Protoeoccua 
1845, p, 145. Chlorococcum gigas, Grun. 
Ilah. With the Drecedinr*^ snaf*7ns. 

Ofvers, af K, 


*30. Trocftiscia aspeba, Uamg. in Iledtvigia, 1888, Heffc 5 
u. 6- — Acanthococcus a^pera, Reinsch, in BericTite der Deutsch. 
hot, Geselhch. in Berlin, ISSQ, p. 239, t. ll.^f. 2. 

Diam, celL 15-17'5 /x. 

Ilab. In stream, Wottea 'Waven. Domlnioa. Xo* 124f>. 



Suh-ord. Heterocystej!. 

Earn. EivuLAEiACE^. 

West & G. S, West, '' Wt 


Hah. EDiDhvtic on Tohwothrix hi/ssoidea, on leaves, Wotten 

Waven, Dominica. No. 1240. 


Jt^ * 

> T^ ■■ _ "n 

1 ^ ^ T- n 




Para. SiEOSiPiioNiACE^. 

32, Hapalosiphon 




Indies'' Journ. Linn. Soc, Bot. vol. xxx. (1894) p. 271-2, t. 15. 

West 8t a. S. West, " Welw, Afi 

Journ. Sot. xxxv. 1897, p. 242. 
Ilai. In stream, Wotten Wa 

No. 1249. 

33. Stigonejia hoemoides, Born, ct FlaJi., " Bevis. de Kostoc. 
Ileteroct/st.," Ann. Sd. Nat, T scrie, Bot. vol. v. (1887) p. 69. 
Scytonema hormoides, Kuetz, Sirosiphon brevis, Kudz. in Bot. 
Zeit. 1847, p. 196 ; Tah. Pliyc. ii. p. 10, t. 34. f. ii. Sirosiplion 
hormoides, Kuetz. S}^ec. Algar. p. 316 ; Tal. Phyc. ii. p. 10, t. 34. 

f. iv. 

Crass, fil. 10-14-5 ^. 

Hal. Abundant on banks, Morne Micotrin, Dominica. No. 
1109. — On roadside and on bank, near Eoseau Lake (2700 ft.), 
Dominica. Noa. 1160 and 1180.— On rocks, Castle Bruce Eiver, 
(2000-3000 ft.), Dominica. No. 1697. 

34. S. MiNUTUM, Hass. Brit. FresTiic. AJg. i. p. 230, t. 67. 

ff. 3-4 ; Born, et Flah. I. c. pp. 72-74. 

Mai. In stream, "Wottcn Wavcn, Dominica. No. 1249. 

*35. S. ocELLATUM, TJiuT. ill Ann. Sc. Nat. 6* ser. Bot. i. 
(1875) p. 380. — Sirosipbon ocellatus, Kvctz. Spec. Algar. p. 317 ; 

Tub. Fhyc. ii. p. 11, t. 37. f. ii. 

Hah. On rocks, Castle Bruce Tfivcr (2000-3000 ft.), Dominica. 

No. 1697. 


36. MiCEOCHiETA TENnssiiiA, Wcst, ^'' Alg. West Ind; Journ. 
Linn. Soc, Bot. vol. xsx. (1894) p. 269. 

Mai. With the preceding species. 

37. ScTTO]SEiiA AiiBiGruM, Kuctz. Spec. Algar. p. 894 ; Tal. 

P%c. ii. p.-7, t. 26. f. ii. 

Crass, fih 10-5 /x; crass, trieh. 2-7-3 ju. 

Mai. On bank near summit, Couliabon (3700 £t.), Dominica. 

No. 1899. 





38. ScYTONEMA HoFMAKNi, AgardJi, Si/n* Alffar, Scand. 
1817, p< 117 ; Born, et Flah.^ ^^ Bevis. des Nostoc. Heterocijst.^'' 
Ann, des ScL Nat. 7^ ser. Bot. vol. v. (1887) p. 97. — Scytonema 
Julianunij MenegJi. 

The filaments, which wore not incrusted with lime, were 
strongly agglutinated together in vertical tufts about 2 to 4 mm. 
high, in the manner of a Sf/mploca or some species of SehizothrLv. 
The sheath was perfectly colourless and very thin ; the branches 
'were very scarce and sometimes single. The cells were more 
often longer than broad, and varied from subquadrate to twice 
longer than their diameter. 

Crass, fil. 9-5-10'5 fi ; crass, trich. 7-7'5/x. 

Sab. Head of Castle Bruce Elver, Dominica, No. 1484. 

39, S. A:\irLUii, West^ ^^ AJg, West Indies ^\Journ. Linn. Soc, 

Bot. vol XXX. (1894) p. 270. 

Hah, On rocks, Castle Bruce Eiver (2000-3000 ft.), Dominica. 

No, 1697. 

40. S. MiRABiLE. — Conferva niirabilis, Dillw. Scytonema 
figuratum, Agardh^ 8gst, Algar. p. 38* S. calotrichoidea, Kuctz. 
Spec. Algar. p/.307; Tab. Phgc. ii. p. 6, t. 22. f. il ; Babenh. 
Flor. Europ. Algar. ii. p, 253. 

Crass, fil. 20-23 /u ; crass, trich. 7*5-9*5 fi. 

Hab, On rocks, Hampsstead Valley (850 ft.), Dominica. 

No. 2171. 

*41. ToLTPOTHRix BTSSOiDEA, West Sf G. S. West, ^^ Wei 


Afric. Freslnv. Alg^^' Journ. Bot. xxxv. 1897, p. 2G7* — Hassallia 
byssoidea, Hass, Brit. FresJnv. Alg. i, p. 233-4; ii. t. 07. f, 5; 
Born, et Flah, " Bevis. des Nostoc. IleUrocijst.^^ Ann. Sci. Nat. 
r ser. vol. V. (1887) p. IIG, 

Crass. fiL 16-5-18 {x ; crass, trich. 10'5-12'5 fx. 

Hab. On leaves, "Wottcn Waven, Dominica, No. 1240. 

Although the form seen occurred on the leaves of trees, it 
a^^reed with the f. saxlcola^ Grrunow (in Born, et Flah. L c. 
p. 117) and not with the f. lignicola. Born, et Flab. The sheaths 
of the younger filaments were almost colourless, and those of the 
older filaments were somewhat roui^h on the exterior. The cells 
in some of the filaments were almost as lon<? as broad. 

. > 

^ . ■ . ^- ■ 

r V- 



Fam. !N'osTOCEiE, 

*42. NosTOC Mi'SCORUiT, Agardh^ Dispos^ Algar, Suec. 1812, 
p, 44; Cooke, JBriL Freshw. Alg. p. 230, t. 90. fE, 12-18. 

The specimens approached i^ar. tenax^ Thuret, in the thickness 
of the trichomea and in the small size of the spores. 

Craas. trich- 3-3*5 /i ; crass, heterocyst, 5*5 /i; crass, spor. 

6-7-5 fi. 

Hah. Growing on sides of road, Fort Charlotte, St. Vincent. 
No. 203* 

43* N. nuMiFusuM, Carm, ex Harvey in Sm. Engl. Flora, 1833, 
V, p. 399; Kiietz. Spec. Algar, p. 301; Habenk Flor. Europ. 
Algar, ii, p. 183. 

JIah. In stream, Wotten Waven, Dominica. No. 1210. 

Sub-Ord* HoMOCTSTEiE. 

Fam, Yaoinarie^. 
*44. PoKPHYROsirnoN JSTotaeisiIj/iw^^^. Tah. Phyc. ii. 1850-2, 

West & 

West, '' Welw. AJ 

Alg.'' Journ. Bot. xxav. 1897, p. 271, 
Crass, fil. 20-23 ^i ; crass, trich. 14^. 

Bah. On the sides of road, Port Charlotte, St. Vincent. 
No. 203. 

Roy. Micr. I 
West Ind.;' 

t. 16. ff. 1-7, 

I West ^ G. S. West in Journ. 
Symploea cuppidata, West^ "-4/y, 

Var. LTTTEo-rrscA, West ^ G. S. J^d?A'2'.— Symploca cuspidata 
var. luteo-fusca. West, I. c. (1894) p. 274. 

Mah. On banks, Morne Micotrin, Dominica. No. 1109. — On 
roadside near Eoteau Lake (2>'00 ft.), Dominica, No. IIGO. 
On bank near summit, Couliabun (3700 ft.), Dominica. No. 1899. 


46, LxKQBTA MAJUscuLAj Uarv, in Sm. Engl FL 1833^ v, 
p. 370; Gomont^ Monogr, des Oscillarices^ pp. 151-6, t. 3. 
ff, 3-4. 

.> - 



Crass, fil. 40-46 ju; crass, trich. 34-38//. 
Hub- Shallow bays, Anjruilla, No. 20. 

*47. Lykobya ^ituaiNEO-ciERULEA, Gomonf, Monogr, des Os- 
cillariees, p. 166, t, 4. ff. 1-3.— Osiallaria serugiiico-caerulca, 
Kuetz* Phyc, gener, p. 1S5 ; Tah. F]t}/c. i. p. 28, t. 39. f. ix. 

Crass, trich, 4-5*5 /x. 

Hah, On leaves ia warm stream, road to Roseau Lake (2500 ft.), 
Dominica. No. 1178.— On gro und (2000-3000 ft.), and in stream, 
crater of Grande Sonfriore, Dominica. Nos. 1832 and 1842. 

*48. PHOEMiniUif ltjridum:, Gomont^ h c, p. 185-6, t. 4. 
fF. 17-18. — Leptothrix lurida, Kuetz. 
Crass, trich, 2 ju» 
Hah. Growing on sides of road, Fort Charlotte, St. Yincent. 

*49. P. FRAGILE, Gomont^ L c. p. 183-4, t. 4. ff. 13-15. — 
Anab^ena fragilis, Menegh, 
Crass, trich. 1'7/i. 
Hah, In stream, Wotten AYaven, Dominica. No. 1249. 

Ord. CniiOOCoccACEiE;. 

*50. Glceocapsa gelatinosa, Kuetz. Fhyc. gener. p. 174; 
Tab. Fhyc, i. t. 20. f. vi. b ; Eabenh. Flor. Furo£. Algar. ii. p, 39. 
Diam* cell. 2'5-3 fx ] diam. £am, 7'5-l9 ^. 
Hab. On banks, Morne Micotrin, Dominica. No* HOD. 


Ord. Eaphidie^. 


*51- Cykeella CrsTULA, Kirclin. — Coceonema Cistula, i?e7??^r 
1828 ; Van Keurch^ Diatom. (Engl, transl,) p. 149, t. 1. f. 45. 

Rab. On rocks, Castle Bruce EiYcr (2000-3000'ft.), Dominica. 
No. 1697. 

*52. E5CT0NEMA VENTRicosuM, Kuetz. BacUl. p. 80, t. 6, 
f. 16. — Cymbella ventricosa, Aganlli^ 
Hah. With the preceding species. 


4 ■ 

f- ' -V VT T^ 


i - ^ 

F ^ ■■* 




Fam. ]NaviculE/t:. 

*53. Nattcula major, Kuetz. BacilL t. 4. f. 19.— Plnnularia 
iTiajor, Babenh. Siisstv. Diatom, p. 42, t. 6. f. 5; Flor. Europ. 

Algar. i. p. 210. 

Hah. On bank near Eoseau Lake (2700 ft.), Dominica. 

No. 1180.— In stream, Wotten AA'avcn, Dominica. Nos. 1248 

and 1249. 

54. N. viRTDTS, Kuetz. BacilL t. 4. f. 18. — Pinnulariaviridi?, 
Hahcnh. S'dssw. Diatom, p. 42, t. G. £ 4; Flor, Europ^ Algar. 

i. p. 212. 

Hah. On bank near Eoseau Lake (2 

No. 1180, 

Wotten Wa 

ft.), Dominica. 
L No. 1248. 

55. N, EOEEALis, Kuetz. — PlnnukT^ria borealis^ Ehrenh, ; W. 
Sm, Drit. Diat. ii. p. 94 ; HahenJi. Flor. Europ, Alg. i. p. 216. 

Hal. Among Nostoc muscorum^ Agardk, on side of road, Fort 
Charlotte, St, Vincent. No. 203. — On banks, Emsol, near 
Eoaeali, Dominica- No. 983- 

*56. N- IIiLSEANA, JaniseJi in Schnidt, Atlas Diatom, p. 45, 
f. 65 ; Van Heurck, Diatom. (Engl. transL) p. 171, t. 2. f. 81. 
Hah. Among Lgnglya (BTuginco-c<£riilea^ Gomont, on ground, 

crater of Grande Soufricre (2000-3000 ft.), Dominica. No. 1832. 

*57. N. SUBCAPITATA, Greg, in Quart. Journ, Micr. Sci. 185G» 
p. 9, t. i. f. 30: Van HeurcJc^ Diatom, (Engl. transL) p. 173, 
t. 2. f. 91. 

Hah. In small stream, Eoseau Yalley, Dominica, No. 1176. 



IleurcJc^ 7- c. p. 173, t. 2. f. 93. 


Dominica. No. 1832. 


p. 10, t- i. f, 34 ; Van IleurcTc, I c, p. 173, t, 2, f. 94- 

Hah, On bank near Eoseau Lake (2700 ft.), Dominica- 
No, IISO. 


60. N. Legfmen, EJirenh.; 


f. 98, 


w 1 

ri J 



ITah. In small stream, Eoseau Valley, Dominica* No. 117G. 
In stream, Wottea Waven, Dominica. No. 1248. 

*6L Natictjla GrnkCihiH, Kuetz. BacilL p- 91, 1 3. f. 48; Van 

Meurch^ I, c, p. 179, t. 3. f . 109. 

Hab, On bank at roadside, Emsol, near Eoseau, Dominica. 

No- 983. 

62. N. CRTPTOCEPHALAj Kucfz. ; W. Sm. Brit. Biat. p, 53, 

t. 17. f. 155* 

Rah. lu warm stream, road to Eoseau Lake (2500 ft.), 

Dominica. No. 1177.— Iii stream, AVotten Waven, Domiaica. 
No. 1248. 

*G3. N. ELLirxiCA, Kuetz. Bo 
KeuTck, Z. c. p. 201j t. 4. f. 156. 
' Sah. On leaves of trees and 
Dominica. Nos, 1240 and 1249. 



*64. N. CONTENTA, Grun. in Van HeurcJc^ Atlas^ t. 14. 
f. 31*, sub. n. K trinodis] Van Ileurch, Biatom. (Engl, transl.) 
p. 230, t. 5. f. 239. 

. Var. BiCEPSj Van Meurclc^ h c, p. 230, t. 5. f. 240. 

Ilah. On leaves of trees, Wotten Waven, Dominica: very 
abundant. No. 1240. — Also scarce in stream, Wotten A^aven, 
Dominica. No. 1249. 


(Engl, transl.) p. 240, t, 5. f. 249. — Erustulia rliomboides, 
Be Toni, Sylloge Algar. ii. p. 227.^Navicularbomboides, Ehrenh.; 
TV, Sm, Brit. Biat. 

Bah. ( 

No. 11 80. 

and 1249. 

near Eoseau Lake (2700 ft.), Dominica. 


Nos, 1248 

Var. SAXONicA. — Prustulia saxouica, Balenh. Navicula craasi- 



No. 1109.— Oa 

roadside near Eoseau Lake (2700 ft.), Dominica. No. IIGO. 
On leaves in warm stream and on bank, road to Eoseau Lake 
(2500-2700 ft.), Dominica. Nos, 1178 and 1222.-~Head of 
Cattle Bruce Elver, Dominica* No. 1484. 

- r I 1- \ 


06. Vanheurckia tulgai^ts^ Van Seurck^ Diatom. (Engl 
trausl.) p. 240, t. 5. f. 252. — Colletonema vulgaris, TJncaiies. 

Sab. In small siream, Koseau Valley, Dominica. Ko. 1176. 
In stream, Wotten Waven, Dominica* Nos, 1248 and 1249. 




*67. GoMpnojfEMA GBACiLEj EliTcnh. ; Van IleurcTc^ J. c, p. 272, 
t. 7. f. 309. 

Var. DiCHOTOMUM, Van Heurch^ L c. p. 273, t. 7. f. 310. 
G. dichotomum, fV. 8m. 

Hah. In warm stream, road to Eoseaa Lake (2500 ft.), 
Dominica. No, 1177. 

*G8. G. AKGTJSTATUM, Kuetz. BacUl. p. 83, t. 8. f. 4. 

Ilab. In warm stream, road to Koaeau Lake (2500 ft.), 
Domiuica. No. 1177.— In stream, Wotten AVaven, Dominica, 
No. 1248. 

*69. G. oliyaceum, Kuetz. I c. p. 85, t. 7. ff. 13, 15, 

Hal. In small stream, Eoseau Valley, Dominica. No. 117G. 

70. G. TEJ^ELLUiT, Kuetz. ; W. 8m. Brit. Biat. i. p. 80, t. 29. 
f. 243. 

Ilah, In stream, Wotten Waven, Dominica. No. 1249, 

Pam, AcnyA:N'THEiE. 

*71. AcHNANTHES LINEARIS, Orim. — Aclinanthidium lineare, 
W. 8m. Brit Diat. ii. p. 31, t. Gl. f. 381. 

Jlab, On banks, Emsol, Eoseau, Dominica. No. 980. — In 
small stream, Eoseau Valley, Dominica. No. 1176. 

*72. A. LANCEOLATA, Grun. — Aclmanthidium lanceolatum, 
Breh. in Kuetz. Spec, Algar. p. 54. 

Uab. Among Kostoc museorum^ Agardh, on sides of roadjPort 
Charlotte, St. Vincent. No. 203.— On leaves of trees, Wotten 
Waven, Dominica. No. 1240. 

Earn. Coccoj^EiDE^. 

*73. CoccoNEis Pediculus, Ehrenh. ; Kuefz, BaeilL t. 5. f. ix. 1 ; 
W. 8m. Brit. Biat. i. p. 21, t. 3. f. 31, 

Ilah. Attached to Lynghya mnjuscula^ Ilarv,, in shallow bay?, 
Aniiuilla. No. 20. 


I^IT-T ■ r 



1 . 

Ord, PsETJDO-fiAPniiHEJE:. 

Fam. Epitiiemie^e, 

*74, Epithemia gibbeeul^, Kuetz, BacilL t. 30. f. 3*; Van 
Keurch, Diatom. (Engl, transit) p. 297, t, 30- f. 825. 

Hah. On sides of road. Port Charlotte, St. Vincent, Xo. 203. 

■In warm stream, road to Eoseau Lulte (2500 ft.), Dominica. 
No3. 1177 and 1178* — Ou bank, road to Lake, Dominica. 
No. 1222.— Head of Castle Bruce River, Dominica. No. 1484 — 

On rocks, Hampstead Valley, Dominica (850 ft,). No. 2171. 

75- EuNOTiA GRACILIS, Buhenk. Flor. Europ. AJgar. i. p. 72. 
Himantidium gracile, Ehrenb. ; W. Sm. Brit. Diat. ii. p. 14, t, 33 

f. 285. 

Hah. On banks, Morne Micotrin, Dominica. No. 1109. 
On roadc^ide, on bank and on trcea in woods round Eoseau Lake, 
Dominica (27UO ft.)- Nos. 1160, 1161, and 1164.— On leaves 
in warm stream, road to Eoseau Lake (2500 ft.), Dominica. 
No. 1178.— On rock?, Castle Bruce Eivcr, Dominica. No. 1607. 

On rocks, Hampstead Valley, Dominica. No. 2L71. 

*76. E. PECTlNALis, MabenTi. Flor. Europ. Algar. i, p. 73. 
Himantidium pectinale, Kuetz. BacilL t. 16. f. 2. 

Hab, In warm stream, road to Eoseau Lake (2500 ft,), 
Dominica. No. 1177. — Ou grounJ, crater of Grande Soufricre 
(2000-3000 ft.), Dominica. No. 1835, 

^77. E. TEKEKiSj Kuetz. BacilL p. 40, t. 30. f. 7. — E. incisa, 

Hah. In warm stream, road to Eoseau Lake (2500 ft.), 
Dominica. Noa. 1177 and 1178. 

*78. E. LUNARis, Orun. — Synedra lunaris, Ehrenb, j W, Stn. 
Brit. Biat. i. p. 69, t. 11. f. 82. 

Mab, On leaves in warm stream, road to Eoseau Lake (2500ft.), 
Doniinica. No. 1178. — On ground, crater of Grande Soutriere, 
Dominica (20UO-3UOO ft.)- No. 1835. 

* u 


Fam. Synedke^. 

*79- Synedra pulchella, Ktiefz, BacilL p. G8, t. 29. f* 87. 
Ilab. In small stream, Roseau Yallej, Dominica, No. 1176. 
In stream, Wotten Waven, Dominica. No. 1249. 

*80. S. BAMAJTS, Grun.; Van Ileurch, Diatom. (Engl, tranal.) 
p. 31^, t. 10. 1 423- 

Hah. In stream, AYotten Waven, Domiuica, Ko* 1249* 

Fam* DiATOMEiE- 

*81. Denticula tenuis, Kuetz, Bacill. t, 18. f. 8. 

Var. iNFLATA, Van Seurch^ Diatom. (Engl. transL) p. 352, 
t, 11. f. 462.— D. inflata, T7. ;S'?;^ 

Ilah. In small stream, Roseau Yalley, Dominica* No. 1176. 
Head of Castle Bruce Eiver, Dominica. No. 1484. 

Earn. NiTZSCHiEiE. 

82. NiTZscniA dissipata, Orun, ; Van HeurcJc^ Diatom. 
(Engl, transl,) p. 394, t. 16. f. 525, (? N. minutissima, W. Sm. 
Brit, Diat. p. 41, t. 13. f. 107.) 

Hah, On leaves in warm stream, road to Eoscau Lake, 
Dominica (2500 ft.). No, 1178,— On leaves, Wotten Waven, 
Dominica. No. 1240. — On ground, crater of Grande Soufriere 
(2000-3000 It.), Dominica. No. 1832. 


83. N. OBTirsA, W. 8m. Brit. Diat. i. p* 39, t. 13. f. 109. 

Van NA?^A, Grim. ; Van Heitrch^ Diatom. (Engl, transl.) 
p. 398, t. 16. f. 539. 

4 * 

Hah.. On bank, at roadside, Emsol, near Roseau^ Dommica 

No. 983. 



No. 1176. 

Yar. TENUIS, Grun. — N. tenuis, W, Sm, 

Hah, On ground, crater of Grande SoufritTO (2000-3000 ft.), 
Dominica. Nos. 1S32 and 1835. 

*85. N. COMMUNIS, BahenJi. ; Flor. JSurop, Algar, i. p. 159. 
Hah, Among Nostoc muscorum^ Agardh, on sides of road, Fort 

Charlotte, St. Yincent. No, 203. — On bank, at roadside, Emsol, 
near Roseau, Domiuica. No. 983, 

. 1 

4 1 

> " 

: t 

* ^ 




!Fam. Melosire^. 

*80. Melosira yarians, Ar/ardh ; W. Sm. Brit. Biat. ii. p. 57, 

t. 51. f. 332. 

JIah. Ill warm stream, road to Eoseau Lake (2500 ft.), 

Domiuica. Ko. 1177. 

Piira. BiDDULrniEiE. 


*87. Terpsixoe musica, Ehrcnh. ; Van Heurch, 
(Engl, transl.) p. 452, cum fig. xjlogr. 176. 

Hah. In cold and warm streams, road to Eoseau Lake 
(2500 ft.), Dominica : very abundant. Nos. 1176 and 1177. 

This species is highly interesting as most of tlie genera of this 
family are notably marine. 

On Carex Wahlenlergiana, Boott. 

By C. B. ClIeke, F.E.S., F.L.S. 

[Eead 6tli April, 1899.] 

1. Caeex Wahlenreroiana, Boott, Garex, ii. (1800) p. 101, 

t. 301. — Follorum pagina superior, levis, 19-costata; co^^ta) 
validte, leves striia paucis tenuibus interjectis. Pauieula 3-G dm, 
longa, 5-10 cm. lata; paniculse partiales inferiores oblongse, nee 
pyramidales ; spicse deusiuscule sitfc, nee congestge, ferrugineo- 
bruneje, rarius pallidc bruueae subviridescentes (var. pallida, 
Boott MS.). Glumae unicolorcs, brunesc, striis numerosis ob- 
scuris, glabra; in carina leves (cf. var. /3) vel apicem versus pauUo 
scabra*. Utriculus (rostro incluso) 4 mm, longus, ellipsoideo- 
lanccolatus, rectus rarius paullo curvatus, plano-couvexus, in 
facie plana 5-7-striatus, convexa 9-11-striatus, in marginibus 
(sa^pe usque ad basin fere) minute scaber, glaber (cf. var. /3) in 
rostrum sen^im attenuatus, luteo-brunescens, unicolor ; rostrum 
cum I parte utriculi subsequilongum, iatiusculum, leve, dentibus 
2 majuaculis, lanceolatis, pauUo scabris subpatuHs. Nux oL- 
loHgo-obovoidea, acute triquetra fere scssilis. — Boeck. in Linna?a, 
xl (1876) p. 357 partim, i. e, nucis descr. emend, et Boott t. 301 
excl. : Baker ! Pi. Maurit. p. 427. 

i ■ . 

\ ■ i 

.■_.•- ' *-|T ','..' '•..""'* 


Carex indica^ TValilenb. m Kongl. Vet. Acad. Stockli. xxi\^. 
(1803) p. 119; Schkuhr, Eiedgr. ii, (1806) p. 40, t. Qqqq. 
fig. 206; Kuutbj Eoum. ii. p. 509 partim; non Linn, 

O. Commersoniana^ A. Eich. MS. e Spach ! (exemplum in herb. 
Boott propr. a Spach cominunicatum). 

Hah. in Bourbon : Boivin n- ft 994 in herb. Boott propr. 
[Boott t, SOI =WahlenI)erffiana type\\ Boivin n* 10 ex parte; 
Boivin n. 9 (var. e. pallida, Boott MS. ! In Mauritius : Telfair 
(in herb. Hook, propr.). 

C. WAnLENBERGiANA, varr. ft, 7, e, Boottl Carex, ii. (1860) 
p. 101, tt 302, 303, 305.— Spicse magis fasciculata>, subercctse. 
Glumse fo^minese in dorso superiore ob piles minutes albos 
erec:tos scabra?. Utriculus in parte superiore vel fere usique ad 
basin pilosa?. 

0. crinijera, var. B, minor, Boott! Carex, ii. (18G0) p. 102, 

t. 309. 

C ramosa, Booek. in Linmvn, xl (1870) p. 359 pnrtim. 

Hah, in Bourbon: Eit-lmrd, in herb. Boott propr. a Spach 
communicata [=Boott t. 302] ; Commer.^on, in heib. Boott propr. 
a Spach communicata [ = Boott t. 30J]; Bnyley Balfour (in herb. 
Kew). In Mauritius': Gardner, in herb, Kew, a manu Boottii 
" 0, Boryana^ Sehk. ?" inscripta. 

It does not seem possible to draw a line between the (7, 
Wahlenhergiana a (with ghibrous glumes and utricles) and its 
varr. ft, y, Boott (with scabrous-pilose glumes and utricles). It 
can be seen by the plates that C. cornigera ft. minor, t. 309, docs 
not differ at all from (7. Wahle^ihergiana, varr, ft, y, Boott tt. 302, 
303 ; the plants were all from one locality, and might well be 
one collection. 

Taking the species as widely as this, it becomes the more 
difficult to separate it from many others, especially from the 
Himalayan C. condensata, Nees : in this the spikelets are rather 
smaller, the inflorescence denser, less interrupted, and the leaves 
do not match under the microscope ; but I cannot state any 
difference whatever in the female glumes and utricles. As to 
the South-east African C condensafa (C. B. Clarke in Dyer, Fl. 
Cap. vii. p. 305), it is nearer the Himalayan C\ condensafa than 
it is to a Wahlenlergiana ; it probably should be esteemed a 
distinct species, unless a large reduction should be made (as is 
quite feasible) in this group of Carex. 

\ ' r" I J\m^c ;■*- I ^^*L_ H-."_|- -J 


' Boeckeler*s description of the lon^-stalkad nut appli:3s to tlie 
next species. 

2. Cauex Steudxebt, J5oeck.\ in Linniea, xL (1876) p. 361. 
Utriculi 7-8 mm, longi, lineari-lancealati, trigoni, pilosi, Nux 
lineari-oblonga, in stipite lineari conspicue sustenta. 

Carex Wahlenherffiana, var. S, Boott! Carex, ii, (1860) p. 101, 
t. 301 ; Boeck* in Linntea, xl (1876) p. 357 partim. 

Hah. in Abyssinia : Tigre, Sckimper, n. 1559 (in lib, Kcw) ; 
Mt. Silhe alt 3000 metr., Scbimper n. 515 (in herb. Boott)- 

This species is very strongly characterized by the long narrow 
utricle, and differs much from C, Wahlenhergiana ia habit and 
in minor characters, as is well showu by the figures of Boott and 
the description of Boeckcler. 

3. Cahex Ee>^9CHIANA, Boeck. ! in Engl, Jahrh, y, (18S4) 
p. 515.— I'oiia angusta, in pagina superiore 7-11-striata, levia 
vel in costa media leviter scabra- Inflorescentia 3-5 dm. longa, 
5 cm. lata; panicula? purtiales inferiorcs, oblonga? nee pyrami- 
dales; spica? laxiuscule sita^ castaneo-rubra?. Glama; unicolores, 
bruneo-rubra; aut castanea?, glabrae, leves. Utriculus (rostro 
inclaso) 3-4 mm. longo, ellipsoidcus, trigonus, in rostrum subito 
angustatus ibique valide curvatus, plano-convexus, in facie plana 
3-5-nervis, convexa 5-7-nervis (striis imperfectis interjectis), 
levis, glabcr, viridis sanguineo-maculatus ; rostrum cum utriculo 
proprio fere a^quilongum, leve, lineare, apice breviter 2-dentatum- 
Nux obh)ngo-obovoidea, trigoiia, pro utriculo magna, sest^ilis, 

Rob. in Central Madagascar : Ost-Imeriaa, Andrangvloaka ; 
Hildebrandt, nn. 3746, 3752. 

4* Cauex niEiiATosACCTJS, sp. nova. Folia 19-27-costata, 
levia vel juniora sparsirn microscopice pilo.^a ; costae validse, ap-. 
proximata?. Utriculus (rostro incluso) 3-4 mm. longus, trigonus, 
ellipsoideo-lanceolatus, rectus; rostrum cum | parte utriculi 
sub;£qniIongum, lineari-conicum, minute scabrum aut scabro- 
hispidulum, dentibus 2 majuseulis lanceolatis; ceteroquin ut 
C Senschiana, Boeck. 

WaldenberQiana. Boott MS 


Hah. in Mad 

(Mbatomanga), Mel 

T^II-jH ^^Tj; ^i-pi T^^jr 1_ " 1h V 

i"5---NL V 1^ .^F 


l^r ". T^r 



I ■- 



a manu Boottii '^ C. WahUnlergiana " inscripta) ; Ceutral Mada- 
gascar, Baron n. 10S5 (a J, Q. Baker, " 0. hengalen^is^ Koxb," 
inscripta); Ivophinsornitra, Major n, 89. 

This may be arranged as a var. of Carex Henschiana^ Boeclc. ; 
the straight, much shorter beaks of the utricles give it a different 


5. Carex hamosa, Sclikuhr^ Riedgr, ii. (1806) p. 40, t. Pppp. 
fig* 204. — Panicula magna, polystacbya, ferrugineo-brunea ; 
panicula? partiales compositae^ subpyramidate, laxee. Giumse 
utriculi dens^ius pilosuli ; ceteroquin ut Carex Wahlenhergiana^ 
Boott var, /3.^Kunth, Enum. ii. p, 507 partim (i. e. plantoe 
mascarenicse) ; Boeck. in Linn^a, kL (1876) p. 359 [Boott tab. 
309 excL] ; Baker, FI. Maurit. p. 427 ; non Boott, t. 322. 

a criniyera, Boott, Carex, ii. (1860) p. 102, tt. 806-308. 


Hal), in Bourbon, Eichardy n, 7 in herb* Boott. (i* e. C, crini- 
gera^ Boott, tt. 306-208] ; Mauritius, Bojer (in herb. Kew), Du 

Petit Thouars (in herb. Boott, utriculi). 

Boeckeler is right, I think, in regarding <7. cnnigera^ Boott 
type as exactly =C. ramosa^ Schkuhr. But the line between this 
and C. Wahlenlergiana varr. /3, y, Boott, is very fine. 

■ 6. Cahex chlobosaccus, sp. nova» — Folia 5 mm. lata, levia, 
15-striata. Panicula 1-2 dm. longa 3-4 cm. lata (in exemplo 
Johnston! magis evoluta) ; paniculso partialea inferiores oblong?e, 
strictae; spicae approximata;, vix congestae, albo-virides- Glumse 
fcemiiiese ' utriculis niulto breviores, ovatse, acutse, mucrouata^, 
leves, glabrae, in dorso viridi-3-5-nervisB, in lateribus albt^e* 
TJtriculus (rostro incluso) 4-5 mm. longus, ellipsoideo-lanceolatus, 
trigonus, unicolor viridis, levis, in facie plana 3-nervis, convexa 
5-7-nervis, rectus, apice subito angustatus obliquus ; rostrum 
cum |-| parte utriculi proprii suba^quilongum, lineare, leve, 
dentibus 2 lanceolatis modicis. Nux anguste oboroidea, trigona, 
fere sessilis. 

Carex Waldenlergianay Boott! in Journ. Linn, Soc, Bot. vii. 

(18G4)p.225; Eiigl-Hocbgebirgsfl.Trop. Afr. p.l52; K.Schum. 
in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. (1895) p. 129 partim; C. B. Clarke in 
Bur. et Scbinz, FL Afr. v. (1895) p. 691 partim. (7. raviosa^ 
K. Schum. in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afn C. (1895) p. 129 partim. 

Jlab. in Fernando Po : Clarence Peak, alt. 2500 metr., G. 


Mann, n, 653 in herb. Kew. Kilimanjaro, alt. 2000-3000 metr., 
H. H. Johnston ; Maran_ 

Boott has gone so far as to inscribe on Gr. Mann n. 653, 
'' a WaUenlergiana, Boott, t. 301 f ' but I do not think it is very 
near it. Volkens n. 1274 is exceedingly like C. cMorosacciis 
type (Gr- Mann n. 653) j II. II. Johnston's example is altogether 
larger, with a much developed panicle, the partial panicles larger 

I have above attempted to show that Boott had two distinct 
species under the name Carcj^ Waldenhergiana^ Boott, when he 
founded that species, in his own Herbarium [one of these being 
C. Steudneri, Boeck,] ; that Boott subsequently named as his 
C. WaUenbergiana, both in his own and in Kevv Herbarium, 
another (Madagascar) plant which is closely allied to G. Renscl- 
iana, Boeck. : that Boott subsequently published [1801] as 


be coDspecific with 


Kilimanjaro; lastly, that Boott has published part of his C, 
Wahlenbergiana var. /3 over again as a var. of C. cr in iger a ^Hooit. 

I reo-ret that I am not able to work out this group of Carex 
'' the Indicai "—for Africa (with Madagascar). There remains, 
in the Kew Herbarium, a whole cover of Mascarene examples 
referred provisionally to Carex Icngalensis, Itoxb., to Avhicb they 

are reallv allied. 

In the case of C. Wahlenhergiana, as of several of his South- 
American species, Buott appears to have started with one (or 
two nearly allied) forms; bnt, when subsequently additional 
material arrived, to have placed under Ids original species other 
plants which it is not possible to regard as varieties merely of 
the typical species. I have had the advantage of the opinion of 
Mr. Is". E. Brown and Dr. Stapf on this Wahhnhergiana, Boott, 
as written up by him in his own and in the Kew Herbarium; 
they think there are four (Mr, T^. E, Brown says probably five) 
species put together. 




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I, The Botany of the Ceylon Patanas. By H. H. W. 
Peaeson, B.A., 'Frank Smart' Student of Botany at 
Gonyille and Caius College, Camhridge. (Communi- 
cated by Prof. H. Maeshall Wabd, P.B.S., E.L.S.) 
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Tt ^n- TT -6 -^ r A. D. Michael, P.2.S., F.R.M.S. 

Frank Cnsp, LL.B., B.A. G. M. Murray, F.E.8. 


Frank Crisp, LL.B., B.A. 


B. Dajdon Jackson, Esq. | Prof. G. B. Howes, LL.D., F.R.S 


C. B Clarke, M. A., F.R.S. 1 Prof. G. B. Howes, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Frank Crisp, LL.B B.A. B. Dajdon Jaokson, Esq. 

Francis Da^in, M.B F.R.S. A. D. Michael, F.Z.S., F.R.M.S. 

Prof. J. B. Farmer, M.A. H. W. Monckton, F.G.S. 

F. V. Godraan, F.R.S. G. M. Murray, F.R S 

Henry Groves, Esq. A. B. Eendle. M.A., D.Sc. 

A. O. L. G. Gunther, M.A., M.D., F.R.S. Howard Saunders, P.Z S 

W. Percv Sladfin. S 


James Edmund Harting, F.Z.S. 


A. W. Kappel. ^ r, Hammond 


This consists of nine Fellows (three of whom retire annually) and of the four 
officers «x offiao in all thirteen members. The former are elected annual!^ 
by the Counc.i m June, and serve till the succeeding Anniversary t£ 

1898-99. in addition to tlie officers, are : 

0. B. Clarke, MM, F.E.S. H. W. Monnkhnn T?r 

Prof. J. B. Farmer, M.A. 

Howard Saunders, F.Z,S. 

Pro^J^ReynoldsarceQ.D.Sc.,F.E.S. Roland Trimen, F.E.S. 
W. B. Hemsley, F,R,S. 

^ "^ 

ih^Tu^CJ^^ ^i«Q?' ^°lSy^:Law8 of the Society, as amended to 
the 19th March, 1891, maybe had on application. 

"d ■ r? " 

I . 


™ ■ T ». 


Mann, n, 653 in herb. Kew. Iviliinaiijaro, alt, 2000-3000 metr. 
II. H. Johnston ; Marangu alt. 2250 metr., Volkens n. 1274, 

Boott has gone so far as to inscribe on Gr. Mann n. 653, 
'' C. Wcdilenhergiana^ Boott, t, 301 ;" but I do not think it is very 
i^ear it. Volkens n. 1274 is oxceodinglj like C. ehlorosaccus 
type (G. Maun n, 653) ; IL II- Jolmston's example is altogether 
larger, with a much developed panicle, the partial panicles larger 


I have aboi'e attempted to show that Boott had two distinct 
specied under the name Carex JVahleiiherf/ iana^ Boott, when he 
founded that species, in his own Herbarium [one of these being 
(7. Steiidneri^ Boeck.j ; that Boott subsequently named as his 
C, WaliUnbergiana^ both in his own and in Kcw Herbariunj, 
anotlier (Madagascar) plant which is closely allied to C Rensch- 
iana, Boeek. ; that Boott subsequently published [18G4] as 
Carex Wahhnhergiana a Fernando Bo species, which I take to 
be conspccific with C. ramosa, K. Schum, (non Sclikulir), from 
Kilimanjaro; lastly, that Boott has ])ublishcd part of his G* 
Walilenhergiana var. /3 over again as a var. of C crinigera^"Booit, 

I regret that I am not able to work out this group of Carex 
'' the Indiese " — for Africa (with Wadiigaecar). There remains, 
in the Kcw Herbarium; a whole cover of Mascarene examples 
referred provisionally to Carex hengahn^is^ Boih., iu which they 

are really allied. 

In the case of C, WaltJenhergiana^ as of several of his South- 
American species, Boott appears to have started with one (or 
two nearly allied) forms; bur, wlien subsequently additioTial 
material arrived, to have placed under his original species other 
plants which it is not possible to regard as varieties merely of 
ttie typical species. I have had the advantage of the opinion of 
Mr* N. E. Brown and Dr. Stapf on this WahUnhergiana^ Boott, 
as written up by him in his own and in the Kew Herbarium ; 
they think there are four (Mr. ]N". E* Brown says probably live) 
species put together. 


. h- 


C ' -^ 




The Botakt of tbji Ceylon Patanas. By Henut Habold 

Welch Pearsot", B.A., 'Prank Smart' Student of Botany 
at Gonville andCaius College, Cambridge. (Communicated 
by Prof. H. Marshall Ward, P.E.S., P.L.S.) 

[Ecad 20th April, 1899.] 
(With Map.) 



Introcluction ,..., 300 

Topography SOl 

Flora of llin Tataiias beloAv 4500 ft. (the Uva rutauas) 80.*J 

Flora of the ]^itnnas above 4500 ft 301 

The Western boundary of the Patanas 305 

The Eastern Boundary of the Patanas 30^ 

Area' of the Patanas 307 

Ttieorles to aecount for the Origin of the Patanas 307 

Climate of the Patana-arca 3 10 

Origin of the Patanas the result of combined effects of Climate and 

Grass-Cres ^ 3I4 

General Biological Features of the Flora of the Patanas 323 

T;ist o f Plants 333 

Conclusion , gQ3 


Obsertattons upon the Flora of the Patanas of llie Ceylon 
Mouutnitis, an account of which is contained in this paper, were 


made during a visit to Ceylon in the latter half of 1897. Tl 
purpose of those investigations was to ascertain (i) the probable 
causes which have led to the development of these remarhable 
savaunah-likc expanses in an otherwise forest-covered countrv • 
and (ii) to what extent the vegetation of the patanas shows 
adaptations to the peculiar oecological (1) factors under the 
influence of which it has been selected* 


Attempts to settle tlie first question will be found in these 
pages. The second problem is at present not fully treated of; 
that portion of it, however, wliich is not here dealt with, and 
which involves an anatomical examination of many of the palana- 
pknts, Avill receive attention in a paper which will follow this 
as soon as possible. Owiug to some unaccountable delay in the 
transmission of my collections, and to the pressure of other ivork 
since they arrived, these results have already been so lon^ 


^ ■ 

^i ^ 1' d 


Linn Soc. Journ. B oi . Yoi. XXXIV. PL 7. 






I- ] 

i '■ 

i ' 



delayedjthat it seems desirable to publish tbe first part now, ratlier 
than wait until the whole ia completed. 

My staj in the Ishmrl was uuavoidfibly limited to a period of 
rather less than sis months, the greater part of which was during 
the prevalence of the SAV. monsoon. I was, therefore, unable 

to observe the full effect of the N.E. monsoon upon tlie patanas, 
which way the more unfortunate since this monsoou supplier 

the greater part of their annual rainfall, and the period of its 
duration is, therefore, that of the greatest vegetative activity of 
the district. The collection, of which a list is given at the end 
of this paper, is as nearly as possible representative of the plants 
which appear on the ])atanas during the S.W. monsoon and in 
the first six w^eeks of the N.E, monsoon. 

rising V 


The patanas are grassy slopes and plains of considerable ex- 
tent, occurring in the central mountain-group at all elevations 
above 2000 feet. Tlieir main development is to the east of a 
high rid^^e which traverses the central plateau of the Island, 
The mountains form a group near the centre of the Island, 

cry abruptly from the low country to tlie east and south 
(see Map), The western boundary of the group is formed by 
an almost uninterrupted ridge which runs southward from tlie 
neighbourhood of Kaudy (2000 ft.) to Adam's Peak (7420 ft.). 
On the western side of this ridge, successive ranges of low 
hills extend almost to the coast. IVom Adam's Peak, the ridgo 
takes an easterly direction through Kirigalpotta (7831 ft), 
llorton Plains (7000 ft.), and Ilapuiale (4100 ft.), forming the 
southern boundary of the plateau. Prom Haputalo the trend 
becomes norlb-eastcrly to JVamunukuli (6680 ft.), and then 
northerly to Ivohane-lCande (4900 ft.). These ridges, forming 
the boundaries of the central plateau on the west, south^ and 
east, have approximately the form of three sides of a square, 
about 50 miles in the side. On the north the hills are low 
and scattered (not indicated on the map), and among them are 
the main outlets of the streams which unite to form the Maha- 
weli-giinga *j which carries to the east coa^^t almost the entire 
draiimge of the plateau. 

** Mahaweli-ganga," " Llie great sand river/' a name expressive of the 
large amount of detritus which its "waters carry. 


T^ — -Ttl 


302 ME. II. n. W. PEAllSON OK THE . 

The loftiest range of the Island runs througli the plateau iu a 
general N.N.W. 'dirccliuii from Kirigalpotta (7831 ft.), through 

Totapella (7710 ft.), Pidurutalagala (the highest luouutain in 
the iriland, 829G ft/), and False Poduru (G782 ft.) to the iieigh- 
hourhood o£ Kandy, bending out numerous important lateral 
spurs. The situation of this range, as will be seen later, is of 
supreme importance in determining the climatic conditions 
which prevail on either t^ide of it, and which have a very striking 
etl'eet upon the regetation. On the western slopes of this ridge, 
from the summit downwards, the land was originally completely 
forest-clad. Except at higher elevations this forest has, to a 
very large extent, disappeared before the invasion of coffee and 
tea plantations; and it is now difficult to realize wliat the country 
was like before the destruction of so much of its forest took 
place^ "Where still standing, the forest consists of small hard- 
wooded, slow-glowing trees with small erect coriaceous leaves, 
belonging principally to species of Eugenia^ CalophijUiwi, Litsea^ 
Actinodapline, Gordonia, EJaocmjms, Sympjocos {2\ etc, with a 
dense shrubby undergrowth of Strohilanthes, dwarf Bamboos, 

Begonias, etc. 

Very different, however, is the aspect of the country on the 
eastern side of the ridge- The descent is not so steep, nor are 
the valleys so deep as on the western side. On this side of the 
rid^'e, a forest of the w^estern type is found only upoii the lateral 

urs which extend for some distance in an easterly diix^ctiori ; 
in tiie valleys between them and on the lower undulatitig plains 
beyond, for a distance of ^5 miles, there is a sti iking absence of 

forest growth, and the country presents all the characters of a 
savannah, Thid expanse — known as the " Uva Patana-lands " * — 
terminates in tlie t^outli in the sharp ridge of Ilapulale (4400 ft,) ; 
while from near its eastern boundary rises the forest-covered mass 
of Namunukuli (GG80 ft.). This district comprises by far the 
larger area of the patana-lands, and in it the observations re- 
corded here were made. Minor desxdopments of the same typo 
of vegetation are found in other parts of the mountain-system; 
and, although a few of these were examined, the results are not 
mentioned, except in so far as may be necessary for comparison 
with the larger and more typical area. 


Being, for the most part, in the province of Uva. 

h 7 '^"^y^ - 

■^ if- 



- ; ^. ^VT^- . 



Flora of tJic Uva Patanas. 

The Uva Pataiia country is an undulating plain rising from 
2O0O feet in the east to 4500 feet in the ^vest and soutli. 
Although, as will be seen later, this area receives no incon- 
siderable rainfall, it is nevertheless for tlie greater portion of 
the year dry and parched. The flora is poor, its main consti- 
tuents being several species of coarse wiry grasses, belonging 
principally to the genera Pa7iicum, Pasjmlum, Sporololus, Arts- 
tida^ CJtlorisy Andropojon^ Imperata, etc., species of which are 
characteristic of Savannahs (3)* and Pampas (4) in other parts 
of the world. The tree-Tegetation of the Uva patanas is almost 
entirely represented by comparatively few individuals belonging 
to two species— C^/rryf7 arhorea^ Roxb,, and PhyUaiithus EmhUca^ 
Linn. The first is a small umbrella-sliaped Myrtaceous tree, with 
thick glabrous leaves, bearing considerable resemblance to an 

oak ; this tree is so characteristic of the patanas be- 
tween 3000 feet and 4500 feet, that it is usually known as tlie 
*' Patana Oak." The second is especially characteristic of the 
patanas at and below 3000 feet ; its leaves are deciduous during 
Iho dry season (5). These two species occur together in abund- 
ance on the so-called '' Talawa-patanas "t at about 3000 feet, 
giving to the country an orchard-like appearance (6). In situa- 
tions which are favourable to the accumulation of soil, which, as 
will be seen, is practically absent over a great part of the area, 
numerous small arborescent species have established themselves. 
These are species wliichj for the most part, are characteristic of 

the dry-country forest to the east {v, infra): e, g., Lasiosiphon erio- 
cepJialus^ Dodoncea viscosa, Mt/rsine capiteUata^ Jasmimim an- 
gustlfoliumy GlocJiidion monfaiium^ Breynia patens^ ^io.. Others, 

however, are equally characteristic of the wet-country forest to the 

west: viz., Sepfapleurum stellatum^ Canthium sp., Microglossa 
zcylanica^ Emhelia viridijlora^ Glochidion sp., OshecJcia sp,, etc. 
Others, again, form a more marked feature of the patanas them- 
selves : these include Knoxia platycarpa^ Vernonia Wightiana, 

* Junofhuhn states that in Java and Sumatra the destruction of the forests 
has been followed by the appearance of savannahs whose vegetation consists 
almost entirely of the grass Imperata arunr^iuacea ("Alang") and a few 
scattered trees of Fhyllanthas Emblica: vide Grisebach, 'La Vegetation du 
Moade' (French trans, by Tchihatoher), Paris, I87G, voL ii. p. o6. 

t i.e. " tree-pataaas," 

. I 

>■_»■ - T-ir ' ■ '■I -J ni 

r^t J rpj ■!■ |m |»E y; 

= ■ -^t: r; ■* - j^. |*r-^^ ^-^ - 

jT. ^^^ : "jT' r^-p. 



Afylosia Caiulollei, Osyris arlorea, Woodfordia Jlorilundcc, etc* 
Among the smaller plants ^vbicll are \\idely represented oii the 
patauas below 4500 feet, are several species of Lcgumiuosae^ 
Compositsc, LabiatcT, and a few Cyperacea?. 

Flora of til G Fatanas alove iioOOfeet 

On tlie south, tlie Uva patauas abut against the -wet-zone forest 
at about 4500 feet. On the south-west and west, however, wide 
and extensive tongues of pataua-vegetutiou protrude into the 
forest on the eastern slopes of ihe central ridge, and even in 
jdaces cross the summit of the ridge : thus, extensive patauas ^ire 
found on Horton Plains (7000 ft.), on tlie eastern slopes of 
Totapella, up the llakgala valley, and across the ridge as far as 
"Nuwara Eliya. These localities enjoy a heavy and continuous 
rainfall, and hero a patana-vcgetation flouri^lus upon a soil 
which is rich in humus< Here, as on the Tva pataua.s, the 
Graminea) constitute the bulk of the flora, and belong, for the 
most part, to the same genera as in that region ; their growth 
it!, however, more luiuriant. They have a nmrked tufted habit"^, 
which on the slopes is often so pronoumed as to render walking 
difficult; above GOOO ieet, however, they grow much more com- 
pactly and form a coarse turf. Species of Cyperaceie and Erio- 
caulonacea) are very abundant above 5000 feet, being especially 
characteristic of swampy places* The arborescent flora is re- 
presented by a single ppccies, lihododcndron arhorei(w^ Sm,, var. 
nilagiricnin ; this tree has a dwarfed and gnarled habit, especially 
at lower elevations, where it is exposed to the blighting effect of 
the S.W. gales : this habit was also noticed by Schimper in the 
ciise of trees grow^ing in an exposed situation on Pedurutala- 
gala (7). On Horton Plains, where this species is very abundant, 
the growth is more luxuriant; in this locality the branches 
fc;u[)port long trailing masses of Usnca harbata. Above 5000 feet, 
the composition of the flora changes considerably and becomes 
almost temperate, and includes species of such characteristic 
temperate and subalpine genera as Anemone^ TJialicfrum^ lia-- 
mmculus^ Merheris, Hypericum, Ruins, Fotentilla, AlchemUla, 
Agrimonia^ Valeriana, Bipsacus^ Campanula, Gentiana, etc. 
Many of the Ilva shrubs are as well or even better represented 

* The grasses of the Campos hare a similar habit; Waruiing (1), 

p. 263. 

* ^ 

* .. ■ 



bere than at lower elevations : e. g., Knoxia pJatijcarpa^ Vernonia 
TViijhttaiia^ Atylosla Candollel^ O^beckia ^p., etc'. Otlier shrubs 

wl}ich hardly occur helow 5U00 feut arc lledyotis Lawsonm^ 
Hypericum Qnyaorense^ Dlumea sp., Ruhiis sp.. 



species of ground Orchids are ahnost confuied to elevations 
above 5000 feet; and hardly less so are two or three species of 
Exacum^ whose brlglit blue llowers are tlic chief oraanient of 
the patanas above 5000 feet ; while species of Wahlenher(jia^ 
Crotalaria^ Cassia^ and AnaphalU have a wider range. 

The Western Boundary of the Patanas. 

"Where the patanas come into contact with the western forest, 
the boundary lines arc remarkably sharp and abrupt, though 
quite irregular and in no way related to any physical features 
of the land. The ordinary forest-growth is found within 3 to 
6 feet of the norirml patana-vegetation, only a ver}'' narrow 
belt intervening. The pLa^nts eoiuposing this intermediate belt 
consist principally of stunted forest-trees and such of the forest 
undert^hrubs as are found also on the patanas, as well as other 
shrubby species which are more particularly characteristic of the 
patanas; with these are mingled comparatively few of the 
coarser pataua-grasses, conspicuous among which is the tall 
aromatic " Mana "-grass {Andropogon Nardas). Occasionally 
the belt is almost eufcirely composed of a single shrubby species, 
such as Iledijotis Luicsonlce or Knoxia pJalgoarpa. The forest- 
edge thus presents a sloping-wall of foliage which rises abruptly 
from the low graasy vegetation of the patanas to the height of 
the forest-trees. 

The first impression gained from an examination of the flora 
of this narrow intervening belt, is that the causes which have 
determined its composition are artificial rather than natural. It 
difiers markedly in its constitution from the intermediate Jlora 
found between the American prairies and the adjoining forest, 
which, if Macmiilau's view of the latter is correct (8), consists 
of '^species weaker than the characteristic plants of either 
formatiou.'' He states that, in the struggle lor existence^ the 
weaker species of the prairie and the forest respectively are 
crowded to the conunon periphery of the two formations^ and 
there mingle, thus constituting a flora intermediate between the 
two which it separates. 



30G ilTl. H. n. W. PEAKSOX OIN" THE 

The constituents of the narrow belt separating the forest from 
the pataiia are, however, far from being tlie wealvor species of 
cither ft)rmation, whetlier they arc considered numericaliy or 
from the point of view of adaptation ; they are hardy perennials, 
for the most part shrubby or nrboreseent, wliose characters in no 
way suggest that they have been crowded out from either flora 
by natural causes. The primary factor in their selection has 
undoubtedly been the recurrent grass-fires which periodically 
lay waste the patana-areas, and to which further reference wiL 

be made. 

Small areas of forest, still connected by forest-growth with 
the main devclopmentj or even completely isolated from it, extend 
into the patanas ; an isolated patch of forest frequently clothes 
the crown of a hill whose slopes are occupied by patana. And 


eimilarlyj though perhaps less commonly, isolated patches of 
patana whose area may vary from a few hundred square yards 
to several acres are found completely surrounded by forest. 

The Eastern Boundary oftlie Patanas. 
In the cast, the patanas pass gradually into an open park-like 



m'ass*. This change occurs on cither side of Mndulsima ridge. 
The features of the Ceylon '* Park-country '' forest are thus 
described (9): '' Tliis is a type of forest found at the foot of the 
liimalavas, having grass as undergrowth instead of dense brush- 
wood as in other forests of the Island. The flora of these forests 
is sIrikinMy similar to that of tlie sub-Himalayan forest, some of 
the species being rarely found elsewhere in the Island. Such are 



tially Indian species, such as Terminalia BelJerica^ PliyTlanilnis 
JEmhlica, Careya a7%orea ; while the most common Phyllaiiilius is 
very like the Glocliidion veluiimim found in the sub-Himalayan 


The grasses constituting the undergrowth are principally 

Antliistiria arqnens^ Androj)ogon filipenMus^ A. caricosus^ 



* Sncli a fores I has been tcriiicd " Savanncnwald " by Schiinper, ' Pflaiizeu 
Geographie/ p. 1^82. 

K ' 


Area of /lie Patanas. 
The area of tKe patanas is not known with a:iy degree of 
accuracy. Tennent almost certainly exaggerates when lie eays 
''the extent of tliis patana-land is enormous in Ceylon, amount- 
ing to millions of acres "(11). The area of the district under 
consideration may be taken roughly as 300 square miles. 

Theories to account for the Origin of the Patajias. 
The existence of extensive, comparatively barren, patana-arcas 
in the midstof the luxuriant sub-tropical growth of themontane 
region, and, more particularly, the manner in which they abut 
upon the boundaries of the western forests, have attracted the 
attention of many observers. To account for the existence in 
such clo?e proximity of two floras so widely different, three 
theories have been advanced. 

(i.) Trimen's Theory. 
Trimen, in the paper referred to (12), does not attempt a 
general explanation of the causes which have been active ia 
the selection of the forms which now compose the flora of the 
patanas. He gives, however, his opinion respecting the main- 
tenance of a definite line of separation between the western 
boundary of the patanas and the forest. He says that "in the 
course of vast ages a perfect equilibrium between the two floras 

(/. e. patana and forest) has boon arrived at, so that now, neither 
can encroach on the other : the patana-plants are unable to 
exist in the dense shady forest, whilst the seeds of the forest- 
trees never get a chance even of germination in the closely- 
occupied grass-land. So far as can be ob^^crved, this balance is 
now maintained without change." It must, however, be im- 
possible that a line of separation such as is here indicated, not 
only definite but also fixed, could be maintained in nature, unless 
it were determined by some sharp physical barrier, impassable to 
the plants on either side of it. That such a barrier is wanting 
here is obvious to anyone who follows the forest-edge for a short 
distance. But, apart from this theoretical consideration, it is by 
no means diflicult to find seedlings of forest-trees establishing 

themselves among the patana-grasses ; and, further, not a few 

of the characteristic patana shrubs and herbs are commonly 
found in the dense shady forest. The experience of foresters 

\ I 





TT' -U I _ ?-■ 

-^-1 ^^ 

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r »■ 


h - 



and planters shows that where the patanas In the yicinity of the 
Avestern forest are protected from grass-fires, the forest slowly 
establi.shes itself upon the patana j and it is a well-known fact 
that, unless these fires are prevented, tiie patana encroaches 
upon the forest. We must then conclude that the balance 
between the two floras is not '' nowmamtained without change " 
as Trlmen believed, though such chanf^e as does take place is, 
for reasons which will be indicated later, so gradual that it may 
be easily overlooked. 

(li.) Ahba/s Theory. 

Abbay, in a letter to ' JN'ature ' (13), gives the results of his 
examination of a small area of patana in the valley leading from 
Pussellawa to Eambodde, situated about 6 miles N.AV. of Nuwara 
Eliya, and on the western wide of the central range. He finds 
there an outcropping band of "half-formed quartzite " which 
disintegrates into ^'little else than a quartz-sand impregnated 
with iron, and entirely incapable of supporting the usual forest- 
vegetation with which the district, except in this particular spot, 
abounds." And to this alone he attributes the development of 
patana-vegctation on the lower slopes of the valley. He further 
states that he was *' informed that the same quartzito formation 
occurs in the Uva patana district ; " and he, therefore, believes it 
probable that all the other patanas, especially the larger ones 
'' owe their origin to the cropping out of this quartzite band." 
There is no further evidence to hand with regard to the structure 
of the Pussellawa and Rambodde valley, and presumably Abbay's 
account of it is correct; but whether he is justified in attributing- 
the presence of a patana-flora on the lower slopes of the valley 
to its geological structure alone, is perhaps open to question. He 
is certainly incorrect in assuming that the same 
structure in Uva will also explain the existence of the patanas 
over a large part of that province. The occurrence of 
quartzite on the TJva patanas was denied by Heelis (14), who 
makes the comprehensive statement that '' in the Uva |>atana 
district the rock is limestone," a generalization which 
ever, far from being correct. There is in Uva a small local 
development of limestone only, but over by far the greater 
part of the patana-area the underlying rock is gneiss, who.^e 
decomposition - products do not materially differ from those 



r ■■ r 


h 1 

^ _, 

■ ■ .J 




formed in districts covcrcJ by a luxuriant montane forest; 

except ia so far as the decomposition of the hard rock may 
proceed more quickly under the moibti'r conditions which the 
presence of forest-growth implies. Examination of specimens of 
soil, subsoil, and bed-rock from various parts of the Uva patana- 
district have yielded no sugijestion of the presence of a quartzite- 
formation*. Therefore, although the outcropping of the band 
of quartzite may be, to some extent at least, responsible for the 
occurrence of patana where it was observed by Abbay, this solu- 
tion of the difiiculty will not hold generally, and is certainly not 
a true one for the great patana-area of Uva. 

(iii.) The Grass-Jlre Theori/. 

Eeference has already been made to the grass-fires which 
appear periodically on the patanas, and their importance will 
now be considered. The patana-grassos are very coarse and 
■wirv, and in their adult condition are unpalatable to cattle, 
numerous herds of which graze in the district. It has therefore 
been the graziers' custom, probably from time itnmemorial — and, 
iu spite of government regulations against it, is so still — to set 
fire to the grass at least aunnally, before the bursting of the 
N.E. monsoon, in order to provide a young fresh growth during 
the monsoon rains, upon which the cattle will feed. Early in 
October these fires can be seen blazing in all directions ; they 
often burn continuously for several days, temporarily reducing 
the country to a blackened waste which extends up to the 
very edge of the forest, where shrivelled leaves and charred 
trunks bear testimony against the maintenance of a permanent 
forest-boundary. And, althongh the effect of a single fire is 
undoubtedly small, it is very evident that the cumulative efft^ct 
of such fires during a succession of years must be to materially 
extend the boundaries of the patanas at the expense of the 


That similar fires in other parts of the world cause the replace- 
ment of forest-vegetation by a herbaceous and low shrubby 
formation is so well-known that it need not be insisted upon 
here, Grisebach (15) has described it in India, Junghuhn (16) 

* I am indebted to my friend Mr. H* Stanley Jevons, F.G.S., for kindly 
esaiiUTiing the geological specimens referred to. 

r ■ I* r 

310 MB. IT. H. ^^\ PEATisoy on the 

in Java and Sumatra, Jolmston (17) in Central Africa, Bryce (18) 
in S. Africa, Humboldt (19) and Bolt (20) on the Savannahs of 
S. America and Nicaragua, and "Warming (21) on the Brazilian 

The experience o£ the Ceylon foresters, stated in the Annual 
Eeports of Porest-conscrvancy, confirms the opinion that the 
constant occurrence of the patana-fires is gradually extendingtlio 
area of the patanaa in a westerly direction into that previously 
covered by forest. "With regard, hoAvever, to the origin of the 
paianas as a whole, the case is not so clear; there is a total 
absence of local tradition relating to a time when the main area 
of the Uva patanas was in any marked way different from wliat 
it is now, and direct evidence of any kind relating to past 
changes is not forthcoming. There is, however, very strong 
reason for believing that the combined effects of the peculiar 
climatic conditions of the region and the recurrence of grass- 
fires have caused the disappearance of a savannah -forest from 
the area lying between 2000 feet and 4500 feet which is now 
covered by patana-vegetation^ 

Before considering this question in farther detail, a brief 
general account of the climate of Uva must be given. 


The distribution of rainfall over the central plateau of the 
Islnnd is determined by the central range of hills, which, as has 
been pointed out above, runs in a general N.N,W» direction from 

Kirigalpotta through the plateau for about 40 miles. The pre- 
vailing winds during the two monsoons thus cross the ridgo 

The S.W. monsoon commences early in April, and the wind 
increai^cs in force and constancy until the middle of May, when 
the heavier rains of the monsoon commence, and continue until 
the middle of August; the S.W< wind ceases about the end of 
September. During .this monsoon, the south-western and most 
fertile part of the Island receives more than one-third of its total 
rainfall. The S^W. wind, having deposited the greater portion 
of its available moisture on the western slopes and summits of the 
central ridge, passes over the lower country to the east as a hot, 
dry, and often violent wind, still however carrying sufficient 
moisture to render fertile the summits of Namunukuli and other 

L i 

J ■ I 




eastern hills which are sufficiently high to cool it holow its 
saturation-point. Upon these hilh is found a forest-vegetation 
of the yanie type as that ^vhich characterizes that zone of tlie 
western hills which lies between 4000 feet and UGOO fe^t; and 
these developments of the wcf^tcrn forest are isolated in a 
country which is almost uniformly covered with patana or park 
vegetation. The climatic conclitions of Uva, during the S-\\^. 
monsoon, are thus Continental ratlur than Insular, and compare 
remarkably with tliose of the much larger area of the Brazilian 
Campos. Here the Trade-winds, striking against the coast- 
ranges of S* Brazil Jose so mucdi of their moisture that they pass 
over the lower country to the west as dry, hot winds, depositing 
no more moisture until they strike aganist the slopes of the 
Andes, M'hich bear a forest of the same type as is found upni the 
coast-ranges in the east. Tlie comparatively low intermediate 
country is covered with savannah-vegetation (32), 

The rain-value of the S.AV. monsoon decreases in an easterly 
direction from the central ridge, as is shown in the following 
table compiled from the returns of the Ceylon Meteorological 
Office and the Public AVorks Department The table gives the 
amount of rain in inches and the number of rainy days, respec- 
tively, during the periods of the S,W. and JN^.E. monsoons^ 




Nuwara Eliya... 






380 ft . 


• rii> 

1 mile W. of 
Central ridge. 

4 ujUes E. of 
Central ridge, j 

18 miles S.E, of 

15 miles N.E. of 
18 nules E. of 





38 '5 










Rain- Rain\ 
tall. days. 


52 05 







Average of 

26i'i years 








^ ^ ^ 

^ *x l-TT _■ f 


h ■ -1 -r T" rf -1- 

' ■ 

,-~, -*-:^^^_r.» -<-^r-^:, ' r-11*/— ^'L 



Of tbese stations, Bandarawela Las the smallest rainfall, and 
Badulla tlie fewest rainy days during the S.A¥. monsoon. But in 
neither case can the rainfall be taken as typical of that of the Uva 
patanas ; for Bandarawela is less thau 5 miles from the soutliern 
boundary of tlie plateau^ and the B^duila rainfall is influenced 
hy the proximity of NaTnunukuli. Unfortunately, however, no 
data exist for any station more centrally situated, and whose 
climate is therefore typical for the greater part of the Uva 
patana region ; but, from the appearance of the country and the 
experience of tliose who know it, we sliill be justified in con- 
cluding that the precipitiitiun at such a station as Attampitiya 
or Wilson's Bungalow^ during the S.AV- monsoon, is less than at 

Bandarawela or Badulla. 

With this qualification, let us consider the Badulla statistics. 
From these it appears that 25'09 inches of rain fall in 30 days 
during the S.AV. monsoon, L e,, from the beginning of April to 
the end of September- t'ebrunry and March are dry months all 
over the Island!; and we may therefore consider that at Badulla 
there are only 30 rainy days in eight months^ viz. from the 
beginning of T'ebruary to the end of September, and in these 
30 days the rainfall is 25 inches. This rainfall, which is heavy 
while it lasts, falls upon an undulating country whose surface- 
drainage is good, and upon a surface naturally hard and pene- 
trable only with difficulty; and the 30 rainy days are irregularly 
distributed over 6 monthsj during which the country is parched 
up under a tropical sun and a usually unclouded sky. The Uva 
patana-district is therefore a region which has a prolonged, 
though not severe, dry season during the prevalence of the S.W. 


The ]N"orth-east monsoon, from w^hicli the greater part of the 
Island, including the eastern slopes of the mountains, receives the 
larger proportion of its lainfall, sets in a few days after the S. W. 
wind has ceased, usually about the middle of October- The 
period of this monsoon is a short one, as it ceases about the 
middle of January; the interval between this and the commence- 
ment of the S."W. monsoon — thelatter half of January, February, 
and March — is a dry period during which hardly any rain falls in 
any part of the Island. 

The rains during this monsoon are very violent in the Uva 
district, and as the water drains away it carries with it all the 




^ * 


■ 1 

r L 

* -^ E ' 1 

' t 

. % - 


finer loose surface-debris, except such as is retained by tlie roots 
of the grasses and other soil-binding plants, which on tbe drier 
patanas is very little. This is particularly noticeable at Banda- 
rawela, where the sides of tlie hills are bare of soil and support 
only a few deep-rooted plants on their stony surface: on the 
tops of the hills, where the surface is flat or slightly hollow, 
accumulation of soil does occur to some slight extent. The 
surface-drainage of the Uva patanas during the torrents of rain 
which fall at the beginning of the N.E, monsoon is a very 
remarkable sight: the streams which run off the slopes being 
loaded with fine debris * which makes no small contribution to 
the sandy character of the Mahaweli-ganga. 

This monsoon, which constitutes the rainy season of the 
eastern slopes of the plalcau, coincides with tlie period of the 
vegetative activity of the TJva patanas. 

We have, then, in the Uva patanas a district, the greater part 
of which suffers a dry season of eight months' duration, modified 
only by about one month's rain Avhich falls during the latter six 
of those months* Daring this period a constant and drying 
S.W. wind blows over the area and, the sky being usually 
nncloudcd, the snrface of the ground is subjected to a severe 
baking by the rays of a tropical sunf. The rain which falls 
during the S.W* nionsoon is distributed over a few days, and falls 
so rapidly that but little of it is absorbed by the ground; and 
this ia even more strikingly the case Mith tbe very heavy 
rains of the JN'.E. monsoon, which remove such fine loose matter 
as is formed and render the accumulation of soil and humus 

On the more elevated patanas to the west, the conditions are 

* Vincent, Heport on Conservation of Ceylon Forests; Colombo, 1883, 
p. 72j § 114. Vincent here niakea a statement with which it is iinpostible to 
reconcile tlie above account of erosion on tbe Uva slopes, which is, however, the 
result of personal observation. Cf. aUo Tennent, ' Ceylon/ p. 25* 

t In some rough determinations of eoil-temperuture obtained by placinty 
(he bulb of a thermometer at a depth of 4 iuclics in the soil, the ftjllowing 
results were obtained: — 

Wilson's Bungalow .„ 85° R Oct. 18, 1897, at 12.15 i\m. 

Btuuhirawehi 71)° F. ,j 30, „ maximum. 

Hapulale 8(P 5 R Nov. % „ 

Passara 80^ F. Aug.14, ,, at 3.45 p.m. 

MaduUma Eidge 90^ R „ 15, „ at ILSOa.m. 


TT-, ^ J 




^-ery different. As will be seen later, the rainfall above 5000 feet 
is comparatively large and uniformly distributed throiigbout the 
year. The air is always highly cliarged with moisture, and 
above 5000 feet dense fogs are very frequent and lasting •^ 
Occasionallyj at 6000 feet and upwarJs, the temperature sinks 
below 0^ C, and a little lioai^-frost is formed on the grass before 


Under these cojiditions, soil and humus accumulnto to con- 
siderable deptlis at the tops of the- hills and in the valleys, and to a 
less extent upon the slopes. In hollows from w^hich the drainage 
docs not readily escape, swamps arc produced in which a con- 
siderable formatioLi o£ hnmus, formed chiefly of the parts of 
^-peciQsof Sj)ha(jmnnj Eriocaidon^ Cyperaoe0C,and Grraminese, may 


The term " patana," then, includes two very different forma- 
tions, which caa be almost separated by the 4500-fcct line. 
Below thiw elevation we have a dry area, whose climatic conditions 
ard comparable to those of an American savannah ; above 4500 
feet tlie cVnnate and the soil alike have considerable reseniblanct^s 
to those of a European moor which in favourable localities 
becomes marshy, 

Ofigin of tlie Paianas* 

The arguments in favour of attributing the origin of the 
patanas to the combined effects of the climate and the periodic 
grass-fires must now be considered. 

If we imagine the patana-fires, and other causes which may 
be active in extending the patanas westwards to 
a consequent re-afforestation of the western patanas to com- 
mence — and experience shows that it does commence under 
such circumstances — the new^ forest-growth would reach iu time 
an eastern limit, below and b-iyond wdiich it would not extend. 
As the forest advanced it would increase the precipitation of 

* During three days (Aug. 9, 10, & 11) spent on Ilorton Plains (7000 feet), 
the atmosphere was not cilear for halt" anhoiir, and for the greater part of the 
time we were enveloped in a dense mist. This is a common experience of 
visitors to IIorLon Pluins. 

^uwara Eliya (G200 feet), so well known as a Sanatorium, is as constantly 
saturated with dense fogs as wiih its notoriously lieavj rains. A well- 
known writer speaks of '* the endless procession of grey clouds out of doors, 
as they come rolling down from the gloomy hiaek forests on the dingy dank 
moor {i.e. patana), and the sliuddering surface of the icy lake" (Hacckel, 

* A Yisit to Ceylon/ trans, by Clara Eell, London, 1883, p. 280). 

cease, and 

rp w 


1 \ . 



rain, and would thus be enabled to descend the eastern slopes ; 
but it would undoubtedly at length reach a limit beyond which 
the rainy portion of the period of the S,W* monsoon would 
be too short for the maintenance of a forest of the western 

On the eastern boundary of the putana-region, at elevations 
not exceeding 4000 feet, there is a gavannah-forest of which a 
description has already been given (vide 2>. 300). Thia forest 
flourishes in a climate which is almost identical Avith that enjoyed 
by the drier parts of the Uva patana-district. The peculiar 
feature of this savaunah-forcst^ as has been pointed out, is that 
there is a total absence of shrubby undergrowth, and in pLace of 
it a growth of coarse grasses. A\^e have only to imagine a suffi- 
cient depth of soil on the patanas, and it is then easy to see that 
such a forest might have flourished all over the now barren 
grassy plains of Uva. This is supported by the fact that in some 
of the driest parts of the Uva patanasj where the conditions 
have been such as to allow of the accumulation of soil, a con- 
siderable growth of small trees, such as Dodoncea viscosa 


Osyris arhorea^ Flacourtia sp., 

Psidium Ouajava^ is found. This is strikingly the case in pro- 
tected hollows m various localities, and also in open places at 
Bandarawela, AVilson's Bungalow, and elsewhere, where aban- 
doned ttrmite-hcaps provide accumulations of soil to which is 
confined almost all the shrubby vegetation. It seems that the 
termite-earths resisted the N.E. monsoon rains long enough 
to allow of the establishment of such vegetation upon them as 
now protects them from being washed away by the rains. 

It seems, then, a justifiable conclusion that the absence of 
soil on the greater part of the Uva patana-area below 4500 feet 
is of itself a sufficient reason for the absence of trees and tall 
shrubs; and, given a sufficient depth of soil, there can be little 
doubt that the whole of the Uva slopes below 4500 feet would 
bear a Bavannah-forest identical with that which now flourishes 
in the Park-country to the east. If this be granted, it is not 
difficult to account for the dis^ippcaranco of the forest and the 
soil which supported it, assuming only that the modern system 
of periodically firing the grasses has been practised for centuries 
by the Singhalese graziers — an assumption which is undoubtedly 
a Bafe one, althougli, owing to the peculiar conditions of the case, 
it can be supported by no direct evidence. 



V .'■ - ' T^l 


\- "-r-r-^-'f 

1 ■ 

. : ■ 


ME. n- n. W. PEAHSOK ox THE 

What would be the effect of constantly recurring fij es In such 
a forcyt as this ? The grasses 's^^ould he consumed by eacli 
successive fire, their young fresh growths appearing again during 
each rainy season. In this way the soil would he laid hare, aiid 
n tliis conditioQ '^'ould receive the hcai^y rains of the N,E. 
monsoon, from ihe full force of which the crowns of the scattered 
trees would be no adequate protection. Thus, annually, the 
soil would become poorer by the carrying away in solution of 
its more soluble constituents, and shallow^er * by the mechanical 
erosion to which it would be subjected. Meanwhile the trees 
would suffer from the effects of successive fires, and all but the 
more resistant and hard-w^ooded species would, in time, become 
exterminated. As the vegetation became more sparse the action 
of rain on tlie soil would be greater, and as the soil decreased 
in depth and deteriorated in quality, only the more wiry and 
coarser grasses, and comparatively few of the hardier trees, w^ould 
survive. Under these condltlous, and with a sufficient lapse of 
timc^ it is easy to sec how^ an area covered wdth a savannah- 
forest could be transformed to something identical wath the 
patanas of to-day. 

Abbay f states that it is impossible that the Uva patanas can 
have resulted from the action of recurrent fires on the forest, 
and he supports his view by three considerations, viz.: 

(1) That in other cases in Ceylon where forest has been 
destroyed by fire, it has been replaced by '' Chena," ^^ e. 
low bushy scrub, and not by a grijssy formation such as 
occurs on the patanas. 

(2) That these grass-lands of Uva are poor and unproductive, 

and therefore the last pieces of ground which one would 
expect a native in search of pasture to select. 

(3) That, if the patanas had really resulted from artificial 
causes, as is here maintained, there would be some tradi- 
tional record of such a striking change having come over 
the face of the country. . 

It is undoubtedly true tliat the firing of the low-country 

A similar case of soil-denucLition, owlno; to tlie action of heavv rains on 
a surface deprived of its natural coveriDg bj fire, has occurred on tlie elopes of 
the Siwulik Hille in N, India: v. Iless, " Der Forstscliutz," transL bj Fisher 
in Scldich's ' Manual of Forestry,' London, 1805, vol. ir. p. 541. 
t Loc, cit. p. {>y9. 

■r -j.- 

:- K 


■ .1 



forest, which, as has hccn pointed out, has a shrubby under- 
growth, is followed hy the appearance of '* Gliena" composed of 
the liardier and more-resistiog forest underslirubs, or of an 
exotic Lantana. But this objection docs not apply to the Uva 
patana-laiida, for, reasoning from the present distribution of 
savannah-forest and wet-£orest, one must (^onclude that the only 
forest which, under the present climatic conditions, can have 
existed on the Uva slopes below 4000-5000 feet must have 
been of the savannah-type wi)ieh now covers the Park-country ; 
and it is obvious that '' Chcna " cannot result from the firinji of a 
savannah-forestj owing to the absence of a shrubby undergrowth. 
Above 5000 ieet^ as will be seen later, the pataua has un- 
doubtedly resulted from the disappearance of a montane wet- 
forest of tlie ordinary tyj)e ; bnt here other causes^ which will bo 

referred to below, prevent the formation of a low scrub on the 
cleared ground. 

With regard to the poverty of the Uva patana-lands, it has 
been pointed out that, according to the theory advanced, the 
poverty of the soil in both quality and amount is indirectly a 
consequence of the recurrent grass-fires ; and further, instead 
of the Uva patana-Iands being the last pieces of ground to be 
selected for clearing by a grazier, they would be far more likely 
to be chosen thau any of the more luxuriant wet-forest, whose 
undergrowth would not supply the desired pasture. 

Abbay's third objection is not one upon which much stress 
need be laid. An important argument can hardly be based 
upon the mere absence of tradition with regard to a change 
which must have occupied a very long period, possibly cen- 
turies, among a primitive pastoral people such as the Hill-tribes 
of Ceylon. 

The opinion that the Uva patanas were once covered by a 
savannah-forest similar to that which now exists in the Park- 
country Kas been expressed more than once in the reports of the 
forest-conservators (23) ; and it has been continually 2)ointed out 
in tlie same reports that the present custom of firing the patauas, 
which, as has been seen, is probably a survival of that which 
produced them, is causing the further deterioration of the soil 
(34) where any still remains, and the destruction of all but 
the coar^ierand more enduring species of grass (25). And, there- 
fore, according to the short-sighted policy of the grazier, the 
annual patana-fires become more neces^iary each year. 


i - 

^ ,Tr- - ri^---j-^-;™- -v-C-'- -- IT ipi¥" 

•J- ^ ^M 


MH. H. n. W. PE-\.11S0X ON THE 

On the eastern slopes of the main ridge up wliicli, as has been 
seen, the patanas extend to the highest elevations, very different 
conditions have resulted in the formation of a type of patana 
differing considerably from those of the lower phiins of Uva, and 
upon which a considerable accumulation of humus has taken 
place. The patana and forest here exist side by side under con- 
ditions which, as far as can be ascertained, are absolutely 
identical; and the only conceivable- explanation of the existence 
of patanas above 5000 feet is that they have arisen upon ground 
which has been cleared of forest by grass-fires. And that thitj 
is the true explanation there can be little doubt, when the effect 
of recent fires upon the edge of the forest is observed. 

Tlie rainfall a^bove 3000 feet is not only much larger than m 
Uva, but is also evenly distributed over the year, so that there 
13 no dry season to act upon the areas which have been bared 
of forest. At Ilakgala, which probably has a smaller rainfall 
than any other patana-disfcrict above 5000 feet, the annual 
fidi is about 90 inches, and there are annually 202 rainy days 
which are evenly distributed over the year, as is shown 
in the two upper lines of the following table, which give the 
averages of : — 

1. The monthly rainfall ; 

2. The luunber of rainy days in the month, computed from 

the records of the Ilalcgala Meteorological Station for 
15 years (IS82-189G)- 
























h J 













Rain J clajs 

Moan ^ir ] 


temp, in 


G3-3 63G 64-5: m-2\ G2f) 


62-1 63-8 




degrees Fahr, ^ 


Mcnn daily 


rane;e in 


12-2 181 





11-3 14 







The humidity of the air is thus considerable and aconstant. 

'■\ ■ "K . 





The last two lines of the table give the monthly summaries 

of the daily temperaturc-ohservatioas made at ITakgala * during 

1897 (January to July) and 1S9G (August to December). From 

these it will be seen that the air-temperature at llakgala is 

liardly more than that of an English sutiimer. 

These conditions, viz., the extreme humidity of the air and the 

moderate and uniform temperature, are favourable to the accu- 
mulation of humus upon a soil which does not possess a higli 
degree of porosity (26). It is, however, a wcll-kaown fact that 
humus does not accumulate in Indiaa and Ceylon forests except 
at high elevations; and in the forests of Ceylon, even at the 
highest elevations, the decomposition of plant-remains proceeds so 
rapidly that no considerable formation of humus can take place t. 
The experience of foresters, however, shows that the removal of 
forest-growth, when the temperature is not too high, the rainfall 
not too low, nor the soil too ])orous, is favourable to the formation 
of humus-deposits, and, if the land has a suitable contour, to the 
production of sivamps. The disappearance of the trees has a 
twofold efleot in producing an increase in the humidity of the 
soil- It has been estimated that one-quarter of the amount of 
the rainfall never reaches the ground in a forest, owing to so 
much of tlie falling water being broken into spray as it falls 
upon the foliage and reabsorbed by the air (27) ; and, in addition 
to this, cleared ground loses much less water by evaporation 
than when its moisture is dra^vn upon by the roots of transpir- 
ing forest-trees (38), and this is especially true of a district 
where tlie air is alwavs char^^ed with moisture and wliere conse- 
quently the evaporation from the surface of the ground is slow. 
And further, the exposure to light occasioned by the removal of 
the forest-covering is in itself a cause of decrease in the rate of 
bacterial decomposition of orgauic remains (29). 

These factors have undoubtedly co-operated in the formation 
of the patanas above 5030 feet which are universally covered 
^vith humus-deposits except on some wind-swept patches at high 
elevations, and where they are iaterrupDed by variously- sized 

* I desire to actuowledg© the courtesy of Mr. W. No^k, the Superintendent 
of the llakgala Meteorologicj,! Station, in supplying me with these and otlier 


t At JTaligala (5000 feet) it is inipO-Sdzble to obtain leaf-mould from the 
neighbouring furest for the Uotauic Ciardeiirf. 

#_ 1 

\ i 

320 AiE. n. IT. vr. peaesox ox the 

boulders of iinnlfered gneitis Avliicli crop out irrogularly. Tlio 
de;|)08its vary in thickness from a few inclies to 5 feet or more*. 
Tlu?y are thickest on the tops of the hills and in the vallcyti, 
Avhere, under suitable conditions, so much water is retained that 
a swamp U formed. Ou the slopes, in spite of the rainwai^h, 
luunus accumulates, though in loss quantity than in more favour- 
able situations; on the steeper hill-t^ides, cliannels sometimes na 
much as a foot in depth are cut into the humus by the \\^ater as 
it flo-\vs oif the surface. The soil is an almost pure humus, black 
or coloured dark brown by the admixture of mineral substances; 
but a])parenily pebbles are always absent. It varies in cou- 
sistcney from a black mud to a poAvdery soil such as the wuul 
w'iU remove as dust, though this last condition is rarely seen, as 
it normally contains considerable quantities of water. The 
absence of earthworms is also remarkable, and is probably not 
without effect in contributing to the formation of a pure humus- 
soil (30). The reactions of the soil were not observed ; 
attempts have, however, been made to use it for gardening 
purposes at the Hakgala Botanic Gardens, and it has been 
found to be too '' sour " to be of any use. Mosses play no part 
in the formation of these deposits, except in the swampy hollows, 
where species of Polytrichum and Sj)hn(jnvw are found t- E!se- 
\vhere they are principally formed from the remains of grasses 
and CyperacCcT, which both individually and specifically con- 
stitnte the greater proportion of the flora. In the more swampy 
localities Eriocaulons are abundant. The only tree found upon 
these " humus-patanas " is the Ehododcndron, which is well 
known to flourish on sour humus (31). 

The humus disappears quite suddenly where the patana passes 
ii^to forest. There is usually a tendency for such lormatious as 
this, especially w^hen they have a swampy cliaracter, to encroach 
upon the surrounding forest (32). This may be the case in 
certain localities wiiere the humus-patanas are v^-et and swampy, 
but there is no evidence of such encroachment, and indeed the 

* A recent cutting made during the coi\btruL'Lioii of a new road near Ainba- 
wela (5HU0 icet) passes through a aruall swauip and exposes 10 feet of wet 
black liuinus composed of the parts of Eriocaulon W i (j h i iuuum , together with 
AnapJiLilis ohlonga, Exacum zeylanlciim, Volygala ylautuidei^, Bhmea fiexrf.osa , &c, 

t ''True peat" is stated to be formed in tlie hollows on the A'ilgliiris, 
by ''the growth and decon.po?ition of a moss/* Medlioott and Blanford, 
' Manual of the Geology of India,' Calcutta, 1871), p. 4:^9. 

- -;• -^ 

T . r' 


J - 




prevailing opinion among tliose who are best able to judge is 
tliat, wliero not iuterfered with by fire, tlie forests tend to 
reinstate themselves. This process is, however, even under the 
most favourable circumstance^, very slow, being hindered by 
several of the well-known properties of humua. 

Humus has a greater capacity for water-absorption tlian any 
other soil (33), a fact which militates against the spread of forest- 
trees. By it the normal distribution of water in the soil is 
disturbed, the upper layers becoming wet at the expense of the 
lower. As a consequence the germination of the seeds of forest- 
trees is hindered by the excess of water near the surface (32), and 
at the same time, at a greater depth, the soil is rendered too 
dry for the nourishment of deep-rooting trees. The normal 
respiration of the roots also is impaired by the presence of 
hydrostatic water, and consequent poverty of the soil in free 
oxv«-en (32). A further consequence of tlie excess of water 
in the humus is that the soil-temperature is below that which is 
normal for the latitude and elevation— a fact which must have a 
considerable effect upon the germination of seeds (32). There 
are no observations to show what are normal soil-temperatures 
for given soils in such a loc dity as this ; but it may be interesting 
to compare the following rough determinations made upon the 
humus-patanas at a depth of 4 inches, with those made on the dry 
XJva patauas at lower elevations (v. p. 313) : — 

I - 








Slta Eliya (5SO0 ft.). 

06'' P., Aug. 10, 9,30 A.^i. 
67^ P., Oct. 11, 12.30 P.M. 
6G^ r., TSTov. 3, maximum, 
or F., Oct. 26-27, minimum, 
63^*5 F., Oct. 20, 9 a.m. 

Horton Plains (7000 h,). 59^2 F., Aug. 10, noon. ' 

Of considerable importance in hindering the advance of 
forest-growth over the humus-patanas are the acid properties 
of the soil. The humus-acids produced in the superficial layers 
sink to lower depths and reader the lower soil acid — a condition 
which is known to be very disadvantageous to tlio growth of 
most European woody species (31), but favourable to the 
Rhododendron and a few others. AV'e have further, in the 
acidity of the humus, and the abundance of ferrous oxide whicii 
is the predominant colouring-materid of the soil underlying it, 
conditions which are in every way favourable for the formation 

.r ' ---— --r- .- 

i - 

822 MB. H, n* W. PEAKSON ON THE 

of a moor-pan, the effect of wliicli in preventing llie penetration 
of tlie roots of trees is too well known to need description; 
there is, however, at present no direct evidence of the existence 
of such a formation beneath the humus-patanas. 

Lastly, it may be pointed out that bacteria do not flourish in 
acid humus (33), and that the conacqucat poverty of such a soil 
in combined nitrogen would co-operate with other factors against 
the establishment of a luxuriant vegetation. 

Sinn mar)/. 

An examination of such evidence as exists with regard to the 
origin of the patanas of Uyu and their western extensions i;p 
the slopes of the central lidge leads to the following conclu.siuns. 
On the Uva slopes below 4500 feet (ihe lower limit of the 
liliododendron) the peculiarities of the cliuiate have co-operated 
w^ith tlie periodically recurrent grass-fires to transform an open 
forest of low xerophytic trees with aa undergrowth of grass 
(L e. a Savanuah-torcst such as is still found on the eastern 
bouudary of the i)lateau) into barren grassy plains- These 
plains being almost complelely denudid of soil must be regarded 
»s being of the nature of a jicrmanent savannah, the natural 
re-afforestati(»n of the greater part of which is impossible UJidir 
t!ie present climatic conditions. Above 4500 feet, wide tongues 
of pafaua extend in a westerly direction up to, and in some 
cases over, the summit of tlie central ridge. There can be no 
doubt tliat these extensions are due to the encroachment of the 
Uva grass-fires into the moutane wet-zone forest. Upon the 
cleared area a lierbaceous vegetation has established itself, 
the remaius of which form an accumulation of sour humus which 
is almost uniformly present on the surface above 4500 feet. 
The properties of sour humus are such that forest-trees can 
with difficulty re-establish themselves upon it. It therefore 
follows that, apart from the effects of the present annual fires, 
the sharp boundary, once established by fire, would so gradually 
become irregukr by the advance of forest-groAvth that only 
careful observations extended over a long period would be able 
to detect any change. Hence has arisen the idea that the present 
limit of the forest is a stationary one. 

■^- 1^— -■„ I H 



General Biological Feature-'i of the Flora, 

The flora of the patanas as a "w^hole is composted of pLants 
w'hich, generally speaking, present characterd which tend to 
reduce transpiration and to protect delicate parts from the 
injurims effects of intense illuo^ination : broadly speaking it 
may thus be regarded as a '* Xcrophj'te-Associatiun " in "Warming's 
sense (35). In the case of the Uva patanas below 4500 feet, the 
conditions which determine the characteristic features of the 
flora are, briefly, intense illumination, the heating effects of the 
rays of a vertical sun, and a comparatively dry season of eight 
months' duration, during sis months of w^hich a drying wind 
blows constantly over the area and the sky is usually unclouded. 
The evaporation from the surface is therefore intense — a fact 
which must have a considerable influence upon the vegetation 
of a district w^hich has little standing water, and but little soil 
by which absorbed ^ater may be retained, and w^hich therefore 
depends for its water-supply upon dew and rainfall ; and the 
latter, as we have already seen, is, during the dry season, 
comparatively small in amount; and what little there is, by 
reason of the undulation of the country and the hardness of the 
surface, tends to run off rather than be absorbed. Therefore 
the supply of water to the roots is small, aiid the neceasity for 
the reduction of transpiration imperative. 

Above 4500 feet the climatic conditions arc widely different, 
as has already been pointed out* The rainfall is large and 
almost evenly distributed over the year and is accompanied, 
especially at Ingher elevations, by dense fogs and heavy clouds 
which obscure the sun's rays usually for a considerable portion 
of each day*. The rate of evaporation from the surface and 
the periods of intense illumination must therefore be considerably 
less than on the Uva patanas ; and further, the soil always 
retains considerable quantities of water, Nevertheless, plants 
with marked scro])hytic characters predominate here as at 
lower elevations, a fact which is at first sight somewhat surprising. 


These humus-patanas at 5000 feet and upwards, existing under 
a warm temperate climate, may be compared with the moor- 
and marsh-formations w^hich are particularly characteristic of 

temperate climates. It is well known that the plants constituting 

such formations commonly present marked xerophytic characters, 

* See pp. 314 and G32. 

^ I 



\ • 





and to explain these several tlieorles liave been advanced (33). 
Of tlie factors which have been important in the selection of 
serophytes or in the adoption of xeropliytic characters on the 
humus-patanas, the followiug are probable : 

(1) The bad ventilation and comparative low temperaiure (36) 

of the soil, due to the presence of hydrostatic water, and 

the consequent lowering of the respiratory activity of the 

(2) The high power of capillary absorption possessed by a 
peaty soil (33), by reason of which the absorption of water 
by the roots is less than in any other soil containing an 
equal proportion of water, 

(3) The presence of the humus acids of the soil, which still 
further impair the activity of the roots (31). 

These three factors combine in lowering the functional 
activities of the roots ; and since the functions of the aerial parts 
must be in correspondence with those of the roots, the acquisition 
of xerophytic charactei's has been necessary. 

The flora of the dry patanas^ L e., speaking generally of the 
patanas below 4500 feet, compares in many respects with that 
of the Soutli American savannahs (37). 

There is, for example^ an absence of plants with bulbs or 
tubers, and in the following list of patana-plants true succulents 
are rare* This is probably due to the fact that the dry season, 
though long, is not excessively severe, and the wet season^ in 
which the TJva vegetation wakes up to rcLewed activity, is not 

extremely short ; and therefore such an efi'ectual protection 

agauKst evaporation and such a large storage of water as a bulb 
or tuber affords to enable the plant to endure excessive drought, 
and afterwards to 

reproductive periods during a very short wet season, 
unnecessary. Another point of correspondence between the 
savannalis and the patanas is seen in the large proportion of 
perennials as comi^ared with the annual species : this is true for 
the dry patanas, and equally so for those situated above 4500 f set. 
The perennials constitute 86 7^ of the flora above 4500 feet, 
and below 4500 feet 87-3 7^, In general, a dry climate is 
favourable to the development of annual species (38), since the 
seed or the fruit is obviously the best form in which a plant can 
tide over a dry season. On the patanas, however^ as on the 

pass rapidly through its vegetative and 


1 ^ 

■;> . 



savannalis, tlie periodic fires, which destroy the aerial parts of 
all the less-resistant species, are a controlling factor iu the 
selection of perennials possessing subterranean parts which 
resist the action of fire and from which the aerial parts are 
reijroduced in the following season. 

The "rootstock *' has various forms- — e,f/., a rhizome, which is 
frequently very deep iu the ground {Fteris); a small herbaceous 
structure {LafjenojyJiora^ etc) ; an erect and fleshybody {CurcuUgo^ 
in which it is sometimes as much as 12 inches long) ; a tuber 
{Drosera jyeltata) \ or a gnarled woody, more or less branched 
body {Knoxia^ and the majority of the shrubby species). The 
root-system is, as a rule, highly developed, i, <?., much branched 
and widely spreading. Tuberous fleshy roots are common 
{Curculiffo, Laf/enophora^ Heracleum^ etc.)* Six species of ground 
orchids, with root-tubers, are also present, and associated with 
tliem is a Mycorhiza, at least in some eases. The grasses are 
tufted in habit, except at high elevations, and low" in growth ; 
their leaves are narrow, rough, stiff, and usually erect. Lichens, 
mosaeSj and alga? are quite absent from the dry patanas, and 
rare even at higher elevations ; both Sphagnum and Folj/trichum 
are found in swampy places ; TJsnca grows luxuriantly upon the 
Ehododendrou above 6000 feet; and a CoUema is sometimes 
present on the damp surface of the ground among the grasses- 
"W^here the grasses grow in thick tufts with damp shady ground 
"between them, there flourishes a flora of low, delicate shade- 
plants ; these include species of Violas Fotenfilla^ Serpicula^ 
Ihjdrocoiyle^ etc. 

The evaporating and illuminating effects of the sun's rays 
are very eff'ective all over the patanas, particularly below 
4500 feet; over which, as we have seen, the sun is much less 
obscured by cloud than at higher elevations. In relation with 
this w^e find that characters which tend to effect the regulation 
of transpiration, and a lessening of the degree of illumination 
of the leaves and other easily injured parts, are commonly 
developed. Among the more obvious of these are : — 

The rolling of the leaf; which is, however, never 


pronounced, for, as on the savannahs, the *^ericoid" and ''pinoid" 
types of rolled leaves are entirely wanting (39). 

Plants with very small, usually linear leaves are common. 

Leaves are frequently numerous and crowded togetlier — a con- 
dition in which the majority are shaded at the expense of the rest. 

^.-■r .r-,T- 




T*-^ yyrTT-i-- 


r I- 

'F -I 


j^ r ^ 

■r ^r-^L-v T ^ 

I V 7 .f^ 

I . 




In maT]j species the leaves are mostly radical or rosulate: 
those on the upper and more exposed parts of the erect stem 
being few, small, and usually erect. 

A red or purple pigment is very commonly present in the 
leaves— particulai'ly the young leaves— and young shoots of 
])atana-p]ants. Diverse and conflicting views as to its functions 
have been advanced (41) ; here it is possibly important as a 
screen against too intense illumination (40), The pigment ig 
usually contained in the cells of the glabrous leaf; less commonly 
a more or less dense covering of yellow or brown hairs {Grota- 
laria sp.) provides a light-screen as well as a means of reducing 

All stages of hairiness are commonly found on the leaves of 
patana-plants — the most pronounced eases being the densely 
lanato or floccose leaves of species of Anaplialis ) in all these 
cases the hairs are more abundantly developed on the younger 
parts. In Knoxia platycarpa^ a small shrub w^hose adult leaves 
are erect or semi-erect and perfectly glabrous, the young 
leaves bear fugitive hairs. In many cases, particularly in those 
occurring below 4500 feet, the hairs doubtless function as a 
means of reducing transpiration; above 4500 feet, particularly 
at the higher elevations where the most pronounced hairiness 
occurs, its use to the plant must be rather as a protection 
against cold, and perhaps more especially 

preventing the 

as a means of 
wetting and consequent blocking of the 
stomata^a function w^hich must be of considerable import- 
ance in an atmosphere so constantly saturated as is that 
of the more elevated portions of the region with which we are 

A hanging position is so common as to be almost normal 
for the young leaves of shrubby species occurring on the lower 
patanas. The delicate tissues thus escape the injurious effects 
of directly incident illuminating and heating rays (42), 

The presence of an ethereal oil in the leaf is a common 
occurrence in the Labiatse of the patanas, and more particularly 
in the well-known *' Citronella " or " Mana" grass {Andropogon 
Nardm), This grass is found abundantly from 5000 feet down- 
wards, and frequcntl}^ forms a belt at the edge of the pataua 
parallel with the forest-boundary; it attains a height of five feet 
or more. In strong sunlight it emits a sickening and almost 

overpowTrIng odour of Citronella oil. The secretion of ethereal 

"--* 1--^ ^^^^ 



r *r^ 




■ ^ 

■- * ^ 



oils is a very common cliaractcr o£ dry-climate plants (43). 
The explanation usually given of the function of such an oil 
is founded upon Tjndall's observation that radiant heat is 
arrested by minute quantities of the vapour diffused throufrh 
tlic atmosphere, and is to the effect tliat the eyaporation of tlio 
oil by the heating effect of the sun's rays causes the air 
surrounding the leaf to be charged with vn])our, which acts as 
a screen protecting the leaf to some extent from radiaut heat 
from without (44). It has, however, been pointed out by 
Dixon (45) that such a screen absorbs those heat-rays which 
it does not transmit, and that its temperature is thereby raised 
and it thus encloses the leaf in a heated chamber; therefore 
the mere physical effect of an ethereal oil-vapour screen would 
be to raise, rather than lower, the temperature of the leaf. 
Dixon has further shown (45) I hat certain ethereal oil-vapours 
act biologically in decreasing the rate of transpiration when 
tliey are in contact with transpirijig leaves ; in the case of the 
essential oil of Artemisia Ahsinthium^ he found that the vapour 
reduced the rate of transpiration by 13 % in the leaves of 

Syringa vulgaris, and by 7 % i^^ tliose of Cj/tisus vulgaris. It 
may be that " Cltronella" oil-vapour has a stronger effect upon 
the rate of transpiration of tlie leaves of M^na grass than is 
represented by these figures ; otlierwise it is ditiicult to believe 
that so small a reduction effected by an agent which itself 
raises the temperature of the leaf, and therefore presumably 
its rate of transpiration, can be of much service to the plant 
as a means of regulating the rate of tran.-piration. Mana 
grass has a marked gregarious habit, generally covering wide 
patches of ground below 5000 feet, where the slope or other 
quality of the surface has allow^ed an uuusual accumulation 
of soih In the heat of the day the Citronella perfume can bo 
detected at some distance from its source, and it is conceivable 
that if it has an effect in reducing transpiration, of the nature 
indicated, the effect must be felt by the plants in the neif'hbour- 
hood, as well as by the Mana grass itself. 

A permanent erect profile position of the leaf is very common 
and this applies not only to many patana-plants, but is also 
characteristic of very many of the trees which compose tho 
montane forest above 5000 feet. In very many more cases 
however, the leaf makes a small angle (i. e. less tliau 45^) on ita 
upper side with the stem ; incident light strikes a leaf in this 






230sition at a hi^h angle, and therefore has a smaller illuminating 
and heating effect tlian on a horizoiital leaf of the same area, 
In the following descriptions this position is denominated '^ semi- 

Many leaves whose vernation is condnplicate never completely 
unfold, and the two halves remain more or less inclined to one 
another. Such a leaf receives the light- and heat-rays at a high 
angle, as in the case of the semi-erect leaf. 

In many cases the leaves or their parts move into a profile 
position and remain there while the snn is near the zenitlu 
This movement is a direct effect of illumination (46), and ia 
donbtless a means whereby the chloroj)hyll is protected from 
the effects of intense light (47), rather than a method of 
regulating transpiration, althongh the latter may be to some 
extent influenced. Usually, leaves which show sun-movements 
are also subject to sleep-movements, although in some cases one 
form of movement was observed and not the other, wliich, in 
some cases at least, was almost certainly due to lack of opportunity 
of observation. Movements were obiierved in species of the 
following Natural Orders : — Oxalidacea?, Legiiiuinosae, Euphor- 
biacea?, and Graminca?. For convenience of a brief description 
of the types of movement which were noted, the following four 
divisions will be u?ed: — 

(I) Leaves whose sleep-position is the same as the sun-poi<ition ; 
i. e.^ the position assumed during the hours of most intense 
sunlight. This class includes thrt^e species, viz. r — Oxalis corni- 
culala, Crofalaria rnhiginosa^ and JPhyUanthis simplex. In Oxalis 
cornicidata the sun- and sleep-position assumed by the leaflets 
is well known in the genus as a sleep-position (48). The mono- 
])hyllou8 leaves of Crotalaria mbiginosa rise up vertically until 
the ventral surface of the leaflet is in contact with the stem. 
This has been described by Thiselton-Dyer as a sleep-move- 
ment (49). In Fhijllantltus simplex the small, closely placed 
leaves move upwai-ds towards the stem and close tightly 
upon one another in an imbricate manner, at night and in 
bright sunlight, as has been described by Massart for P. ovali- 


(2) Leaves whose sleep-position differs from their 

Biophytum proliferum. — In the sleep-movement tlie rhnchis of 
the pinnate leaf sinks until it makes an ande of about 30° with 

I - 

'I ■" 

:~-i -rt 

::■ I 

^ . I 




the stem, on Its lower (dorsal) side. At the same time the 
leaflets fall independently, until they hang downwards In a 
vertical plane, the dorsal surfaces of oppo^sitc leaflets being in 
contact. In the sun-position, the leaflets are beat downwards 
as in sleep, but the rhachis, instead of sinking, rises until it 
occupies an approximately erect position (sec diagram). 




Biophytam proUferum, 

Smitlda blanda, — In moving into the sleep-position, the leaf 
^ upon its pulvinus and the leaflets move upwards and 

sinks * 

forwards until tlieir ventral surfaces are in contact with the 
rhachis or "with the dorsal surfaces of the more distal leaflets. 
In the sun-movement the leaf was not observed to fall, but the 
leaflets move into approximately the same position as they occupy 
in the sleep-2>ositionj though they arc not so tightly closed as in 
the latter case. 

Cassia Kleinii and 0, mimosoides, — The leaf-movements in 
these plants are the same as in Smithia hlanda^ except that in 
<7. Kleinii^ in the sleep-jiosition, the distal end of the rhachis is 
bent lower than the proximal end and the rhachis is bow-shaped, 
the concavity being on its dorsal side. These species form an 
exception to the rule in the genus, that the leaflets fall in attain- 
ing the sleep-position f. 

Phaseolus trinervius and Atylosia ritgosa, — The sleep-position 
of the leaflets of the trifoliate leaves of these plants is the same 
as that described by DarAvin for l^haseolus vulgaris (51). A 

* Cf. tlie movement in S. PJundli. Darwin, ' Jlovements of Plants/ p, 356. 
t The bleep-movements of C ??«ii^0502c^es are described bj Darwin, loc, cit, 

p. 372. 

l-hiT j^ 

- i ^J^r-» ^ T :T_ Ti" 


ME. n. n. w. PEAnsoN oy the 

movement of the petiole was not observed. In Aiytosia riifjo^a 
the younger leaves assume the sleep-position before the older ones. 
In the suu-positiou tlie leaflets stand erect upon the erect petiole, 
the ventral surfaces of the two lateral leaflets being in contact 
■with the ventral surface of the terminal leaflet (see diagram). 


yfjlosia rugosa. 

Diagram of a loaf in Lhe sun-position. £?— dorsal surface of leaflet ; 

If — ventral surface of leaflet. 

Thus, in passing from the sleep-position to the sun-position, 
each leaflet describes an angle of ISO"" upon its pulvinus. In 
Afylosici rvgosa the terminal leaflet, in moving into the sun- 
position, becomes erect before the lateral leaflets have become 

vertical, and often before tliey have left the horizontal position. 

(3) Leaves which move into a profile position during intense 
sunlight, but in which sleep-movements were not obecrved* 

^ilorenSy var, Wt 

■This plant has long 

horizontal prostrate branches ; the leaves are monophyllous and 
alternate. In strong sunlight the leaves rise up to an erect 
position and stand in two parallel plane?, the dorsal surfaces of 
the leaves of each row being directed outwards. 

Zornia dipltylla. — The leaf consists of two small ovate-lanceo- 
late leaflets and a moderately long petiole. In bright sunlight 
the leaflets move upwards and forwards until they are almost in 
tlic same straight line with the petiole, and include an angle of 
about 30° between their ventral surfaces. 


— The leaves are monophyllous and 

H L 


variable in size on tlie same plant, and on comparatively long 
petioles* In bright sunlight the leaflets move into a profile posi- 
tion, though the maancr of doing this is not the same in all the 
leaves belonging to the same plant. The petiole appears to rise in 
all cases: the leaflet in some cases merely twists on its pulvinulis, 
so as to present an edge to the sky ; in other cases the leaflet 
assumes a vertically hanging position; or, again, it may become 
erect on the top of the nearly erect petiole* 

Andropogon zeylanicus. — This grass is very plentiful on tlie 
patanas at about 5000 feet. In briglit sunlight the erect leaf 
closes on the midrib as a hinge, so that the ventral surfaces of 
the two halves come into contact, 

(1) Leaves which show sleep-movements, but were not 
observed to move into a sun-position. 

Pucnospora Jiedysaroidcs and Ati/losia Candollei show sleep- 
movements of the leaves, of the same nature as those so well 
known in Oralis Aeefosella^ etc. (52). 

A plant deserving special notice by reason of its remarkable 
habit is Sedyotis rerticlUaris (Rnhmcesi^)^ which occurs abundantly 
at 6000 feet and higher elevations. This species grows grega- 
riously, and covers wide patches in wet places on the patanas ; its 
aloe-like habit distinguishes it from all other members of its 
natural order. Its leaves are all radical and erect, or nearly so, 
forming a hollow rosette, in the concavity of which water to a 
considerable amount is retained by the close-fitting bases of the 
leaves. The stipules are lanceolate structures, from 1 to 2 inches 
in length, and bear numerous shortly-stalked glands on their 
margins ■ they are immersed in the water which the cup contains, 
a position which suggests that they may have an absorptive 
function. The fibrous remains of old leaves persist round the base 
of each plant and retain a considerable amount of water. A similar 
persistence of the remains of dead vegetative parts is found 
in several of the grasses — " Tunika-Graser^' (53) — Cyperacege, 

Eriocaulonacese, etc. 

Shrubby plants growing In certain sitnations on the patanas 
are considerably affected by the S.W. wind, which is often very 
strono*, and always more or less constant for six months in 
the year. This is particularly the case in the valley in which 
the Sita Eliya and Ilakgala patanas arc situated, which has 
an east and west trend, falling rapidly to the east. Here 
wo find a much greater development of foliage and flower-buds 



■'I 'm 

■k ^ 


Ml\. IT. n, "W. PRAKSOX ox THE 

cn tie cast than on tlie west side of tall planls. This is \crj 
marlved in the Uhododc^nclron, the fchruhs Hypericum mysorensey 
Aiylosia Candollei, etc., and the Jungle-trees. It is prohahly 
due hargely to the mechanical injuries inflicted hj the wind on 
the huds on the west pidc o£ the tree ; the chilling effect of 
the moisture-laden air also has a greater effect on the west than 
on the east side. The dwarfing effect of the wind id seen in a 
remarkable manner in ascending from the Ilakgala Botanic 
Gardens (5G00 ft-), to the top of the steep Hakgahi rock 
(7000 ft.) behind them- At 5600 feet the trees are 30 feet op 
more in height, but gradua]ly diminish in size as the higher and 
more exposed parts of the hill are reached ; at the summit, the 
arborescent vegetation is composed of knee-high, croohcd and 
gnarled specimens of species which attain the normal height a 
thousand feet lower down ; and in these the majority of Uie 
huds develop on the east side. The prevailing direction of tlie 
illumination is probably another factor in producing this eastward 
development of shrubs* and trees in the Ilakgala valley. During 
both monpoons it is a common experience, on the easlern slopes 
of the main ridge, that the mornings arc fine while the afternoons 
are cloudy or wet. This generalization is home out by the 
following figures, which give the mean proportion of clouded 
sky * at 9*30 a.m. and 3.30 p.m. respectively for each month 

L L4. ■ J. J ^ w -^ ^ 

V %i^ w *^ 

L V A ft L^ »- 1 

k J L XT 1 ^ 









7c J^''^^' 









9.30 A.M. 








3.30 p,M. 














It follows from these figures that a markedly larger propor- 
tion of direct sunlight falls on the Ilakgala and Sita Eliya patanas 
during the morning than in the afternoon, and therefore the 
eastern side of a tall phaut receives more direct illumination than 
the western. 

Zist of Plants, 

On pp. 334-362 is given a complete list of the plants collected 
on the patanas during the period indicated above. In a few cases 
a plant which was not collected is given as a patana-plalit" 
on the authority of Trimcn. 

* 10 denoting a sky entirely and continuously overcast, and zero a cloudless 

ftT -1 - ■ -i ■■ 1^ ^ 



'I r * 

The priucipal localitiea visited, from which plants incladed 
in this list \vere obtained, are the following: — Pedurutalagala 
(820G ft.) ; Xuwara Eliya (G200 ft.) ; SIta Eliya (5800 ft.) ; 
Hakgala (5G00 ft.) ; Horton Plains (7000 ft.) ; A\^ilsou 3 Bungalow 
(4000 ft.) ; Baudarawela (3S00 ft.) ; Ilaputale (4400 ft-) j BaduUa 
(2200 ft.) ; Passara (2500 ft.). 

No plants hitherto unrecorded for Ceylon have been found on 
the patanas. In several cases, however, species have been found 
at elevations above or below the respective limits recorded by 
Trimen in the' Handbook/ or by Hooker in the ' Flora of British 
India.' Of these the following are the most important: 

Folygala rosniannifoUa, ■■ 


found at 3800 ; jGOO ft, -TriuiCn : Up to 4000 ft 

P, telepltioides, Willd, 



Eurya acuminata^ DC. 
Triumfetta rhomboidca, Jacq. 

Croialaria nana^ Burm. f, 
C. verrucosa, Linn. 

Phascolus adenanfhits, Gr, Mey. 

P. trincrvias, Ileyne. 

P, calcaraim, Roxb. 

Cassia Kleinii, Wi^^lit & Aru. 

C, mimosoidcs, Linu. 

HhipsaUs Cassfjiha^ Gaertn. 
Vernonia Wigldiana^ Arn, 
Blumea Jlexuosa^ 0. B. Clarke. 
Aiiapka/is ohionga, DO. 
Jasminum angustifolium^ Valil. 
Evolvidus alsmoidesj Beiith. 
Striga euphrasioideSj Eenth. 

Utr'tcularia bifida, Linn. 
Didymocarpus Himiholdtiana ^ 








3 J 











3500 ; 3800 ft. 
4400 ft. 
3800 ft. 
3800 ft. 

5800 ft. 
5000 ft. 
5800 ft.. 
5G00 ft. 
5G00 ft. 
3800 ft. 

5800 ft. 
6600 ft. 

2500 ; 3300 ft. 
2500 ; 3800 ft . 
2500 ft. 
4000 ft. 

3800 ; 4000 ft. 
3800 ft. 


3000 ft. 
5G00 ft. 




















Law country only. 




Low country to 20O0 ft 

Waste ground, low 

Low country, rare. 
Lovvcountry fco2000ft. 

Up to 4030 ft. ■ 
10^0-4000 ft. 


Low country, moist and 

To 4000 ft. 
Up to 4000 ft. 
Above 4000 ft. 


ibove 5000 ft. 

4000 ft. and above 
Up to 2000 ft. 



Damp sandy soil in tlio 

dry region. 
Low country. 

Up to 5000 ft, ■ 

Togostemon rf/7(?av/5, Bentb. 
Leacas viarrubioides, Desf. 
Glochldion zeylanicum^ A. Juss. 
Breynia patenSy Benth. 
Burmannia dlsticha, Linn. 
Commelina nudifiora, Linn. 

Fimhrlslylis jpentaptera^ Kuutli* 








7000 ft. 
5600 ft. 
4000 ft. 
4000 ft. 
5800 ft. 
5800 ft. 

-^. ^ \ Hoiton PLuns. 

var. minor. J 







Up to 6000 ft. 
Up to 5000 ft. 

Up to 2000 ft. 
Up to 3000 ft. 
Up to 2000 ft. 

Low country. 

7200 ft. — (Fl. B. Iiul.) Up to 6000 ft. 



) Pedurutalagala 

2 a2 



r-ir '^^ 



Pedicuhris zeylanica^ Bentb., ^xacum WalJceri^ Am., and 
^. zeylanicum^ Eoxb., are stated by Trimen to be annufils. The 
first of these is a marked perennial, with a large persistent woody 
rootstock ; both species of Exacum are certainly biennial, if not 

In the following list the names of endemic species are printed 
in italics. A short description of the more apj>arent features of 
biological interest is appended to each species ; a full systematic 
description will be found in the ' Plora of British India/ or in 
Trimcn's ' Handbook to the Elora of Ceylon/ or, in the case of the 
vascular Cryptogams, in Baker's ' Synopsis Tilicum ' (1883), or 
* Eern-Allics ' (1887), to which references are given. The collec- 
tion numberSj with the elevation from which each specimen 
was obtained, are given at the end of each description. The 
collection is incorporated in the Herbarium of the University 
of Cambridge* 

Anemone eivtjlaeis, Ham. Hooker, i. 9. Trimen, i. 3. 

Perennial herb. Hootstock stout and woody; leaves 
thick, silky-pubescent. Near streams above 6000 ft. (GOG, 
Thalicteum jayanicum, Blume. Hooker, i* 13. Trimen, i. 3* 

A tall, glabrous, perennial herb. Near streams, above 
6000 ft, (193, 7000 ft.) 
Mamincidus sa(jitt(efolnts^ Hook. Hooker, i. 17. Trimen, i. 4. 

Perennial herb, iihizome ascending ; leaves glabrous 
above, hairy on the veins beneath. In wet j^laccs above 

6000 ft. (572, 6800 ft. ; 571, 7200 ft.) 
B. IVALLicniANUS, Wight & Am. Hooker, i, 20. Trimen, i. 4. 

Perennial stoloniferons herb. Leavesi hirsute on both 
surfaces (569, densely hir&ute). In wet places above 6000 ft. 
(570, 6500 ft. ; 569, 7000 ft.) 
Behberis aristata, DC. Hooker, i. 110, Trimen, i. 48. 

An erect shrub. Young leaves red ; old leaves small 
and coriaceous. Above 5000 ft. (097, 6000 ft. = C, P. 
YiOLA Patrinii, DC. Hooker, i. 183. Trimen, i. QQ. 

Perennial herb. E-ootstock woody ; leaves radical, thin 

and glabrous. 
(760, 5800 ft.; 


1 1 





thickened and recurved margina ; 


FLACOUBTiARAivfONTCHi/L'Herit. Hooker, i. 193- Trimen,i\73. 

A tall skrub. Leaves glabrous, semicomceou^. Locally^ 
at about 4000 ffc, (801, 4000 ft. = C,P. 2583.) 
Tolygala glaucoides^ Lina., var. hirsutida. Hooker, i, 203, 

Trimen, i, 80, 

A small perennial. Taproot stout, fibrous, and very long ; 
rootstock woody ; stems decumbent, numerous and wiry ; 
young parts pubescent ; leaves small, erect, glabrous and 
coriaceous. Common above 4000 ft. (843, 5600 ft. ; 371, 
5800 ft. ; 709, 6200 ft.) 
P. nosMARiNiFOLiA, Wight & Am, Hookcr, i. 204. Trimen, i. 82. 

AnnuaL Leaves erect, conduplicate, thick, glabrous, with 

young leaves densely 
pubescent. Abundant at about 4000 ft. Also in the dry 
low country. (769, 3800 ft. ; 750, 5600 ft.) 
P. TELEPnioiDES, Willd. Hooker, i. 205. Trimen, i. 82. 

A small perennial. Leaves numerous, crowded, erect, 
thick and glabrous. On the Uva patanas. (428, 3500 ft. ; 
738,3800 ft.; 761,4400 ft.) 

Cerastium vulgatum, Linn., var. OLOiiERAXA, Hooker, i. 228. 

Trimen, i, 85. 

Perennial (?) with a csespitose habit; all the aerial parts 
strongly pilose. Common at 6000 ft. in the neighbourhood 
of Nuwara Eliya. Probably introduced, (383, 5800 ft. ; 
831, 6200 ft.) 

Hypericum mtsobe:n-se, Heyne, Hooker, i. 253, Trimen, i. 93. 

A handsome glabrous shrub, attainhig 8 ft. Leaves crowded, 
decussate, semi-erect, glabrous and glazed. Common above 
5000 ft. (349, 5800 ft. ; 573, 6500 ft.) 
H. JAPONICUM, Thunb. Hooker, i. 256. Trimen, i. 93. 

AnnuaL Stems 1 ft., erect or procumbent ; leaves few, 

small, erect or nearly so, glabrous, glandular, rugose, and 

with recurved margins. In wet places above 5000 ft* (846, 

5600 ft. ; 348, 5800 ft.) 

EuETA JAPONicA, Thunb*, var. Tuuj^BEEaii* Hooker, i. 284. 

Trimen, L 109. 
A low gregarious shrub. Leaves semi-erect, conduplicate, 
glabrous, with red, slightly recurved margins. (728, 5600 fc. 
C. P, 787.) 

E. CHINENSI3, E. Br. Hooker, i. 285. Trimen, i. 110. 

Leaves smaller than in the preceding species. 
6200 ft.) 


-l-T- c 

f JT 



EuRTA AcrMiNATA, DC, var, "WALLiciirAKA. Hooker, L 285. 

Trimen, i. 110- 
Simllar in Labit to tlie preceding species* (328, 3800 ft.) 
SiDA nnoMBTroLiA, Linn., var. eetusa. Hooker, i. 323. Trimen, 

i. 143. 
A low coarse slirub, with few, thin, wrinkled leaves. A 
common weed. (802, 4000 ft. ; 649, 5GO0 ft.) 
TRTUMrETTA BHOMT^oiDEA, Jacq. Hooker, i, 395, Tritucn, i. 179. 

rcrcnnial (?). Leaves thick, pilose below, Eare. (432, 

3800 ft.) 
OxALis CORNICULATA, Linn, Hooker, i. 43G. Trimen, i. 196. 

A stolonifcrous pcrenuial. Koots often tuberons ; leaf- 
lets thin, deeply red-coloured in exposed situalions, moving 
to a profile position in strong sunlight and at night. Com- 
mon at all elevations. (421, 3S00 ft. ; 754, G200 ft,) 


Hooker, i. 438. Trimen, i. 199. 

Perennial. Stems wiry, and excessively branched ; leaves 
pinnate, deeply red-coloured in exposed situations ; the 
leaflets move to a profile position in strong sunlight and at 
Bight, they are also slightly sensitive to contact. Common 
above 4000 ft. ; often forming extensive mats. (694, 
5600 ft.; 234, 5800 ft.) 
ToBDALTA ACiJLEATA, Pers. Hookcr, i< 497, Trimen, i. 215. 

A small erect or climbing shrub. Below 5000 ft. (Trimen). 
? CiPADESSA FKUTicosA, BlumG. Hooker, i, 545. Trimen, i. 

245. (848, 4000 ft.) 
? Salacia kettculata, AVight. Hooker, i, G27. Trimen, i. 277. 

A small tree. Leaves small, semi-erect, coriaceous 
and glabrous. Only in one locality on the patanas. (811, 

4000 i't.) 
Ehamnus Arnoitiamts, Gardn. Hooker, i. G38. Trimen, i. 283, 

A small tree. Leaves glabrous and coriaceous. Horton 

Plains, etc., rare {Trimen), 
E, "WiGUTil, Wight & Arm Hooker, i. G39. Trimen, i. 283. 

A shrub. Leaves glabrous and coriaceous. Above 5C0O 

ft. (293, 5800 ft.) 
DonoK^A viscosA, Linn, Hooker, i. G97. Trimen, i. 312. 

A shrub. Leaves erect, linear-lanceolate^ glabrous and 



Abundant in a few localities at 4000 ft. 


4000 ft.) 





Ulex europ-EUs, Linn. Triracn, ii. 7. 

An introduction. Abundant at GOOO ft., in the neigh- 
bourhood of Xun-ara Elip. (334, G200 ft.) 
Crotalauia prostrata, Eoxb- Hooker, ii. G7. Trimen, ii, 9. 

Annual. Branches densely fulvoua-hairy in tlie young 
parts ; leaves erect, rather tliick, hairy on both surface;?, 
especially beneath. (217, 3800 ft. ; 214, 5600 ft.) 
C. FERRUGiNEA, E. Grail. Hooker, ii, GS. Trimen, ii. 10. 

Perennial (?), Leaves rather thick, pubescent; young 
leavca and shoots densely villous with yellow hair. Below 
4000 ft. ; rare. (415, 2200 ft,) 
0. muUiflora^ Benth. Hooker, ii. GO, Trinien, ii. IL 

A low perennial, liootstock woody ; stems decumbent, 
younger parts clothed with dense soft fulvous hair ; leaves 
crowded, erect, subcoriaccous, pubescent on both surfaces. 
Leaf-movements (?). (417, 2200 ft. ; 394, 4000 ft.) 
C, EUBiQiNOSA, Willd. Hooker, ii. GO. Trimen, ii. 11. 

A tall semi-shrubby annual (?), Young parts of the stem 
densely villous j leaves coriaceous, densely villous on both 
surfaces, moving to a profile position in bright sunlight and 

at night. Very common above 4000 fi. (72G, 5600 f t. ; 
242, 5800 ft.) 
C. ALBioA^ Ilcync. Hooker, ii, 71. Trimen, ih 12* 

A small bush, 1 to 2 ft. Eootstock stout, woody and 
branched. Leaves semi-erect, linear-spathulate, condujilicate 
Leaf-movements (?)♦ Very common below GOOO ft. (413, 
3000 ft. ; 752, 3800 ft. ; 8L3, 4000 ft, ; 703, 5G00 ft.) 
C. NAXA, Burm. f. Hooker, ii. 7L Trimen, ii. 13. 

A small annual. Branches clothed with dense fulvous 

silky hair ; leaves small, erect, crowded, finely silky on both 

surfaces. Kare. (3139, 5b00 ft.) 
C* CALYCiNA, Schrank. Hooker, ii. 72, Trimen, ii. 14. 

An erect herb. Roots very deep ; all the aerial parts, 

except the upper surfaces of the leaves, densely silky with 

fulvous hair. Very abundant, (416, 2200 ft. ; 79G, 4000 

ft. J G92, 6600 ft, ; 274, 5800 ft.) 
C- EETUSA, Linn. ? Hooker, ii. 75. Trimen, ii. 15. 

A small perenuiah Eootstock woody; leaves small, 

crowded, wrinkled, rolled, and densely pubescent below, 

(419, 2000 it.) 

, '*t 

- ] -f 

338 iJR'. n* H. w. pea:rsok on tee 

Ceotalauta yeerucosa, Linn. Hooker, ii. 77. Trimen, ii\ 15. 

The only specimen found on tliepatanas. A large much- 
LraiicTied annual, probably introduced from the low country. 

(611, 5G00 ft.) 

C. semj^erflorens, Yeiit, var. Walheru Hool<er,ii. 78, Trmien, 

ii. IG. 

A small shrubby perennial. Eootstock stout, woody and 

branched ; branches long and scandent ; leaves glabrous, 

moving into a profile position in bright sunlight. Common 

at about GOOO ft. (642, 5G00 ft. ; 278, 5800 ft.) 

pAKOcnETUS COMMUNTS, Ham. Hooker, ii. 86. Trimen, ii. 20. 

A small creeping herb, with trifoliate leaves. Leaf- 
movements (?). (401, 7000 ft.) 
Tephrosta TiNCTQ-RTA, Pers. Hooker, ii. IIL Trimen, ii. 31. 

A semi-shrubby perennial. Young shoots densely clothed 
with a brown velvety pubescence. Leaflets semi-erect, cori- 
aceous, glabrous above, densely silky beneath. Abundant at 
4000 ft. (324, 3800 ft.) 
ZoRNTA DippTLLA, Pers., var. Walkehi. Hooker, ii. 147. 

Trimen, ii. 35. 
A prostrate perennial. Taproot deep ; rootstock woody, 
stems numerou?!, wiry ; leaves petiolate bifoliate ; leaflets 
small, moving into a profile position in bright Hunlight, 

Very abundant at about 4000 ft, (751, 775, 3800 ft.) 
SiiTTniA bla:nda, AYall. Hooker, ii. 151. Trimen, ii, 37. 

A prostrate perennial- Eootstock stout, w^oody, and 

branched ; leaflets sensitive to contact, and moving into a 
profile position in bright sunlight and in darkness. Common 
above 5000 feet. (237, 338, 5800 ft. ; 819, 6200 ft.) 
PYCXOSPOR\nEDTSATiOTDES,E.Br. Hooker, ii. 153. Trimen, ii. 41. 

Perennial. Stems slender, densely ca^spitose, trailing. 
Leaves pinnately trifoliate. At 3800 ft. 
Desmodium POLTCAitPUM, BC. Hooker, ii. 171. Trimen, ii. 53. 

A sub-erect perennial. Eootstock woody ; leaves few, 
trifoliate. (715, 4000 ft.) 
1). TRTFLOEUM, DC. Hooker, ii. 173. Trimen, ii. 54. 

A small perenniaL Taproot long and stout; rootstock 
w^oody ; stems csespifcose, short, and wiry; leaves few and 
small Common below 4000 ft. (743, 3S00 ft.) 

D. rAT?VTPOLiUM, DC, Hooker, ii. 174. Trimenj ii. 55. 

A prostrate perennial. Eootstock woody ; stems wiry 

1 ^ 

bota:st of the ceylon pata^as. 339 


densely csespitose, trailing widely. Leaves crowded ; leafletg 
small, moving into a profile position in bright sunlight. 

(647, 5600 ft. ; 345, 5800 ft.) . 
PnASEOLrsADEis'AiiTHTJS, G.Mey. Hooker, ii. 200, Trimen, ii. 70. 

A perennial twiner. (730, 5800 ft.) 
P. TKiNERYius, Hcyne. Hooker, ii. 203. Trimen, ii. 72. 

A perennial twiner. Rootatock woody ; stems with long 
internodes, villous with brown defiexed hair. Leaflets con- 
duplicate, moving into profile positions in bright snnliglit 
and at night. Common above 5000 ft. (729, 5600 ft.) 
P. CALCAEATus, Eozb. (? sp.). Hookcr, ii. 203. Trimen, ii. 73. 

A small perennial. Stems prostrate. (765, 5G00 ft.) 
Attlosia Ca^dgllei, AVight & Arn. Hooker, ii. 212. Trimen, 

ii. 78. 

An erect shrub (3-6 ft.). Young branches densely 
pnbescent with yellow hair* Leaves trifoliate ; leaflets 
conduplicate, thick, especially at the margins, densely white 
tomentose beneath, falling into a profile position in darkness. 
On emerging from the bud the young leaf is erect, the 
leaflets being densely clothed with brown silky hair ; later, 
for two or three days, the leaflets hang vertically downwards 
from the petiole, which remains erect ; then the leaflets 
unfold, and the leaf attains its adult form. Yery common 
between 4000 and 6000 ft. (644, 5600 ft.) 

A. eugosa, Wight & Arn. Hooker, ii. 215. Trimen, ii. 79. 

A straggling perennial. Stems pubescent with yellow 
hair ; leaves trifoliate j leaflets rather thick, softly velvety 
above, densely so beneath, moving into a profile position 
in bright sunlight and at night. Common between 3000 
and 6000 ft. (645, 5600 ft. ; 362, 5800 ft.) 

Cassia Eletnti, Wight & Arn. Hooker, ii. 266. Trimen, ii, 110. 

A small, robust, deep-rooted perennial. Hhizome stout ; 
stems numerous and wiry; the leaflets move into a profile 
position in bright sunlight and at night. Yery common in 
hot stony places below 4000 ft. (424, 2000 ft. ; 425, 748, 

3800 ft.) 
C. MTMOsoiDES, Liuu. Hookcr, ii. 268. Trimen, ii, 110. 

Annual. Stems usually erect. Leaves few ; the leaflets 
move into a profile pot^ition iu sunlight and at night, 
Yery common at 4000 ft. (773, 3800 ft.; 716,4000ft.; 
385, 5000 ft. ; 714, 5800 ft.) 

■' .f ■ 


-, V ^ ^t ^T 

:nT™r^ "b"b^ ' 

^" --rvr 

L p 


AIR. n. ir. \V, PEATtSON ON THE 

Cassia mtmosoideSj Linn,, vai\ atkicoma. 

Branches densely clothed with fulvous liair, (877, 4000 ft.) 
EuBus :molucca]S"uSj Linn. Hooker, ii. 330, Trlmen, ii. 136. 

A scrambling shrub. Leaves simple^ tliick, subgLibrou?, 
tubereulate above, densely ochreous-pubcscent beneath ; 

veins deeplj^ sunken on the upper surface, very prominent 
beneath. Very abundant above 5000 ft. (354, 5S00 ft. ; 
490, 7000 £t) " 

E. ELLiPTicus, Sm, Hooker, ii, 330. Trimen, ii. 137- 

A ecrambling shrub. Youug parts of the stem densely 
liispid J leaflets semi-erect, conduplicate, glabrous above, with 
deeply depressed veins, densely grey-pubescent beneath 
with prominent veins. (395, 4000 ft. ; 690, 5600 ft) 

E, LASiocAiiPUs, Sm. Hooker, ii. 339. Trimen, ii* 138. 

A scrambling shrub. 

Leaflets glabrous above with de- 

pres?ed veins, grey-pubescent beneath with prominent veius. 
(240, 5800 ft.) 
E. LAsrocAurus, Sm., var. suuoLAiiEU, Thw. 

Leaflets almost glabrous, (747, 3800 ft.; GS9, 5(300 ft.) 
Pote:ntilla Mogjn^iaka, AVight. Hooker, ii. 349. Trimen, ii. 139. 

A small prostrate pcrenniah Eootstock woody ; stems 

prostrate, densely tomentose; leaves chiefly radical, a few 

distant on the stem, slightly hairy. Above COOO ft.; rare. 

(567, 7200 ft.) 

P. KLET^^IANA, AVigbt & Arn. Hooker, ii. 359. Trimen, ii, 139. 

A small prostrate annual. Stems tomentose, especially in 
the young parls ; leaves sparsely silky-hairy. Above 
GOOO ft. (5G6, 7200 ft.) 

Alchemilla iNnicA, Gardn. Hooker, ii. 361, Trimen, ii, 140. 

Perennial. Stems long, prostrate, villous j leaves sparsely 
pilose above, densely so beneath. Common above 6000 ft. 
(565, 7200 ft.) 

Ayrimonia zcylanica^ Moon. Hooker, ii. 362. Trimen, ii. 141. 

A tall perennial. Eootstock woody; stems and leaves 
villous-liairy ; leaflets conduplicate, margins red-coloured. 
Above 4000 ft. ; common. (691, 5600 ft. ; 246, 5800 ft.) 
EitTOPiiVLLiTM CALYCINUM, Salisb, Hooker, ii, 413. Trimen, 

ii. 145. 
Common at Wilson's Eungalovv (4000 ft.). '^ A commoii 
plant on bare rocky places tliroughout tlie low and lower 
nionttme country, and has all the look of a native'^ {Trimen). 

■T T 

i. J 

n 1 

h I 

^ : 

•a -w 

■ ■ ^ . I 



Kalanchoe rLOuiBUNJ)A,AViglit & Am. Hooker, ii. 414. Trimen, 

ii. 144. 
Perennial Leaves glabrous and succulent. At 4000 ft. 

and 5600 ft. {NocJc). 
DuosEKA BuEMANNi, YaH. Hooker, il. 424. Trimen, ii. 14o. 

Leaves rosulate, the living ones resting on a mat formed 
of old loaf-remains. In wet places at all elevations. (414, 
3800 ft. ; 283, 5800 ft. ; 850, G200 ft.) 
D. PELTATA, Sra. Hooker, ii. 424. Tntnen, ii. 14G. 

The stem (fi to 10 iuclics) arises from a deeply-situated, 
smooth, red tuber ; the lamina of the peltate leaf is fixed in 
a vertical plane on the liorizcutal petiole. Very common 
above 5000 ft. (829, 5G00 ft. ; GGl, GOOO ft.) 
Serpicula I5DICA, Thw, Hooker, ii. 431. Trimen, ii. 148. 

A prostrate herb, often forming dense mats in wet places. 
Very common above 5000 it. (3/9, 5800 ft. ; 872, C200 ft. ', 

489, 7200 ft. ; 35G, 8000 ft.) 
Cahallia inteoeuuima, DC. Hooker, ii. 439. Trimen, ii. 

A tree. Young leaves red-coloured ; 

old leaves semi- 
erect and serai-coriaceous. The only specimen seen on the 

])atanas. At 4000 ft. 
rsiDitJU GuYATA, Linn. Hooker, ii. 468. Trimen, ii. 167. 

A small tree. Y^oui^g leaves erect, densely pubescent, 
conduplicate. Naturalized ; rare on the patanas. (800, 

4000 ft.) 
EiiODOMTRTUS TOMENTOSA, AVight. Hooker, ii. 469. Trimen, 

ii. 166. 
A shrub. Young shoots and leaves deosely pubescent ; 
leaves erect, rigidly coriaceous, glabrous above, finely pubes- 
cent beneath, with recurved margins. Aromatic.' Above 
5000 ft. "At Malacca I found this abundantly on the 
sandy seashore, but in Ceylon it is entirely a montane 
plant " {Trimen'). (239, 5800 ft.) 


Hooker, ii. 495. Trimeu, ii. 178. 

A email, much-branched tree. 

Toimg leaves red; old 

leaves erect, gLiLrou?, coriaceous. Eare oa the patanas. 

(S05, 4000 ft,) 
K Jambolana, Lam. (Psp.). Hooker, ii. 499. Trimen, ii. 179. 

(879, 3S00 ft) 
E.(?sp.).—(48S, 2200 ft.) 



Careya akborea, Eoxb. Hooker, ii, 511. Trimen, ii. 191. 

Tbe " Patana Oak " : a small tree, with glabrous coriaceous 
leaves, "The heart-wood ia dark reddish-brown, heavy, 
moderately hard, even-grained, very durable. The bark k 
rery astringent. The inner bark gives a strong fibre" 
{Trimen). Yery abundant below 4500 ffc. *' Also rarely in 
the dry region" {Trimen). (771, 3800 ft ; 789, 4000 ft.) 
OsBECKiA cupuLAKTS, D. Don, var. eettheocephala. Hooker, 

ii. 514. Trimen, ii, 194. 

A low shrub, often growing gregariously. Kootstock 
woody; stems prostrate or decumbent, young parts densely 
fulvous-hairy ; leaves semi-erect, conduplicate, often red, 
densely hairy. Very abundant above 5000 ft. (711, 
5G00 ft. ; 235, 5800 ft. ; 841, 6200 ft. ; 5G8, 7200 ft.) 
O.ASPERA,Blume,var.KLEiNii. Hooker, ii. 519. Trimen, ii. 195. 

A low shrub. Eootstock stout and woody; young shoots 
hispid and purple-coloured, semi-succulent ; leaves con- 
duplicate, pilose on both surfaces. (433, 2200 ft.) 
0. riihicunda, Arn. Hooker, ii. 520. Trimen, ii. 197. 

A low shrub. Eootstock stout and woody ; leaves hispid 
on both surfaces. Abundant above 4000 ft. (883, 4000 ft. ; 
651, 887, 5600 ft.) 
0. OCTAXDBA, DC. Hooker, ii. 521. Trimen, ii. 198. 

A small erect shrub. Young shoots hispid ; leaves 
coriaceous, glabrous or slightly hairy. Abundant below 
5000 ft. (435, 2200 ft. ; 484, 3800 ft. ; 710, 5600 ft.) 

WooDFoiinrA EiiORiEUNDA, Salisb. Hooker, ii. 572. Trimen, 

ii. 226. 

A straggling shrub. Leaves finely pubescent above, 
densely so and glandular beneath, with recurved margins. 
Locally abundant at 4000 ft. ; otherwise rare. (806, 
4000 ft.) 

MiTKiA SCABEELLA, Am. Hookor, ii. 623. Trimen, ii, 254, 

A perennial herbaceous climber. Leaves rough scabrid 
above, roughly hispid beneath. (777, 3800 ft.) 
Ehtpsalts Cassttha, Gaertn. Hooker, ii. 658. Trimen, ii, 266, 

Perennial. Stetn siicculcnt; leaves reduced to scales. 
On rocks above 5000 ft. ; rare. (396, 5600 ft.) 
HxnROCOTYLE AsiATicA, Liuu. Ilooker, ii, 669. Trimen, ii. 276. 

A prostrate perennial. Kootstock erect ; stems long and 
trailing, with long iuternodes. Very abundant above 5000 ft. 
(393, 5800 ft.) 



Hooker, ii. 07(5. Trimca, ii\ 277. 
Perennial. Stem erect ; leaves semi-erect, linear, with 
red-coloured margins, Yery abundant above 5000 ft. (830, 
5G00 ft. ; 653, 6000 ft, ; 564, 7000 ft.) 
PiMPiNELLA Leschenaultii, DC Hooker, ii\ G87. Trimen, 

ii. 279. 

Perennial. Eootstock branclied ; leaves coriaceous, 
chiefly radical, finely pubescent beneath. On the patanas 
at 7000 ft— the only locality in Ceylon. (609, 7000 ft.) 
Seracleum ceylanicum, Gardn. Hooker, ii. 716. Trimen, ii. 2S0, 

Perennial. Kootatock ascending, stout and woody; roots 

thick and tiiberous ; leaves pubescent on both surfaces. 

Common above 5000 ft, (827, 5600 ft. ; 213, 5800 ft. ; 

361, 7000 ft.) 

Heptapleuru^i stellatum^ Gaertn. Hooker, ii, 730. Trimen, 

ii. 283. 
A scandent shrub. Young leaflets red and banging ver- 
tically ; old leaves coriaceous and glabrous. In sheltered 
localities below 4000 ft. (871, 3800 ft.) 
Wendlandia NoTo:MANA,AYall. Hookcr,iii. 40. Trimen, ii. 297. 

A tall shrub. Old leaves coriaceous and glabrous; youno* 
leaves erect, red, and hairy. Below 4000 ft. (448, 750, 
3800 ft.) 
AUceojpJiania decipiens^ Th^v. Hooker, iii. 48. Trimen, ii, 301. 

A small coarse shrub. Leaves roughly hairy above, silky 
pubescent on the prominent veins beneath, especially when 

young. (873, 5800 ft.) 
Hedtotis yerticillaris, AYight & Arn. Hooker, iii. 56. 

Trimen, ii. 311. 

A large perennial herb, with gregarious aloe-like habit* 
Eootstock stout ; roots very long, superficial and w^oody ; 
stem very short; leaves radical, the younger ones erect 
and forming a cup in which water collects, the lower ones 
roaulate ; stipules erect, lanceolate, bearing numerous 
marginal glands. The old leaf-remains form a rottino- mass 
around the bases of the younger leaves. Yery abundant in 
wet places above 6000 ft. (245, 6200 ft.) 
H. LaicsonicB, Wight & Arn. Hooker, iii. 56. Trimen, ii. 310. 

A small shrub, often grooving gregariously; leaves erect 
glabrousj glazed, coriaceous, with recurved margins. Abun- 
dant above 5000 ft.j often forming the principal constituent 

' rf * 

JTT. -.■ "t/^T-^ 


-\ *, 

■■ I , 



of the vegetation on tlic boundary between the patana and 
the forest. (G98, G200 ft.) 
Oldenlandi.v Hetxet, E. Br. Hooker, iii. 65. Trimen, ii- 315. 

A small mueli-brancbed annual, with a stout taproot. 
Stems glabrous and wiry, with long internodes; leaves small, 
linear, glabrous, and usually rolled. Yery abundant at 
4000 ft, and below, (451, 2000 ft, ; 449, 3S00 ft. ; 808, 717, 

4000 ft.) 

Anotis nummidaria, Arn, Hooker, iii. 75. Trimen, ii. 31S, 

A small prostrate perennial; stem hairy, rooting at the 
nodes ; leaves erect, thick, bairy on both surfaces. Common 
in wet places above 5000 ft. (365, 5S00 ft.) 

Mls9,t:xda riu)x\j)OSA, Linn., var, zexlaxica. Hooker, iii. 80. 

Trimen, ii. 323, 
A small shrub. Young branches and the leaves softly 

velvety, especially beneatb ; young leaves densely pilose, 
liare on the patanas. (793, 4000 ft.) 
Knoxfa coiUMEOSA, A\' illd. Hooker, iii. 128. Trimen, ii, 340. 

An erect annual. Stem tomentose, densely so in the 
young parts, iuternodes long ; leaves pubescent, especially 
on tbe lower surface. Bare on tlio patanas. (505, 2500 ft.) 
Iv. jiOLLis, Wight & Arn. Hooker, iii. 129. Trimen, ii. 340. 

Kare, (G58, 

A small shrubby annual, almost glabrous. 

5G00 ft.) 


Hooker, iii. 131. Trimen, ii. 341. 


A small bush, 1 to 3 feet high. Eootstock horizontal, 
woody and branched ; young stems and petioles purple- 
coloured ; leaves erect or semi-erect, coriaceou?, glabrous or 
nearly so, often rugose, with recurred margins ; young leaves 
erect and hairy. Yery abundant, particularly above 5000 ft., 
where it often forms an important constituent of the border- 
yegetatiou between patana and forest. One of the first 
plants to reappear after a patana-fire. (153, 2200 It.; 455, 
3000 ft. ; 391, 4000 ft. ; 659, 5600 ft.) 

^latycarpa^ Arn., var, hirsnta. 

The whole plant more or less hairy. In No. 481 the 

bairiness extends to tbe 


Trimen), Abundaut on the patanas, particularly at 4O0O ft., 
wliere it is more common than the type. (778, 3S00 ft.; 
609, 5G00 ft. ; 313, CSOO ft. ; 481, 7000 ft.) 


(313, 5800 ft.) 

r i^ 


1' ■ J 

> . ' 



CAXTiriuii Rheedi, DC*, var, mi:n'us, Tiny. Hooker, ill. 134. 

Trimen, ii. 3-ii. ( = C. P. 3i200 
(212, 3800 ft.) 
C. PARYiFLOKUM. Lam. Hooker, iii. 13G. Triinen, ii- 34G, 

A slirub. " Wood very hard and closc-graiiie J '* {Trimen), 
Leaves glabrous and semi-coriaceous. EulowSOOO ft.; rare. 
(803, 4000 ft,) 
? Moui^DA TixcTORiA, Roxb. Hooker, iii. 15G. Trimen, ii. 354. 

(447, 2200 ft.) 
EuBTA COKBIFOLIA, Liuii. Ilooker, iii. 202, Trimen, ii. 372- 

A long scaudent perennial. " lioots very long, with a 
thick red cortex " (Triinen), Leaver rugose, semi-coriaceous. 
(G83, 5600 ft.) 
GALiTJir MoLLTJGo, Linu. Hooker, iii. 207. Trinion, ii, 373. 

Very abundant among tlic grasses of the patauas above 
5000 ft. (682, 5G00 ft. ; 376, 5S00 ft. i 4S5, 7000 ft.) 
Valeriana Moonii^ Am. Hooker, iii. 213. Triiuen, iii. 1. 

A tall perenuiah llootstock horizontal ; roots numerous 
and long- In wet places at high elt^vatlons. (483, 
7000 ft.) 
Dipsacus JVaUi'eri^ Arn. Hooker, iii. 218. Trimen, iii. 2. 

A tall poroiinial. Hootstock stout aiid woody ; leaves 
mostly radical. In wet places at high elevations. Eather 
rare. (5G2, 7000 ft.) 
Vernonia Thwaitesii^ C. 13. Clarke. Hooker, iii. 231. Trimen, i!i. G. 

Perennial. Eootstock woody; roots numerous, stout, 
and fibrous; leaves erect, sub-glabrous, semi-coriaceous. 
On the wet patanas. Very rare, (393, 4100 ft.) 
V. ciNEREA, Less. Hooker, iii. 133. Trimen^ iii. 7. 

A small annual. (170, 3800 R.) 
T\ setigera^ Arn. (sp. ?). Hooker, iii. 235. Trimen, iii, 7. 

A small undorshrub. (634, 5600 ft.) 
V. Wighdana^ Arn. Hooker, iii. 238. Trimen^ iii. 9. 

A low undcrshrub, usually 2 to 3 feet ; on the dry patauas • 
8 feet. Eootstock stout and woody; taproot woody and 

J ■ 

deep; lower surfaces of tlie leaves and the young shoots 
densely tomentose. Very abundant on the patauas, e^speci- 
ally at about 2500 ft., where it frequently forms a dense 
scrub. (468, 2500 ft.; 409, 3800 ft.; 822, 5G00 ft- ; 214, 
5S00 ft. ; 840, G200 ft. ; 5G1, 7O0O ft.) 

M -J JT— TWPV n_ 

346 ME. H. H, W. PEARSON 0^ THE 

ELEPHAi^TOPrs scAEER, Linn, Hooker, iii. 242. Trimen, iii. 12, 

A. perennial weed. Kootstock woody ; roots long and 
fibrous ; leaves radical, rugose and scabrous. At about 
4000 ft. (470, 3800 ft.) 
DiCHROCEPHALA LATiFOLiA, DC. Hooker, lii. 215. Trimen, iii. 14. 

An annual weed. Abundant above 5000 ft. (GG5, 
5G00 ft.) 
Mtriactis Wiohtii, DC. Hooker, iii. 247. Trimen, iii. 15. 

A small perennial (?). Eootstock woody; leaves radical. 
Above 5000 ft. (492, 7000 ft.) 
Lagenophora BiLLARniEiu, Cass, Hooker, iii, 248. Trimen, 

lii, IG. 
The " Patana Daisy*'; a small perennial herb. Eoot- 
stock short and erect ; roots numerous, deep, and tuberous; 
leaves radical. Very abundant above 5000 ft. ; one of the 
earliest plants to reappear after a pataua-fire. 823, 
5600 ft., and at 3800 ft. 


MiCROGLOSSA ZEYLANiCA, Bentb. Hooker^ iii, 257. Trimen, 

iii. 17. 
An erect shrub, 2-8 feet ; leaves coriaceous, hoary below, 
scabrous above. Yery abundant between 2000 and 3000 ft. 
(78G, 4000 ft.; 6S63 5600 ft.) 
Blumea lacerAj DC, Hooker, iii. 263. Trimen, iii. 19. 

Annual. Roots numerous, lonp; and fibrous; young 
shoots and leaves densely hirsute ; old leaves glabrous above, 
rugose. Above 5000 ft. (685, 5600 ft.) 
£, crinita. Am- Hooker, iii. 267. Trimen, iii. 21. 

A small shrubby perennial, Rootstock horizontal and 
woody ; roots long and fibrous ; young aerial parts densely 
hirsute ; old leaves sparsely hairy or glabrous above, la 
wet places above 6000 ft. (384, 839, 6200 ft.) 
B. TLEXUGSA, C. B. Clarke. Hooker, iii. 267, Trimen, iii. 20, 

A small shrubby perennial. Hootstoek horizontal, stout 
and w^oody; roots long and fibrous; stem softly hairy; 
leaves woolly beneath, pubescent to glabrescent above. 
Faintly aromatic. Particularly abundant at 6000 ft. (472, 
2500 ft. ; 471, 3500 ft. ; 239, 5800 ft.) * 
Laggera alata, Schultz-Bip. Hooker, iii. 271. Trimen, iii. 23. 

Perennial. Loaves crowded, semi-erect, tomentoi?e to 
pubescent beneath, pubescent above. Strongly aromatic. 
Abundant at 4000 ft. (638, 5G00 ft.) 




Anaphalis ciknamomea, C, B. Clarke, Hooter, iii. 281. Trimen, 

iii, 28. 

PerenniaL Stems woody at the base^ covered with old 
leaf-remains, lanate in the younger parts ; leaves linear, 
densely cinnamomeous-woolly beneath, white-f^^rey floccose 


above, with recurved margins. 

Above 6000 ft. 

7000 ft.) 

A, OBLONGA, DC. Hooker, iii. 283, Trimen, iii. 30. 

PerenniaL Taproot stout ; stem erect, floccose ; leaves 
mostly radical, linear, lanate on both surfaces, with re- 
curved margins, dead remains persisting. Abundant every- 
where, particularly at and below 4000 ft- (474, 2000 ft. \ 
810, 4000 ft. ; 277, 5S0() ft, ; 557, 6000 ft.) 

A. TJncaifesii, C. B, Clarke, Hooker, iii. 284. Trimen, iii. 29. 

A low shrub. Eouts fibrous, w^oodvjand very long ; stem 
woody and leafless below, lanate above ; leaves densely 
crowded on the upper part of the stem, small, oblong, con- 
duplicate or rolled, den.sely lanate. At the highest elevations ; 
very rare. (359, 8000 ft.) 

A. zeylanica^ C. B. Clarke. Hooker, iii, 286. Trimen, iii. 30, 

PerenniaL Eoot-system shallow; stems slender, decum- 
bent, leafless below, lanate above ; leaves crowded on the 
upper part of the stem^ erect, densely lanate on both 
surfaces (nearly glabrous in 637), with recurved margins. 

No. 357 is Thwaites' Form 2, vide PL Br. Ind. loc. cit. 

Abundant above 5000 ft. (350, 5800 ft. ; 357, 637, 8000 ft.) 

A. MAECESCENS, C. B. Clarke, Hooker, iii, 286. Trimen, iii. 31* 

PerenniaL Rootstock erect, stout and woody ; stem 
decumbent, woody below, floccose above; leaves narrow, 
linear, semi-erect, fulvous-lanate below, grey-floccose above, 
with recurved margins. Very abundant above. 5000 ft., 
especially where the humus is shallow. (276, 5800 ft, ; 
835, 6200 ft. ; 558, 7000 ft, ; 358, 8000 ft.) 
A. BEEViFOLTA, DC, Hookcr, iii. 286. Trimen, iii. 31* 

PerenniaL Root-system shallow ; stems decumbent, 
tomentose ; leaves crowded, semi-erect, narrow, linear- 
oblong, tomentose on both surfaces, with recurved margins. 
Very abundant above 5000 ft., especially where the humus 
is deep. At 7000 ft. the plant is dwarfed and much more 
branched than at lower elevations, (344, 5800 ft, ; 836, 

6200 ft.) 



T-^- "i^-- "--p' " - ^ -. T— i-'-\ ^ ^ -TTl*T"_n ■'. - 1""^ -T^ -T^^-Wi — ^pT* ^ ■ -■■-i',--,-i-T 

- ^ rf- ->-i^— ^^---' — -^ -^T-f ^ --JT ' -n-. 

348 ME. n. H. W. PEAESON ON THE 

Helichetstjm buddleioides, DC* Hooker, iii. 290. Trimen^ 

iii. 32. 
A semi-shrubby perennial ; stems densely lanate ; leaver 
glabrous above, densely white-tomentose beneath, with re- 
curved margins* At 6000 ft. (Trimen). 
? Chrysogonum hetekophtllum, Benth. Hoolver, iii. 303. 

Trimen, iii. 34. 
Perennial (635, 5600 ft.) 
Gynura Pseudo-china, DC, vm\ Jnspida, Hooker, iii* 335. 

Trim en, iii. 45. 
A stent biennial (?) herb. Eoot tuberous and very long ;. 
young shoots and leaves densely strigose; leaves crowded- 
On rocks. (477, 2200 ft. ; 825, 5600 ft.) 
Emilia zeylaniea^ C. B, Clarke. Hooker, iii. 336. Trimen, iii. 46. 

A erect perennial. Eootstock woody ; roots long, fibrous ; 

leaves semi-erect, semi-coriaceous, glabrous, with recurved 

margins. Common about 6000 ft* (475, 2000 ft. ; 666,. 

5600 ft. ; 355, 5800 ft. ; 815, 6000 ft.) 
Senecio zeylanicits, DC. Hooker^ iii. 340. Trimen, iii. 48. 

Perennial. Eootstock woody; roots long and fibrous;: 

stem decumbent, leafless below ; leaves crowded, linear,. 

glabrous, thick and strongly recurved. Young leaves and 

shoots often coloured brown-red. Abundant above 5000 ft^ 

(346, 5800 ft) 

S. LTJDENS, C. B. Clarke.. Hooker, iii. 345. Trimen, iii. 49- 

A straggling perennial, Eootstock erect and woody j 

leaves rather thick, rugose, or scabrid. Abundant in wet 
places above 4000 ft. 

Crepis fuscipappa, C. B. Clarke. Hooker, iii. 395. Trimen, iii. 51. 

A glabrous perennial. Above 5000 ft. ; rare. (684, 
6600 ft. ; 378, 5800 ft.) 
Taeaxacum OI'I^ICI^^ALE, Wigg. Hooker, iii. 401. Trimen, iii. 51. 

An introduction from the Hakgala Botanic Grardens, 
which is spreading widely over the patanas. (5600 ft.) 
Lobelia NicoTiAisiEroLiA, Heyne. Hooker, iii. 427. Trimen, 

iii. 57. 
A tall perennial. Stems 5-12 ft., erect, thick, usually 
unbranched, naked below. Leaves thin, pubescent bcneatk. 
Young leaves semi-erect and hairy. Abundant on the 
patanas atove 5500 ft., particularly near Nuwara Eliya; 
usually near streams. Kare below 5000 ft. (467, 3800 ft.) 


Wahlenbeegia gracilis, DC. Hoolcer, iii. 429. Trimen, iii. 

Perennial. Eootstock stout and wood^^. Stems numerous. 

Ml ' 

decumbent, wiry, leafleaa below ; leaves few, small, semi- 
erect, more or less liairy, wrinkled, witli recurved margins. 
Extremely abundant above 4000 ft. (4GG, 3000 ft. ; 380, 
5800 ft. ; 482, 7200 ft,) 
Campanula eiilgens, "Wall. Hooker, iii. 442. . Trimen, iii. CO. 

Perennial. Eootstock sliort and twisted ; roots fusiform ^ 
leaves few^, mostly near the base of the stem. On the 
patanas at high elevations ; rare {Trhnen^. 
? Vaccit^ium Leschexaultii, Wight, var. zeylanica. Hooker^ 

iii. 455. Trimen, iii, 61. 
A shrub. Young leaves red and hanging ; old leaves 
coriaceous. (863, 3800 ft.) 
G-aultheeia fhagrantisstma, Wall. Hooker, iii. 457. Trimen, 

iii. 62. 
A low shrubj often with a crespitose habit. Rhizome 
woody; leaves small, semi-erect, coriaceous and glabrous, 
with recurved margins, faintly aromatic ; young leaves deeply 
red-coloured, A specimen gathered in the forest (No. 487) 
is much taller, and hay much larger leaves than patana- 
specimens from the same elevation. Common above 5500 ft* 

(847, 6000 ft, ; 48G, 7200 ft.) 
Khodobendron AHiiOUEUM, Sm., var. nilagikicum. Hooker, iii. 

461. Trimen, iii. 63- 
A small tree. Leaves very thick and coriaceous, glabrous 
above, clothed by ferruginous hairs beneath, with strongly 
recurved margins. Young leaves semi-erect, densely covered 
on both surfaces with flocculent wax. The corolla-tubes are 
almost invariably bored through at the base by insects, as 
has been shown to be the case in iJ. hirsutum and R.ferru- 
gineum on the European Alps (56). Very abundant above 



Hooker, iii. 

505. Trimen, iii. QQ. 

Perennial. Stem prostrate, tomentose ; leaves erects 
pubescent on both surfaces. About 5500 ft. ; rare. (238, 
5800 ft. ; 535, 7200 ft.) 

2b 2 




n — r " 



LANCEOLATA. Hooker, iii. 

MrBsiNE CAPiTELLATA, Wall., var. 

512. Trimen, iii. G8. 
A strub. Leaves erect, emaller than in the type, coria- 
ceous and glabrous. (790, 4000 ft.) 
Embelia tikidifloba, Sclieff. Hooker, iii. 516. Trimen, iii. 70. 

A large scandent shrub. Leaves few, simple, coriaceous 
and glabrous. On the dry patanas ; rare. (801, 1000 ft.) 
Ardisia Gardneri, C. B. Clarke. Hooker, iii. 512. Trimen, iii. 72. 

A forest undershrub. Leaves coriaceous and glabrous. 
Above 5000 ft., usually near the edge of the forest. (8SG, 

5600 ft.) 
Jasminum ANOUSTiFOLiuM.Yahl. Hooker, iii. 598. Trimen, iii 

A low shrub. Hootstock stoiit, woody, and much branched. 

Leaves small, simple, numerous, and glabrous. On the dry 
patanas ; rare. (788, 4000 ft.) 
LiGUSTRUM Walkeet, Decne. Hooker, iii. 614. Trimen, in. 


A shrub. Leaves semi-erect, semi-coriaceous ; young 
leaves red. Common below 4000 ft. (795, 4000 ft.) 

• * •■ 


Hooker, iv. 96. Trimen, iii. 180. 

"Biennial or perennial. Leaves few, small, semi-succu- 
lent. About 6000 ft. ; rare. (819, 6200 ft.) 
E. zeyJanicum, Roxb. Hooker, iv. 97. Trimen, iii. 181. 

Biennial or perennial. Hoots and stem-base stout and 
woody ; leaves semi-erect, numerous, thin, glabrous. 
Common on the patanas at all elevations. (487, 2200 ft. ; 
791, 4000 ft. ; 838, 5600 ft. ; 364, 5800 ft.) 
E. zeylanicum, Roxb., var. viacra7itha. (706, 5600 ft.) 

:iANA QTJAniiiFAEiA, Blume. Hooker, iv. 111. Trimen, 


iii. 186 

Biennial (?). A small decumbent herb. Leaves semi-erect, 
crowded, glabrous, semi-succulent. Common above 5000 ft. 
The patana-plants show the dwarfed, much branched stems 
covered with closely-set leaves which are characteristic of 
the " Sun '' form of this species *. (282, 5800 ft. ; 848, 

G200 ft.) 
Swertia zeylanica. Walker. Hooker, iv. 127. Trimen, iii. 187. 

Perennial (?). Leaves semi-erect, few, small and semi- 
succulent, conduplicate. Toung parts of the stem and 


(1 & 2). 




■■ - L 



edges o£ tKe leaves (sometimes the whole leaves) are red- 
coloured. Very ahundaiit above 5000 ft. (727,5600 ft.; 
231, 5800 ft. ; 546, 6000 ft.) 
CrN'OGLOssuM PUKCATUM, Wall, var. rjANCKOLATCJM. Hooker, IV, 

156. Trimen, iii. 203. 

Perennial, A tall coarse weed ; leaves tuherculate, 

shortly pilose on the veins beneatli. The blue colour of the 

flowers is more intense at 7000 ft, thaa at lower elevations. 

(704 5600 ft.) 

Argtreia hirsuta, var, coacta, C. B. Clarke. Hooker, iv. 189. 

Trimen, iii. 206. 
A semi-shrubby twiner. Stems long, stout, and hairy ; 
leaves conduplieate, silky-hairy on both surfacs. Above 
4000 ft. ; rare. (891, 4000 ft,) 
Eyoltulus alsinoides, Linn, Hooker, iv. 220, Trimen, iii. 227. 

A small prostrate perennial. Eoots long and much 
branched: rootstock woody and branched; stems long, 
spreading, silky-hairy; leaves small, few, erect, condupli- 
eate, silky-hairy on both surfaces. Very abundant below 
4000 ft. (442, 3800 ft. ; 794, 4000 ft.) 
SoLANUM IKBICUM, Linn. Hookcr, iv, 234. Trimenj iii. 231. 

A weedy shrub. Leaves and young sterna densely tomen- 
tose. (776, 3800 ft. ; 321, 5600 ft.) 
VEREASCLni: TnAPSiTs^jLiim. Hooker, iv. 250. Trimen, iii. 241. 

The common English '* Mullein." This plant has become 

naturalized on the patanas in the neighbourliood of Nuwara 

Eliya^ where it is very abundant, and has the characteristic 

British habit. 

ToEENiA uiRTELLA, Hook. f, Hookcr, iv, 277. Trimen, iii. 249. 

A small herb, with long internodes, prostrate among the 

grasses. Leaves few, small, and wrinkled. 

5600 ft.) 

Rteiga lutea, Lour. Hooker, iv. 299. Trimen, iii. 256. 

A small, erect, herbaceous root-parasite. Leaves few, 
erect, small, linear. Very abundant below 6000 ft, (740, 

3800 ft.) 

S. EUPHRASioiDES, Benth. Hooker, iv. 299. Trimen, iii. 256. 

Bather taller than the last species. Stem and leaves red- 
coloured. Very abundant below 4000 ft. (458, 3000 ft.; 
741, 3800 ft.) 

SoPUBiA TRiriDA, Ham. Hooker, iv, 302, Trimen, iii. 257. 

An erect annual. Leaves trifid, or entire, filiform, borno 

I -r^- 

352 MR. a. H. W. PEAESON OS THE 

on axillary short shoots; young leaves brown-red. Very 
abundant everywhere. (445, 2200 ft. ; 443, 3000 ft. ; 381, 
5800 ft. ; 881, 6200 ft.) 

Pediculaeis zet:lanica, Benth. Hooker, iv. 317. irimen, m. ZbU. 

Perennial. Eootstock woody; roots tuberous; leaves 
mostly radical, a few smaller ones bigbcr up the stem, semi- 
erect, glabrous above, pubescent beneath with recurTed 
margins. Abundant above 5000 ft. One of the earliest 
plants to reappear after a pataua-fire. (821, 5GO0 ft. ; 563, 
7200 ft.) 

[Specimens of Utricularia sp. were so badly preserved that 
identification is in several cases impossible. The following were 
all found in marshy hollows at the elevations indicated.] 

Utrictjlahia ctERULEA, Linn, Hooker, iv. 331. Trimen, iii. 268- 

A common species. (459, 3000 ft. ; and at 6200 ft.) 
V. BiriDA, Linn. Hooker, iv. 332, Trimen, iii, 2/0. 

(461, 3000 ft.) 
U. iiACEMOSAj Wall. Hooker, iv. 333. Tritncn, iii. 270. 

(463, 3000 ft.) 
XT. OBBICULATA, AVall. Hooker, iv. 334. Trimen, iii. 271. 

(462, 3000 ft,) 
Didymocarpus Ilumholdtiana, Gardn. Hooker, iv. 253. Trimen, 

iii. 273. 

A small perennial- Eootstock short, stout and erect; 

leaves radical, densely tomeatose beneath, hirsute above. 

On wet boulders between 5000 and 6000 ft, (762, 5600 ft.) 

JusTiciA pnocuMEENS, Linn. Hooker, iv. 539. Trimen, iii. 337* 

A small stoloniferous perennial. Stems decumbent, 

usually with long internodes ; leaves small, wrinkled, with 

recurved mrirgins. Common among the grasses above 5000 

ft. (701, 5600 ft. ; 842, 6200 ft.) 

La^tana sp. (3000 ft. ; 3800 ft.) 

fremna Thwaitesii, C. B. Clarke. Hooker, iv. 579. Trimen, 

iii. 353. 
A small tree. Toung parts densely pubescent; leaves 
densely pubescent beneath ; strongly aromatic. Near 
Wilson's Bungalow ; rare. {Trimen.) 
Geniospohum elonoatum, Beuth. Hooker, iv, 610. Trimen, 

iii. 368. 
A tall perennial, llootstock woody ; stem with long 

internodes ; leaves few, erect^ conduplicate, small, pubescent 

^r^ . T~a_»^1" 

r -7 



on both sides. Abundant at about 4000 ft. (457, 3000 ft. ; 
755, 5600 ftO 

Fhctmnthus nigrescens.^^nVa. Hooker, iy*6l7. Trimeu, iii. 370. 

(779, G200 ft.) 

P. iiENTHoiDES, Bcuth. Hooker, iv. 620* Triineu, iii. 372. 

A tall perennial, senii-slirubby below. Young stem and 
both surfaces of the leaves densely pubescent; strongly 
, aromatic. Locally abundant abore 4000 ft (389, 5600 ft.) 
OoLEus BAiiBATus, Benth. Hooker, iv. 625. Trimen, iii. 373. 

Perennial. Stems semi-succulent ; the whole plant 
densely pubescent and strongly aromatic. Locally abundant 
at 4000 ft. (399, 3800 ft.) 
O. MALAEARtcua, Bentih. Hooker, iv. 626. Trimen,iii. 374. 

Perennial. Stem stout and succulent ; leaves thin and 
wrinkled. Earc on the patanas. (617, 6000 ft.) 
Pogostemon rejlexus, Benth. Hooker, iv. 633. Trimeu, iii. 378- 

A small slirub. Young stems and leaves densely pubes- 
cent; aromatic. At high elevations; rare. (012, 7000 ft.) 
€alamintiia umbeosa, Benth. Hooker, iv. 650. Trimeu, iii. 381. 

Perennial. Stein decumbentj leafless below ; leaves few, 
small, semi-coriaceous. Abundant among the grass above 
5000 ft. (289, 5S00 ft.) 
Leucas ATARRUBioiDES, Desf. Ilookor, iv. 6S3. Trimea, iii, 385. 

Perennial. Steui semi-woody, leafless below, tomentose 
above j leaves thick, velvety-hairy above i densely white- 
tomentose beneath. (456, 2200 ft. ; 785, 4500 ft- ; 758, 
5600 ft.) 

L.^zETLAiiJiCA, B* Br., var. WALKEar. Hooker, iv, 089. Trimen, 

iii. 387. 

Annual, Stem long, decumbent or erect, leafless below, 

young parts pubescent. Leaves few, linear, rolled, densely 

pubescent on both surfaces* Abundant above 4000 ft. 

(719, 4000 ft. ; 703, 5600 ft.) 

PLA>'TAao LAXCEOLATA, Linu. Hooker, iv. 700. Trimen, iii. 

Annual. An introduction, which has established itself on 
the patanas in the neighbourhood of Nuwara Eliya. (837, 
6200 ft , ) 
PoLYOONUir ALATUiT, Ham., var, pabvieloea. Hooker, v. 41. 

Trimen, iii, 413. 

Annual. Stems numerous, prostrate, spreading, semi- 

' r 

r. -F 

,- • •\ 

^'. ■ 



succulent, purple, with long 

internodcs ; leaves small^ 

purple when young, Yerj^ abundant above 5000 ft. (336,. 

- 5800 ft.; 575, 7200 ft.) 
PoLTGOKUM CHINENSE, Lmn. Hooker, v. 4i. Trimen, iii, 413* 

A long trailing shrubby perennial : young stem, petiole,. 

and ochrea red-coloured ; leaves rather thick, glabrous, with 

recurved margins. Abundant above 5000 ft- (845, 5(300 ft.) 

Peperomia eeflexa, a. Dietr. Hooker, v. 99- Trimeu, iii, 432* 

A small perennial with small tufted succulent leaves. On 

boulders above 5000 ft, (401, 5500 ft.) 
Actinodapline stenophjUay Thw. Hooker, v. 150. Trimen, iii. 


A small tree (20 ft.). Leaves erect, small, glabrous and 
coriaceous ; young leaves densely pubescent with dark brown 
hairs. Locally plentifuh (4i2, 2200 ft.; 320,3800 ft.; 
812, 4000 ft.) 
LiTSEA ZETLANICA) Nccs. Hookcr, V, 178. Trimen, iii. 454. 

A small tree. Leaves semi-erect, glabrous and coriaceous ; 
young leaves erect and red-coloured. In sheltered hollows 
at about 4000 ft. (327, 3800 ft.) 

WiKSTHOEMiA CAKESCENS, Mcissu. Hooker, V. 195. Trimen, iii. 

A small shrub ; leaves crowded at the top of the shoot,, 
erect, thin, faintly pubescent, with recurved margins. Above 
5000 ft. ; rare. (295, 5800 ft.) 
Lasiosipiion eriocephalus, Decne, var. zeylanicus, Meissn* 

Hooker, v. 197, Trimen, iii. 459. 

An erect shrub- Leaves crowded, erect, silky -villous,. 

particularly on the lower surface. Young leaves densely 

villous on both surfaces. Abundant at 4000 ft. (783^ 

4000 ft.) 

LoRANTHUS suBORBTCTJLABis, Thw. Hooker, V. 214. Trimen, iii, 

Epiphytic on theEhododendron. Leaves semi-erect, thick 
and coriaceous. (1247, 6200 ft.) 


Hooker, v. 232, Trimen, iii. 474. 

A small shrub- Leaves small, crowded, erect, glabrous 
and coriaceous. Young leaves red-coloured. Very abundant 
below 6000 ft. (402, 2200 ft. ; 744, 3800 ft. ; 787, 400O 
ft. ; 554, 5600 ft.) 



EupHOEBiA EoTiiTANA, Sprciig- Hooker, v. 263. Trimen, iv. 8. 

A semi-sbrubby perennial. Leaves crowded and erect ; 
young leaves red. (74G, 3800 ft.; 285, 5800 ft.; 360, 

7000 ft.) 
Phtllanthus Embltca, Linn. Hooker, v. 289. Trimen, iv. 19. 

A small tree. Leaves numerous, crowded, deciduous in 
the dry season. Abundant below 1000 ft. (Trimen.) 
P. SIMPLEX, Eetz. Hooker, v. 295. Trijiien, iv. 22. 

A spreading pcremiial. Eootstock stout and woody ; 
roots woody and deep ; stems numerous and wiry ; leaves 
small, glabrous, witb tluckened, red, and recurved margins, 
moving into a profile position in bright sunlight and at 
night. Very common above 5000 ft. This and its variety 
are among the first plants to reappear after a patana-five. 
(721, 4000 ft. ; SIG, 5G00 ft. ; 876, 5800 ft.) 
P. SIMPLEX, Eetz., var. GAUD^EitiAiNrs, Muell. Arg. 

(742, 3800 ft. ; 301, 5800 ft. ; 488, 7000 ft.) 
GLOcnimo?fZETLANTCUM,A. Juss. Hooker, V.310. Trimen,iv.28. 

A small tree with red buds. Leaves erect, glabrous on 
both sides (pubescent beneath in var. tomentosum), very 
thick and coriaceous. Young leaves hanging and red- 
coloured. Eare. (869, 3800 ft. ; 798, 4000 ft.) 
Q. coriaceum, Thw. Hooker, v. 321. Trimen, iv. 30. 

A shrub. Leaves erect, glabrous, thick and coriaceous ; 
young leaves hairy. Eare. (881, 3800 ft.) 
O. montanum, Thw. Hooker, v. 325. Trimen, iv. 31. 

A small tree. Leaves coriaceous, glabrous above, pubes- 
cent beneath. Eare. {Trimen.) 
Beeynia patens, Beuth. Hooker, v. 329. Trimen, iv. 33. 

A shrub with spreading branches. Leaves small, semi- 
coriaceous. The $ Bower, when young, hangs vertically on 
, a short peduncle which moves into an erect position before 
the fruit is mature. Below 4000 ft. (431, 3800 ft. ; 797, 

4000 ft.) 
PouzoLZiA Bennettiana, Wight. Hooker, v. 585. Trimen, iv. 


A low shrub. Eootstock horizontal, stout and woody ; 
stems semi-succulent and hairy in the younger parts. Leaves 
densely hirsute on both aides. This specimen is nearer to 
var. g^uadrialaia from the Nilghiris than to the Ceylon var. 
Gardneri. Eare. (865, 5600 ft.) 

-' *i^ ^ "r L -■,— — - f p ■"- '^- -K^. ^^ ■ 

■ ■ * ^ ■ r . * 


356 iIK< H. n, W* PEAUSOX 05 THE 

PoTJZOLZTA PAiiTiFOLTA, Wi^^ht- Hooker, V. 587. Trimcn, iv. 117. 

Stems diffuse, slender, prostrate, pubescent or hirsute ; 
leaves strigosely hairy on botli surfaces* Above GOOO ft* 


Bukivia:n:nia djsticha, Linn. Hooker, v. G64. Trimen, iv. 130. 

Very rare on the patanaa. (284, 5800 ft.) 
Ipseaspeciosay Lindl. Hookcrj v. 812. Trimen, iv. 171. 

The "Daffodil orchids* Flowers during the KE. mon- 
soon. Locally abundant about 5G00 ft. (363, 5800 ft.) 
Phajus WalliciiiIj Lindh Hooker, v. 81G. Trimen, iv. 172. 

Eather common between 3000 and 7000 ft. ; especially at 
the higher elevations. {Trimen.^ 
SpiEAyTHES AUSTRAU9, Lindl. Ilooker, vi. 102. Trimen, iv. 217. 

Very abundant above 5000 ft. (280, 5800 ft. ; 495, 

7000 ft.) 
Hahenaria acuminata, Thw. Hooker, vi. 13f3. Trimen, iv. 227. 

Abundant below 5000 ft. (3G7, 5800 ft.) 

H* TiEiniFLOBA, R. Br. Hooker, vi< 150. Trimen, iv. 2f31. 

(8G0, 3800 ft,) 
H. TOUTA, Hook, f . Hooker, vi, 150. Trimen, iv. 234. 

Abundant above 4000 ft. (409, 3500 ft. ; 3G9, 5800 ft. ; 
857, 7200 ft.) 
Satthium nepalense, D. Don. Hooker, vi. 1G8. Trimen, iv. 237t 

Very abundant above 4000 ft. (G67, 5G00 ft. ; 291, 

5800 ft. ; 332, G200 ft.) 
CuECULiGo OKCnioiDEs, Gaertn. Hooker, vi. 279. Trimen, iv. 269, 

A perennial herb. Bootstock erect, fleshy, 8 inches or 
more long ; roots stout, fleshy and tuberous ; stem very 
short, covered by the fibrous remains of old leaves ; leaves 
radical, linear or lanceolate, slightly hairy. Abundant be- 
tween 3000 ft. and 6000 ft. ; one of the earliest plants to 
appear after a patana-fire. (410, 3S00 ft. ; 825, 5600 ft.) 
DiAifELLA ENSiFOLiA, Eedoutc. Hooker, vi. 337. Trimen, iv. 288. 

Perennial. Eootstock liorizontal, stout and woody ; 

roots long and fibrous ; leaves erect and stiff. (400, 2300 ft.) 

CoMMELiNA NuniFLOHA, Liuu. Hookcr, vi. 369. Trimen, iv. 300. 

Annual. Common on rocks above 5000 ft. (300, 5800 ft.) 
Akeilema niMORPHUM, Dalz. Hooker, vi. 377. Trimen, iv. 307. 

Perennial, Eoots thick and fibrous. Nodes of the stem 
and leaf-sheaths purple. Common above 5000 ft. (296, 
5800 ft.) 

^^ rfl 

^ ; 



Gtanotis pilosa, Schultes f. Hooker, vi. 387. Trimen, iv. 314. 

PerenniaL Eoots numerous, thick and tuberous. 
Common among the grasses above 5000 ft. (298, 5000 ft*) 
C. VILL08A, Schultes f. Hooker, vi. 387, Trimen, iv. 313. 

Perennial (?). Leaves densely villous with long silky baxr 
(397), or pilose beneath and glabrous above (672). (397, 
2000 ft, ; 672, 5600 ft.) 
C. FAacicuLATA, Schultes f. (^p. ?). Hooker, vi. 387. Trimen, 

iv. 314, 
Annual. Leavet^ floccosely silky. (673, 5600 ft.) 
JuKcus PEISMATOCARPUS, E. Br. Hooker, vi- 395. Trimen, iv. 

Perennial. Common in wet places, (408, 3000 ft ; 54, 

3800 ft. I 53, 5600 ft.) 
Apon'OGETOK crtspum, Thunb< Hooker, vi. 564. Trimen, iv. 372. 

Leaves submerged or floating ; usually red. Common W 
running water on the patanas, at 6000 ft. 
[The following species of IJriocaulon were found in marshy 
places on the patanas at the elevations indicated.] 
^riocaulon cauJescens, Hook, f, & Thonis. Hooker, vi. 572. 

On Pedurutalagala. (77, 8000 ft.) 
^. ceylanicum^ Koern, (E. subcaulcscens, Ilk. f.) Hooker, vi. 573. 

On Horton Plains. (70, 7200 ft.) 

S. atratum^ Koern. Hooker, vi* 574. 

Common above 5000 ft. 

[No. 60 has straw-coloured involucral scales ; in 71 
they are brown with black cdges^ while in the type tliey are 
'* glossy black." These appear to be forms of E. atratum, 
Koern.] (71, 6000 ft. ; 60, 7200 ft, ; 63, 8000 ft.) 



Hooker, vi. 576. 
[nraon above 5000 
Hooker, vi. 576. 

(72, 5600 ft.) 

Common above 5000 ft. (73, 5600 ft. : 76, 7200 ft.) 

E. TBUNCATUM, Ham. Hooker, vi. 578* 

Very abundant above 5000 ft. (61, 5600 ft. ; G5, 

5800 ftO 
E.coLLiNtJM, Hook. f. Hooker, vi. 584. 

A very common species. (58, 3500 ft. ; 59j 5G00 ft.) 
Kyllinga BitT:TiroLiA, Eottb. Hooker, vi. 588. 

Perennial, In dry situations at lower elevations the 

habit is dwarfed. Very abundant In bo 
(9, 2000 ft. ; 8, 4000 ft. ; 11, 5600 ft.) 

dry plac 

358 MU. H. n, W. PEAESOX OK THE 


Perennial. Mar 

(13, 5600 ft.) 


P. rOLYSTAcnxus, Biauv. Hooker, vi- 592. 

Perennial. Marshy pLices above 5000 f"t. (15, 5600 ft 

Cypeeus pilgsus, Valil. Hooker, vi. 609, 

Annual. In marshy places above 5000 ft. (16, 5600 it.) 
C. ZoLLHs-GEUi, Steud. Hooker, vi. 613. 

Perennial. In wot and dry situations. (18, 3000 ft. ; 

19, 5600 ft,) 

Mabiscus paniceus, Vahl. Hooker, vi. 620, 

Perennial. In dry situations. The same species was 

found in the sand at sea-level at Elephant's Pass, in the 

Northern Province (No. 21). (52, 2200 ft.) 

FiMERiSTYLTS PKNTAPTEiJA, Kuuth, Ilookcr, vi. 645, 

Perennial. On Horton Plains. (26, 7200 ft.) 

¥. complanata, Link, var. Kraussiana. Hooker, vi. 646. 

Perennial, On Hortou Plains. (24, 7200 ft.) 
r* ij^iGEOUKUNi^EA, Thw. Hooker, vi. 618, 

A tufted perennial. In wet and dry situations above 
2000 ft. (34, 2500 ft.; 36, 4400 ft.; 32, 5600 ft.) 
F. CYPEROIDES, K. Br., var. cinnamometoru^i, Clarke. Hooker, 

vi. 650. 

Annual (?). (29, 4000 ft. ; 27, 4400 ft,) 
BiJLBOSTYLis cAPiLLAuis, Kunth, vat. TRiFiDA, Hooker, vi. 653* 

Annual. (39, 5600 ft. ; 40, 7000 ft.) 
LiPOCARPKA ARGENTEA, E, Br. Hookor, vi. 667- 

Perennial. (2, 3800 ft. ; 1, 5600 ft.) 
EYNcnospoRA TVallicuiana, Kunth. Hooker, vi, 668. 

Annual, Common in dry situations. (43, 3800 ft.) 

R. glauca, Vahl, Hooker, vi. 671, 

Perennial, (6, 5800 ft.) 
Caeex LiNDLEYAifA, Noes. Hooker, vi. 721. 

Perennial. Rhizome horizontal, stout, covered with old 
leaf-bases. (46, 4400 ft. ; 47, 5000 ft. ; 49, 7000 ft.) 
C. spicigei^a^ Noes, var. minor. Hooker, vi, 722, 

Perennial, Horton plains. (44, 7000 ft.) 

The following species of Graminese are perennial on the patanas; 
Paspalum scroriculatum, Linn. Hooker, vii. 10, 

A dwarf form. (83, 4000 ft.) 
P. SAKGUINALE, Lam,, var. coRYiiBOSUM. Hooker, vii. 13. 

(94, 4000 ft,) 


Paspalum loxgifloruMj Eetz. Hooker, vii. 17. 

(99, 2500 ft^ ; 84, 3800 ft.) 
IsACHNE KuNTHiA^NA, "Wiglit & Am. Hooker, vil, 41. 

(92, 4000 ft. ; 93, 5800 ft.) 
AxoNOPrs SE^^IALATCS, Hook, f. Hooker, vii. 64. 

(97, 98, 4000 ft.) 
Abundinella villosa, Arn. Hooker, vii. 72. 

(154, 2500 ft. ; 100, 4000 ft. ; 161, 5G00 ft. ; 157, 7000 ft.) 

A. LAXIFLORA, Hook. f. Hooker, vii. 75. 

(155, 2500 ft. ; 89, 4000 ft.) 
A. LEPTOCHLOA, Hook. L (sp, ?). Ilookcr, vii* 76. 

(95, 4000 ft.) 
ZoYSiA PiJNGENS, WiUd. Ilooker, vii. 99, 

(189, 3800 ft,) 
DiMEETA Telmexi, Hook. f. 

(173, 5800 ft.) 

Imperata aul^vdinacea, CjrilL Hooker, vii. 106* 

(82, 3800 ft.) 
PoLLTXiA pn^^OTURTX, Hack. Hooker, vii. 112. 

(163, 5600 ft. ; 179, 5800 ft.) 
IscniEMTJM ciLiARE, Eclz, Hookcr, vii. 133- 

(135, 5600 ft. ; 167, 5800 ft. ; 138, 6200 ft.) 

L LAXUM', R. Br, Hooker, vii. 136. 

(139, 4000 ft.) 
PoGOKATitERUM SACCHAHOIDEUM, Bcauv. Houkcr, vii. 141 

(133, 3500 ft.) 
ApocopisWiOHTii, Nees, var, zeylanicus (?). Hooker, vii. 

(126, 127, 4000 ft.) 
Akdropogon sqtiarrosus, Linn, f. Hooker, vii. 186* 

(121,4000 ft.) 
A. zEYLANicus, N'ecs. Hooker, vii. 192* 

(110, 4000 ft ; 119, 5600 ft. ; 117, 5800 ft.) 
A* MONTicoLA, Schult, Hooker, vii, 192. 

(178, 4000 ft.) 
A* ^olyptychus^ Steud, Hooker, vii. 198. 

(112, 8000 ft.) 
A* Wardus, Linn. Hooker, vii. 205* 

(110, 5600 ftO 
A. Liviuus, Thw, Hooker, vii. 209. 

(Ill, 5800 ft.) 
Anthistihia imbekbis, Eetz. Hooker, vii. 211, 

(176, 4000 ft. (?).) 

I « av 


t^^ -^ 1-^r TT 




Anthistieia TEEMrLA, Nees. Hooker, yii. 214, 

(105, 3500 ffc. ; lOG, 4000 ft. ; 107, 5600 ft-) 

A. Trimeni, Hook, f, 

(117, 3500 ft.) 

Qarnotia tectorum^ Hook, f. Hooker, vii. 242. 

(144, 5G00 it. ; 6200 ft.) 
C<ELAcn?^E PULciTELLA, E. Er., var, PERrusTLiA, Thw. Hooker, 

vii, 271- 

(78, 7000 ft.) 

TRiPoaoN i^ROMOiDES, Kotli. Hooker, viu 287. 

(90, 7000 ft.) 
Eraqrostis sTKNQPnTLLA, Iloclist. Hookcr, vii. 318. 

(86,4000 ft.) 
E. SECUNDA, Nees. Hooker, vii. 326. 

(85, 88, 4000 it.) 

Gleichenia dichotoma, AVilld. Baker, 15. 

Uliizome superficial; pinna) glulbrous, coriaceous, with 
recurved margin. Common below 4000 ft. (403, 2200 ft. j 
780, 3800 ft.) 
Dayalliatekuieolia, Swartz. Baker, 102. 

Ehizome superficial, densely fibrillosc. Leaf-texture semi- 
coriaceous. (878, 3000 ft; 621, 5G00 ft,) 

Cheilaktues iiYsuRENsis, Wall. Baker, 135. 

Ehizome superficial; roots densely csespitosc; the more 

superficial ones covered with a brown wooh On boulders 

above 5000 ft. (622, 5600 ft.) 

C- FARTNOSA, Kaulf. Baker, 142, 

The ''Silver-fern." Ehizome superficial; roots densely 

tufted. Common on boulders above 5000 ft. (227,5600 ft.) 
Pteris Ac^uiLiNA, Liuu. Baker, 162. 

Ehizome stout and very deep. Very abundant above 
5000 ft, ; and at lower elevations in nheltered localities, 
favourable for the accumulation of some depth of soil. 
One of the earliest plants to reappear after a patana-fire. 
In sbady situations in the forest, the habit is much more 
luxurious than at the same elevations on the patanaa. (809, 
5600 ft.) 
Blechnum oriektale, Linn. Baker, 186. 

Toung leaves red-coloured*. Pinna? narrow, glabrous, 

Vide Ewart, 'Annals of Botany,' xi. p. 464. 

^- J-' - J 

- a , 



subcoriaceous. Common in sheltered localities below 4000 

ft (781, 3800 ft.) 
AsPLENiiTM NORMALE, D* Don. Baker^ 197. 

Ehisome short; roots very numerous and fibrous ; petiole 
and rhachis black, glossy, and wiry. (407, 2200 ft.) 

A. falcatijm:, Lam. Baker, 208. 

Ehizome superficial and stout; roots numerous, fibrous ; 
the more superficial ones covered with a dense browu pubes- 
cence ; petiole and rhachis densely villous; pinnse rigidly 
coriaceous, glabrous above, pubescent beneath. Common 
on rocks above 5000 ft. (2G8, 5800 ft.) 
Nepheodium Bkddomet, Biikei". Baker, 267, 

Ehizome slender and superficial. Thicker parts of the 
roots densely pubescent, with short brown hairs. On rocks 
above 5000 ft. (220, 5S00 ft.) 
Kephiiolepis exaltata, Scliott. Baker, 301. 

Ehizome woody and superficial. (40G, 2200 ft.) 
PoLYPoniUM OBLiQUATUM, Blume. Baker, 328. 

Ehizome superficial ; roots dense and wide-spreading, 

(618, 5600 ft.) , 

P. REPANOTXLUM, Mett. Bakcp, 328. 

(890, 5600 ft,) 
P. Oardneri, Mett, Baker, 352. 

Ehizome superficial, covered by closely-set palea? ; leaves 
simple, thick, coriaceous, glabrous above, densely tomentose 
beneath, with strongly recurved margins. Common on rocks 
on the patanas at low elevations. (401, 2300 ft,) 

P. LiNEARE, Thuub. Baker, 351. 

Ehizome superficial ; leaves simple, glabrous, coriaceous 
with recurved margins. Common on rocks above 5000 ft. 

(228, 5800 ft.) 
P. TEiFinuM, D, Don. Baker, 363. 

Ehizome superficial, densely clothed with light brown 
palace; the superficial roots pubescent with short brown 
hairs. Common on rocks above 5000 ft. (272, 5800 ft.) 
P. NiORESCEKS, Blume. Baker, 364. 

Ehizome superficial, densely clothed with brown palcsc ; 
leaves subcoriaceous. (271, 5600 ft.) 
A>'TROPHYTJM plantagineum, Kaulf. Baker, 393. 

Ehizome superficial ; roots densely pubescent with short 
brown hairs ; leaves sim2>le. (620, 5600 ft.) 

~s ■;.' n- 


Hemionitis cordata, "Roxb. Baker, 398. 

Uliizome superficial ; roots Ebrous, the superficial ones 
densely villous with brown hairs 5 petiole wiry, dark, glossy, 
fibrillose below ; leaf simple, glabrous, thick coriaceous, 
rugose above. On the TJva patanas. (405, 3500 ft, ; 792, 

4000 ft.) 

BoTBYcniuM viRaiNiANU.Nt, S\v. Baker, 448. 

At high elevations. (574, 7000 ft.) 
Eqttisetum debile, Liuu, Baker, 5. 

(281, 5S00 ft.) 
Lycopodittm ckrnuum, Linn. Baker, 23. 

Very abundant at about 6000 ft. (229, 5600 ft.) 
L, cAROLiisriANUM, Linn. Baker, 28. 

Common above 5000 ft. ; in swampy places. (832, 6200 

ft, ; 585, 7200 ft.) 

The Plora of the Patanas, in so far as this list represents 
it, consists of 289 species of Phanerogams and Perns. 142 
species were found on the dry patanas below 4500 feet, and 
195 species on the humus patanas ahove 4500 feet ; 48 species 
beino^ common to both, and found generally all over the patanas. 
About 50 per cent- of these belong to seven natural orders, 
iimont>- which they arc distributed in the following proportions: 

L Below 4500 feet. 

Graminea^ 13'3 per cent. 

Leguminoscc .... 10*0 

ComposltiB .... 8'4 

EubiacesB 7'0 

Cyperacea?- . • . . . 5'0 
Perns and allies . * 5'0 

Labiat^B 2*8 


2. Above 4500 feet. 

Compositse 12-3 per cent* 

Leefuminosse .... 8*7 

Perns and allies . , 8'2 

Graminese 7*3 

Cyperacea? . . . , 6"6 „ 

Eubiacea> 4*0 j, 

Labiata^^ 4*0 « 




The other natural orders are poorly represented* 



In conclusion, I desire to express ray thanks to tlie University 

Cambridge for a graat of £100 fi'om the Worts Travelling 

Scliolar^s' Fund, and to the Kev, Herbert Alston, JVIA., who 

defrayed the further expenses of my visit to Ceylon j to Mr. J. 
C. AVillis, M.A., Director of the Ceylou Botanic Gardens, under 
wliose advice I attempted this investigation, and to Avhoin I ain 
indebted for much kind assistance; to Mr. W. JSTock, Superin- 
tendent of the Hakgala Gardens, whoae extensive knowledge of 
the up-country flora was of great assistance to me; to AVilliam 
de Alwis, Muhaudirem, Drauglitt^man at the Peradeniya Her- 
barium, from whom I received much valuable and kind help in 
the care and identification of my plants ; to Mr, A. F. Broun, 
Conservator of Forests, who kindly allowed me to consult him, 
and from whom I received both information and literature, 
Mdiich could not be readily obtained elsewhere; to Sir Joseph 
Hooker, who lias kindly named my specimens of the grasses of 
the patanas ; to Mr. C. B. Clarke, F.E.S., to whom I am indebted 
for the identification of the Cyperaceae and for assistance with 
some other groups; to the staff of the Kew Hei'bariuni, from 
whom I have received much kindly assistance; to Professor H. 
Marishall "Ward, to whom I submirted the plan of this investiga- 
tion, and from whom I have received many valuable suggestions ; 
and to my friend Mr. I. H, Burkill, M.A., who has kindly advised 
lue concerning several points that have arisen in the prosecution 
of this research since my return from Ceylon. 


1. AVahmtng, J, E.B. — OekologitschoPflanzengeographie. Germ. 

trans, by E. Knoblauch (Berlin, 189G), p. 2. 

2. Trlmen, H, — '' Xotes on the Flora of Ceylon/^ Journ, 

Bot. sxiv. (188G) p. 330. 

ScHiMj^Eu, A. F. W, — Pilanzcn-Gcographic. Jena, 1808, 
p. 7G8. 

3. ScniATPEE.— Loc. cit. p. 394. 

4. AVakming, — Loc, cit. p. 261- 

5. TniMEX.— Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon. London, 1898. 

Part iv. p. 20. 

6. Gardxkr, G. — " Ceylon Flora." Journ. Eoy. Hort. Soc. 

iv. (1849) p. 36. 

7. ScniMPEu. — Luc, cit. p, 7GS, 




8. Macmillan, Conway.— The Metasperm;e of the Minnesota 

Valley : T. Minneapolis, 1892, p. 595. 

9. Beotjn, a. !F. — Annual Eeport of Eorest-ConservancT. 

Colombo, 1893, p. 8. 

10. TnrMEN.— MS. Notes, Jan. 14th, 1888. 

11, Tennent, Sir J. E.— ' Ceylon.' London, 1860. Vol. i. p. 25. 
13. Tkemen,— Journ. of Botany, xxiv. (188G) p. 332. 

13. ' Nature,' Vol. xv. p. 399. 

14. ' Nature,' Vol. xv. p. 548. 

15. GiiTSEBAciT, A. H. E.— La Vegetation du Globe (Frencb 

trans.). Paris, 1876. Vol. li. p. 56. 

16. WAR^sriNG. — Oekoloo;, Pflanzcng. p. 267. 

17. JnnNSTON, Sir H. H.— British Central Africa. London, 

1897, p. 37. 

18. Bt;yce, James, M.P.— Impressions of South Africa. London, 

1897, p. 32. 

19. Humboldt, F. H. A. ton— Personal Narrative. Trans, from 

the Trtnch by IL M. Willinms : London, ] 818. Vol, iii. 
p. 92. 

20. Belt, T.— The Naturalist in Nicaragua. London, 1874. 

Pp. 184 & 185. 

21. Waemtng. — Loc. cifc, p. 267. 

23. ScniMPER. — Pflanzeu-Gcogr. p. 293. 

23. Walker.— Eeport of the Conservator of Forests. Colombo , 


Broun.— Loe. cit. 1893, 1894, & 1893. 

24. Broun.— Loe. cifc. 1892. 

25. Broun. — Loe. cifc. ] 895. 

28. (tayer. — " Die PorstbenutzunfT." Trans, by Fii*'?her in 

Schlich's ' Manual of Forestry.' London, 1896. Vol. v. 
D. 588. 

27. Gatee. — Loe. cit. p. 581. 

28. Hess.— "Der Forstsehutz." Trans, by Fischer in Schlich's 

' Manual of Forestry,' London, 1895. Vol. iv. p. 508. 

29. Ward, H. Marshall— Phil. Trans. 185 B. (1894), p. 983. 

30. ScKiMPEE. — Loc. cit. p. 120. 

31. Gayee. — Loc. cit. p, 590. 

32. ITess. — Loc. cit. p. 506. 

33. Warming. — Loc. cit. p. 69. 

34. Warminq.- Loe. cit, p. 70 (quoting P. E. Miiller). 



35. WAEMiya.— Oekolog, Pflauzeug. p. 177. 
ScHiMPEii. — Loc- cit. p. 768, 

36. "Warmtn-g. — Loc. cit. pp. 176 & 177. 

37. AVARMi]s-a.— Loc. cit, pp. 262 ct scq. 

38. AVARinxa- — Loc. cit. p. 35. 

39. WAEiima. — Loc. cit* p. 264. 

40. EwART, A. L— Annals of Eotany, xi. flS97) p. 440. 

41. Kei{>-eb YOK Mat^ilauk, A.— :NatLiral llistcrv ofPlants, i 

p. 483 ; 11, p. 5L0, etc. 

Keble,F. A7.— Scieucc Progress [N. S,], i. (1S9G) p. 403. 
EwAKT. — Loc. cit. pp. 4G0 et seq. 

42. Keeble.— Annals of Botany, ix, (189:)) p. 59. 
PoTTEK, M. C— Journ. Linn. Soc, Bot. xwiii. p, 34S, 

43. YoLKENS, Gr.— Die Flora dor Aegyptisch-Arabischen Wiiste- 

Berlin, 1SS7, p. 40. 

44. Haberlaxdt, G-.— Pliyglologisohe Pflauzcnanatomie. Edit. 2. 

Lelp;iig, 1896. P. 430. 

IIexslow, a.—'' Ori-in of Plant-Sfcruc tures by Self-Adapta- 
tion to Enviroainciil:." Joarn. Linn. Soc, Bot. xxx. (1895) 
p. 254. 

45. Drxoy, IL IL— Proc. Eoy. Irish Acad. [3] iv, p. 618. 
43. EwAKT, — Loc. cit, p. 451. 

47. EwATiT. — Loc. cit. p. 459. 

48. Darwix, C. K.— Tho Power of Moveino:it in Plants. 

London, 1860, p. 32 L 

49. Dakwi^n". — Loe, cit, p, 310. 

60. MASSAitT. -Uu Bo^anl.stoen Malaisie, Gand, 1895. P. 163. 

51. Darwin, — Loc. cit. p. 36S* 

52. Darwin. — Loc. cit. p. 325, 

53. Haeckel, E. — Verhaadl. Zjol.-bofc. Gesellscli. in Wica, xl. 

(1890) p. 132. 
Waumtng. — Loc. cit. p, 37. 

54. Ceylon Administration Reports, 1897. Meteorology, p, 35, 

55. SciiuLz, A — 

einricbtungen u. Greschlcchtsvertheilung bei den PHanzen," 
ii- 1890, in ^ Bibliothcca Botanica/ Haenlcin & Lucrsaon. 
Vol. iii. (1890 & 1891) p. 212, 

Tlic Bot:ini(;aI Laboratorv, 


2 c 2 



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iO, G. S. WEST OX 

On A^ariation in the Dcsmidiea' 

, ai/c 

d its 



V ariaiion in me JJcsmiaiesc, ana its iseanngs on their 
Classification. By G. S. WesI, B,A., A.E.C.S., Scholar 
of St. John's College, Cambridge. (Commuuicated by 

AV^ AVest, P.L.S.) 

[Eead 4tli May, 1899.] 
(Plates 8-11.) 

I. Introduction 306 

II. "V'uriations in Form and Symmetry 376 

III. Variations of Cell-contents 399 

IV. Variations in Conjugation 402 

Y. Some Interrelationsliips of the Desmidicic as 

deduced from a study of their Variation 


I. — Introduction. 

Tnis family of minute plants, so remarl^able for beauty and 
extraordinary variety of form, is characterized by the constancy 
of those features and combinations of features which specifically 
distiuguish the different members of the group. These cha- 
racters are found to be present in specimens of the same species 
obtained from divers parts of tlie world, and, although often in 
themselves slight, are as easily discernible to the practised eye 
of the observer as are the specific cliaracters of higher plants* 
On the examination of a large number of specimens of one 
species from many widely separated localitieSj certain examples 
are sure to be found which exhibit some variation from the 
typical plant, and without a very careful study of the S])ccies it 
is difficult to determine whether this variation is merely of a 
transitory or accidental nature, the specimen being the direct 
offspring of some tyj^e-formj or whether it constitutes a true 
variety produced by a gradual evolution from ihe original type. 
The ordinary method of increase in this family of unicellular 
plants ^' is by the division of the mother-cell into two exactly 
similar daughter-cell Sj each constituted of one of the half-colls 

* The Desmidiea; may be regarded as a family of unicellular plants evolved 
by retrogression from some sexually differentiated ancestors (cfr. "West & 
G. S- West, * Obs. on OonjugatiB/ Ann. Bot. vol. xii. March 1898), Some few 
of the genera are filamentous, but these enihnice oidy a very small miuorily of 
the known ?pecies, and they, as a rule, easily dissociate into individual cells 

^ r rF, "^ ^v- 7t 



of the mother and of a newly developed half. The latter U 
sometimes markedly difFerciit from the parent half, but in cases 
where this difference is cKtrcme the new halrea of the next 
division generally conform to the original type, though more 
rarely this may not occur for several generations. 

The great diversity of form and wonderfully varied character 
of these plants arc to be associated with their confinement to 
small ponds or the quiet margins of lakes, &c., localities suitable 
for their existence in largo numbers. In these restricted areas 
the unceasing effect of the struggle for existence will result 
m a gradually increasing diversity of form, and this is to be 
correlated with the immense numbers of individuals that are 
sometimes found in these situations. 

There can be little doubt that at the present day the flimily 
of Conjugates ^vhich has attained a maximum state of specializa- 
tion along one line, accompanied by degeneration along another, 
is the Desmidiese; and also that the tendency has been in the 
direction of an increase in the complexity of morphological 
characters. ^Maynot this complexity of outline, which is so fre- 
quently accompanied by a complete defensive armour of spines 
and spinous processes, have been acquired as a means of resisting 
the attacks of many forms of aquatic animals? After the loss 
of the filamentous condition it became necessary that the solitary 
and unprotected individuals should acquire some moans of 
defence- Presumably many forms developed spines and warts, 
or their outline became deeply incised, and, by a gradual process 
of natural selection or survival of the fittest, the present mor- 
phological complexity w^as in all probability for the most part 
brought about. These plants are devoured by many small aquatic 
animals — Amoeba?, Turbellaria, Oligocha^tes, Tardigrades, Crus- 
tacea, &c. ; and it is a notable fact that those species occurrino- 
on wet rocks and otlier localities in which these enemies are 
either absent or very scanty, especially at high elevations, possess 
as a rule a comparatively simple outline. In such cases the 
plants are provided witli a more or less abundant mucus, whereas 

especially prior to conjugation. Another fact testifjiug to this degeneration 
13 the secondary iidduniption of the filamentous condition by certain species 
(e.g., Micrasferias foliacea) and the reversion in others (e.g., Hyalotheca 
dkdUeus) to a typo cf conjugation with sexually differentiated gametes. 



^J ^ ^^^ "' \ _-r -'^ -r 

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368 MIJ, G. S. WEST 01!^ 

those species occurring in deep bog-pools and the quiet margins 
of deep lakes^ at M^hicb places these enemies abound, are possessed 
of a more complicated, and in many ct^ses of a formidable, 

Aa regards the conditions favourable to variation among the 
members of this group of plants, it may be ^aid that the occur- 
rence in large quantity of a particular &^pecIes is most conducive 
to the production of deviations from the normal form. It may 
happen that in some localized spot an immense quantity of tome 
particular species is occasionally produced by very rapid division, 
and in such a case some variation is almost always met with. 
A\^anich was also of opinion that the prolific growth of large 
numbers of De?mids tended to produce variations, as in com- 
menting upon the Desmidieje of Bengal, he states* that 
'' amongst the more common species a remarkable amount of 
divergence from the typical character is everywhere to be met 
w^ith— a circumstance depending, no diubt, on those peculiarities 
of soil and climate which, in Low^er Bengal, are so favourable 
to the exuberant and rapid development of the ehtire vegetable 
kingdom." AV^idc distribution and diversity of physical con- 
ditions may also tend to bring about the same result, but these 
factors exercise by no means so marked an effect on these lowly 
plants as on more highly organized plants and animals. JMany 
Desmids have a very extensive and a few a world-wide distribu- 
tion, yet such species appear to have no apparent constitutional 
variation adaptive either to the requirements of the different 
climates in wdiich they exist, or to the varying altitudes at which 
they occur. This may be chiefly, or at least in pare, ownng to 
their aquatic mode of existence. 

The most numerous variations are to be found amongst the 
commoner and more widely distributed species, those occurring 
in rarer forms being, as a rule, either exti-emely sliglit or very 
abnormal. The majority of these variations appear to affect 
only the superficial characters— the Avarts, spines, striolations, 
granules, scrobiculations, &c., on the external or iuternal surfaces 
of the cell-wall. Some of them, however, are more important 
modifications, being changes in the external form or symmetry 
of the plant ; and y^et others are variations in the structure and 
arrangement of the cell-contents. 

* G. C. Wullich, '' Dcsm. of Lower Bengal," Ann. Mag. Kat. Hist, 18G0. 



That variation in a species has a tendency to be reprod-icc^d 
there can be no donbt, especially when the reproduction take^ 
place, aa in the^e planes, by simple cell-division j yet extreme 
modifications, which ure obvious abnormalities* (PI, 10. fig. G, 
and PI. 11. fig. 27), arc never (or very rarely) repeated in 
succeeding generations and may be regarded merely as acci- 
dental occurrences in the history of the species. Again, it must 
not be supposed that the variability of some diagnostic wart or 
spine, or some other cliaracter, makes tluit character of no use as 
a specific distinction, lor such a feature may be always present 
to a greater or less degree and hence distinctive, and even in 
those specimens in wliich it is absent it is often produced at its 
maximum on the completion of the development of the younger 
eemicells of a succeeding generation. This fact is well illus- 
trated by certain variations, which I have described in Arthro- 
desmus convergeus (see p. 398), which show tlie lateral spines 
reappearing on the semicells of a later generation, the few 
previous generaiiojis having been destitute of such structures. 
It is also exhibited by some specimens of Cosmarmm Hegneui 
from Pnttenham Common, Surrey (PI. 10. ligs. 10 & 17), these 
examples being selected from a gathering of a large quantity of 
the species preserved wliile in active growtli. 

It generally happens that the Yariation is identical on the two 
sides of a semiceli, or even of a cell ; this is Bilateral Symmetry 
of Variation. Thus in the symmcLrical Uesmidicie (and most 
of them are perfectly symmetrical) the majority of the variations 
observed consist of "similar and simuhaneous Tariation of 
repeated parts " f. 

The symmetry and pattern exhibited by the Desmidie^e are 

* i'fi\ W, Archer, ** ^""01106 of some eases of ubnoriuul growth in the Desmi- 
diaceai," Dub. Ant. Hist. Soc. Proc. vol, iii. t 1, ex part.; Journ. Micr. Soc, 
ItioU, L 7, ex part. Kuiuacb, Contrib. Alg. et Fung. t. 18. IT, 9-15. Jucob- 
sen in Eotanisk Tid^skiil't, vol. viii. 1875, L 8. IT. 30, 31. West in Journ. 
liot. 1681), t. 291. f. 5. West & G. S. West in Journ. Roy, Micr. Soc. 18'J(>, 
t. 4. if. 55, 5t>; Ann. Eot. vol. xii. 18U8, t. 4. tf, 39, 40. Kordbtedt in Kongl. 
Sv. Vet.-Akad. Handl, Ed. xxii. no. 8, I8SS, t. 7. ff. 8-11. Eaciborski in 
Paniietuik. Akad. Ujuiej. w Krakow. W^jdz. nmteni.-przyr. Tol. x. 1884, t. 14, 
i'. 3. Gutwinski in Rusprawy Akad. Umiej. Krakow. Wvdz. mat.-przyr. ser, 2, 
torn, xxxiii. ]89G, t. 7. f. GO. Schroder in Forschungsbericiiten a. d. Biol, 
ytiit. zu rion, Bd. Ti, t, 2, f. 3; and many otljcr examples which might be 

t C/r. Eateson, ' Study of Variation,' 1894, p. 509. 

^ . 

370 MK. G, S. WEST ON 

proLaWy more striking than those shown by any li\ing 
vegetable organiama of more complex cliaracter. Althougli 

merely unicellular organisms, major and minor symmetries are 
observed to play a prominent part in the construction of exquis?ite 
patterns; and the question of the *' significance of pattern '^ in 
these beautiful little plants la therefore one of deep interest. The 
complexity of outline so characteristic of the majority of Desmids 
has been stated to have been developed in all probability during 
tie gradual evolution of the Desmid-forms from the original 
filamentous Conjugates with cylindrical cells, the loss of the 
filamentous condition necessitating the development of some 
other protective characters. The acquirement by the unicell of 
these protective characters — protective not only against the de- 
predations of small aquatic animals, hut also in part protective as 
anchors in time of floods — has resulted in the division into lobes 
and often into toothed lobules, sometimes accompanied by a 
flattening of the cell, and at other times by the development 
of processes of multiform character, or of spines, \varts, or 
other protuberances. There is a Law of Symmetry recog- 
nizable in all living objects, a visible token of the law and 
order which everywhere accompany vital phenomena ; and in 
the acquirement of these wonderfully varied features and useful 
characters by this specialized family of plants this Law of 
Symmetry has exercised its full influence, resulting in the pro- 
duction of the exquisite patterns that are often met with. 

The presence of major and minor symmetries is most distinctly 

evident in some S]:)ecies of Micrasterias^ in which it often happens 
that only the corresponding lateral lobules agree in the extent 

of their subdivision ; cfr, i, h' in fig. 1 (p. 371). Another proof 
of tliis is found in the extraordinary variation sometimes met 

with in the corresponding lobules on each side of a seuilcell ; 
cfr, Gy a in fig, 1, 

In commenting on Cosmarium pileigernm^ Lagerh*, and some 
varieties of O. pseudotaxichondrum^ Nordst.,* the late lie v. 
Francis WoUe somewhat hastily states f that '^ Gr. v, Lagerheiu 
appears to give too much prominence to simple differentiations 
mere vagaries of the same species/' I have examined large numbers 


Vide G. V. Lagerlioim, *' Jlidrag till Amerikas Dcsmiclie-flora," Ol'vers. af 
K. Sv. Yet.-Akad. Forb. 1885, no. 7, p. 238. 

t F. Wolle, Freshw. Alg. of llie Vnitcd Slates, 1887, p. 32. 

ir. 7^. 

'■ zz\-r 




of examples of Cosmarium pseudotaxicliondrum and allied species 
andTarietica from many parts of the world, and can truly say 
thnt Prof. G. V. Lagerlieim did not give "too much prommence 
to simple differentiations," Many of these dilTerentiations are 
combinations of characters which are repeated in hundreds, and 
I may say in thousands, of individuals, and can therefore bo rightly 
considered as constituting distinct varieties. Moreover, how is it 
that identical species of these minute forms of plant-lifOj whicl 
WoUe would have us believe so easily give rise to differentiations 
and vagaries, are found in such widely separated places as 
Madagascar and the United States, with precisely the same 

Fig. L 


Seiuicell q[ ^licraaterias dcnticidata^ Brcb,, f'roLu AVrynose, Laiirashire. 


characters — the same markings, granule for granule ? Such is 

the case with 'Euasirxim trigihherum 


Now, if "permanent 

variation " (and I have attempted to show that tlieae varieties are 
permanent) did occur so readily, then in a very few generations 
the character of the species would bo totally changed; but the 
adducible evidence is quite against such a supposition. It must 
be admitted that in ail probability a vast period of time t has 

* West & G. S. West, " Freshw. Alg. of Madag.," Trans. Linn. Soc, Bot. 
8er. II. voL v. p. 53, pL vi. f. 22 ; " ]>[. Amer* Desm.," L c, pL 5, p. 245, pL xiv. 

t These lowly forms of plant-life, to r[iiote a somewhat generalized state- 
ment by Wallace (* Darwinism,' p. 114), occupy a position in the regetablo 
kingdom similar to that occupied by earthworms in the animal kingdom, 
" filling places in nature which would be left vacant if only highly organized 
plants existed. There is, therefore, no motive power to destroy or seriously 
to modify r.hem ; and they have lluis probably persisted, under sliglitly varying 
forms, through all geological time." The facts of distribution, although at 
present very imperfectly known, all tend to confirm the persistent nature of 
these plants. 

■ -^ 

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ela])sed since tlie original distribution of Euasirum trigiUemm 
in Madagascar and the United States, yet this species lias been 
perpetuated through this long period of time by two ?uch far- 
distant assemblages, and the resultant present-day N. American 
form, far from being greatly differentiated from the Malagasy 
type, is identical with it. It might be argued that this result 
1ms been obtained by a [jaralleliam of modification in the course 
of the evolution of these forms ; but this is most unlikely, as 
proved by the occurrence of many spedes with such a distribu- 
tion as the following -.--Micrasterias foUacea in North and South 
America, ludia, Burmah, and Queensland ; Triploceras gracile in 
North and South America, Europe, India, China, Australia, and 
New Zealand. I may also mention that the transference by 
natural means of living specimens of any Desmid from one of 
these countries to the other is an utter impossibility, desiccation, 
or in many cases even partial drying, being quickly followed by 
death, and submergence in sea- water is equally fatal *. More- 
over, zygospores, which might possibly withstand the entailed 
vicissitudes if circumstances arose by which they could be trans- 
ferred from one country to another (such as by the long flight 

wading- bird), are so rarely found that distribution by 
their means across an expanse of ocean is almost impossible. 
There is but one conclusion to be arrived at from a consideration 
of these facts, viz. : that such a species has been perpetuated by 
two isolated communities which were derived originally from one 
assemblage, and that the individuals of these communities have 
retained their original characters in an extraordinarily constant 




Tliis constancy of character is not only found in certain rare 
species of restricted distribution, such as those just mentioned, 
but in many much commoner species. Take, for instance, 
Bocidium Baculum, Breb. ; this plant has a world-wide distribu- 
tion t, and yet a Malagasy specimen of the type-form couJd 
not be distinguished from an English specimen. Erom these facts 

* One Desmid has been described as inhabiting brackish water — Cosinarium 
mlinum, Ilansgirg in Oesterr. bot. Zeitschr. 1886, p. 335; cfr. also "Prodrom. 
Algenfl. BGUui.," Archiv der iiaturwisseDSchaft. Laiidesdurchf. von Bohmen, 
1888, Ed. vi. no. 6, p. lU-4, cam f. 115. 

t Dvuldhim Baculum, Breb., is fotmd throughout the greater part of Europe 
and N. Aiueriua, also S. America, Northern India, Burmah, Madagascar, and 


one would conclude that tlie natural production of a i^ermanent 
variation iQ a Desinid-species is a more diilicult matter than at 

first imagined^ 

Notwithstanding the interesting nature of this subject, only 
two short papers have appeared treating directly upon the 
variability of the Desmidiea^. The first paper is by W. Schmidle *, 
in whichj after a consideration of the variability of the granules 
ornamenting Cosmarium pundatiimy Breb,, and its allies, he 
formulates the following statements: — " (1) Die Clilorophyll- 
strulcturist konstant beieiner Species dieselbo, (2) Die G-estalt 
der Zelle variirt innerhalb enger Grenzcn. (3) Die Si-heitel- 
ansicht zeigt konstant dasselbe Ausselien, (4) Die Granulation 
ist relativ sehr variabcL Doch ist eine gewisse Gcaetzmassigkeit 
iu der Anordnung der Punkte immer vorh.anden, so jcdoch, dass 
daduroh noch sehr heterogene Stellungen moglich sind." 

The second paper is by Borge t, and in it he remarks upon 
the variability of Closteriitm monilifernm^ Ehreub., Cosmariuvi 
sp. (= (7. Meneghinii var. p), and C\ BotrytiSj Menegh, : he also 
mentions cases of variability figured by De Wiidemann iu 

Euastrum eras sum ^hyVAWwi]^ in Micrasterias h\)\=^M pinna lift Ja 
forms), by Johnson m M. pinnatifida^ and by Borge iu Xanthidlum 
cristatum. Concerning Borge^s paper I need say no more, but 
the four conclusions arrived at by Schmidle require a little con- 

In tlie first place, with regard to the structure of the chloro- 
phyll, it may be said that llie recorded observations dealing with 
the variability of the cell-contents are so few as not to 
admit the formulation of any definite statement concerning it. 
A short account of all that is at present known about the subject 

is given at p. 399. 

More evidence is forthcoming as to the variation in the 

form and symmetry of the cell, all of wliich tends to show that 

there Is a variability of outline for each species within certain 

limits, these limits being very narrow and almost inappreciable 

in some but very wide in others. Schmidle's third statement 

with regard to the " Scheitelansicht " really comes under the 

* W. Schmidle," UcLcr die individuclle Variabilitlit eiiicr Cosmarienspecies," 

t 0. Borge, " Ueber die Yariabihtilt der Desruidiacccn/' Ufvers. af K. St, 
Vet.-Akad, FOrh. 1800, no. 4, pp. 28i>-:iD4, 

■■t: "jr- ' r 

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rf_V_-n-PT -kt " fc^W *T T-»r- --^ fcVT^^T 




variation in tlie form o£ the cell, and although in the majority o 
species the vertical view is more constant in outhne than the 
front view, yet there are some (e. g. Cosmarium biretmi, Brcb.) 
in which it is very variable. 

With rt^gard to the ornamentation embellishing the exterior 
of the cell-membrane, much more detailed observation is required 
before any precise statement can bo made eonceriiing its 
variation. In some species the variation is in the arrangement 
of the warts, granules, scrobiculations, spinc.^, &g., with whicli 
they are adorned ; and in these cases there may be a considerable 
range of variation, which nevertheless does not, except under 
rare circumstances, transgress those laws which regulate the 
disposition of the adornments on any particular species under 
consideration. A very good example of this is seen in Cosmarium 








Fig. 2 


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4 9 


ft\» ^ 

O ^ 

» o 


O & Qi 

p ° o o 

p a 

Q O 



.0 ' ^ Q * 

C o o A 






... .» 



Central scrobiculations o{ Xanthldiv.m antilopmmi, Kiiefz. x 520. 

a^d, from Thurslcy Common, Surrey; e, from Balljnahinch, W. Ireland ; 

f-k, from Piliiioor, near Thirsk, N. Yorks. 

orthostichmn, Lund.*, in which the large granules ornamenting 
the species are arranged on a fairly consistent plan and yet them- 
eelvca exhibit a notable variation, especially in the centre o£ the 
Remicells {cfr. PL 11. figs. l~l). Another illustration of this 
arrangement is ^^^ovdc^hj Staurastruvi ves[itnm,^ii.\hy in which 
the emarginiite warts on the dorsal surface are alwaya disposed 
on tlie same plan, no matter how variable the iuferior series 
(including the two furcate spines) may be. The central scrobicu- 
lations of Xanthidium antilopceum, Kuetz., although showino- 
much variation with regard to their size and the details of their 
disposition, are also arranged approximately in the form of a 
ring (fig. 2, a-h). 

* P. M. Limclell, " Dcsm. Suec/' Act. Ecg. Sop. Scicnt. Upsal. 1870, p 24 
t. 2. f. 9. 

-r 1 




In other species the variation may be confined wholly, or 
partially, to the extent to which some particular character is 
developed or suppressed. This is illustrated by Arthrodesmus 
convergens, Ehrenb., in which one type of variability is the 
multiform character of the simple lateral spines {cfr. fig. 4, 
p. 398). 

A few further remarks have also been made by Schmidle * on 
variation iu the genus Cosmarium, more particularlj with regard 
to C. striatum, Boidtj under which he Includes forms of seven 

I may here appro])riately recall a remark made by Walli^hf, 

that " the law which it is assutiicd gover/is the limits of a 



IS being so, it is diHicult to ima<dne the 

is no laic, but only a conditional direction, holding good only so 
long as the surrounding conditions continue the same," or, as 
amended by Turner X, " so long as the conditions of euvironmenfc 
remain the same through a lengthened period of time.'* It lias 
been already stated that specimens obtained from localities in 
which the conditions of environment are very diverse ciliibit 
no marked constitutional differences adaptive to their several 

possibility of a slight change in surrounding conditions seriously 
affecting the characters of a spacies, unless the chang.xl con- 
ditions continue to exist for a long period of time; and, again, 
any serious alteration in the characters of a species Is doubtless 
effected by several such changed conditions, each of which con- 
tinues for an extended epoch. That tlio Desmidicfc have existed 
tlirough a vast period of time in much the same forms as they 
exhibit at the present day is Inghly probable. 

The five statements which follow represent tlie result of the 
direct observations on variation iu this group of plants, and may, 
owing to our insuBFicient knowledge of the question, be sub- 
ject to further alterations. The first statement is a modification of 
ISchmidle's first propo-dtion ; the second ijicludes his second and 
third; in the third I disagree somewhat with the conclusions set 
down in his fourth ; and the fourth and fifth are additional. 

* W. Schmidle, "Aus dor Cliloropbyceen-1^1. dcr Torfstiche zu Vinilieim " 
Flora , ]&'J4, Ileft 1, pp. 52-56. 

t G. C. Wallich in letter to Archer; cfr. Traus. Diibl. Micr. Club, 1805. 

+ W. B. Turner, "Froslnv, Alg. of E. India," Kongl. St. Yct.-Akad. Ilandl 
Bd. xxT. no. 5, 1892, p. (>. 

r:a»= - V 


^r IE1-: r - 





1. T/i^ structure of the cell-contents is one of tlie most constant 
features exJiihited by a species ; hut this fact can he of Utile 
classificatory value owing to the very large number of species 

tohich possess the same structure and arrangement of the chroma- 

2> The outward form of the cell^ as seen- in front view\ varies 
within certain limits, ivhich are usually very small^ hut which may 
in exceptional cases he considerable. The form of the vertical 
view tSj as a rule^ a more constant feature than the form of the 
front view. 

3. The ornamentation (scrohiculafions^ granulations^ spinula- 
tions, ^'c.) of the cell-wa^U is relatively constant, being always 
arranged according to a definite law^ ivhich is only transgressed 
hy variations in one or more of the individual component groups 
ivhich constitute the pattern of arrangement, 

4. The prolific growth and rapid dtoision of immense numbers 
of Desmids have a tendency to produce variations from the typical 


5. Changes in the conditions of environment cannot affect the 
characters of a species unless they act for long periods of time. 

II. — Variations in Form and Symmetry. 

Considerable difficulties are encountered in the attempt to 
cultivate these plants under perfectly natural conditions, and all 


the variations described were found ia a state of nature. The 
following is a selected account of a few of those that I have 
observed during a prolonged study of the Dcsmidiese. 

Under this heading are included variations iu the arrangement 
and disposition of the m.nrkings adorning the cell-wall; and I 
would here urge the plea that all published figures of Desmids be 
made strictly accurate in detail, and not drawn approximittely so. 
In recent years many very inaccurate drawin^^s have been 
published, not only of previously described species, but also of 
3iew species and varieties*. Though it may seem presumptuous 

* That this is not the only branch of niicroscopicjil science in -which groaa 
inaccuracy w.^th regard to detail is prevalent is clearly seen from remarks 
made by C. F. EoiisseJet, ''Second List of Ji'ew Eotifers since 1889,'* Jouru. 
Koy. Micr. Soc, 1897, p. 10, in ^Yhicll lie states that some of the publislied 
'* figures and descriptions are quite useless as aids to further identification," 
He also remarks that "it would be Aery desirable in the interest of science if 



fo state that the figure hy which a person lias illustrated one 
of hia o;Yn species is not accurate, yet it is undoubtedly 
true that many of these figures can be seen at a glance to Le 
erroneous, not merely in detail, but also in their proportions, such 
proportions as are represented being incompatible with the 
symmetry of the plant. 

A careful scrutiny of any species of Desmid suffices to demon- 
strate in its external morphological characters the presence of 
an inherent Symmetry and Ecpotition of Parts, and if, by careful 
study, the nature of this Symmetry were thoroughly understood 
in each species described, many unfortunate misconceptions and 
much useless synonymy would be avoided. 

1. Penium SPiROSTuroLiTUir, Barker, in Quart. Journ. 3Iicr. 
Sc, New Ser-, vol, ix,p. 191.— This interesting specie?, which is 
widely distributed through Europe and X. America, and is also 
recorded from India, Burmah, and Siberia, was described by 
Barker (I. o.) in 18Gf) from specimens obtained in Ireland, and 
was first figured by Turner in 1SS5 (''Some Xew and Pare 
Desm,/' Journ. Eoy. Micr, Soc. scr, II. vol. v, t. 16, f. 20) from 
specimens obtained from Minnesota, U.S.A. In 1875 a plant 
was described by Jacobsen as Closferium spiraliferum ('^Desm. 
Danm.," Botanisk Tidsskrift, Kjobcnharn, p. 177, t. 7. t S) 
and in 18S3 Schaarsehmidt described Penmm IIaj/?iaIJii ('' Ma^yw 
Dcsm.," Magyar. Tudom. Akad. niatlu a. Terme.szcttud, Kuzle- 

menyek, vol. xviii. p. 277, t. 1. f. 20). These two plants are un- 
douhtcdly forms of this species. More recently, in 1803, Turner 
has given diagnoses and figures of three forms which he distin- 
guishes as P. spirostrlolaium, Barker, F. Boyanum, W. B. Turn., 
and P. scandinavicnm^ AV. B. Turn, {cfr, Kui 
TLmdL Bd. xxv. no, 5, pp. 165-0. t, 23, W. 3-7). These are un- 
doubtedly mere forms of one species (P. spirostriolafum, Barker), 
and are not very accurately described or figured, Piguresof this 
species were also given by West in Juurn. Eoy. Micr. Soc, 1890, 
t. (j. f. 24, but these are uot y^vy accurate. 

The following observations were made from a lar'^e series of 

students of the Eotifera would exercise more care and discretion, and avoid 
giving new names on the aliglUest pretext, wlieu it is well known that in many 
cases tl;e original ligures and deseriptiona are not perfect or complete, and that 
most specks urj liable to considerable variation." 

Mimi iip^^iii__ ■■ ■■^■^ ^'^ ;mj-^^h I I \^ M. mi ■ I I I I r.'^ --r ■■ ■ J BTMy^p— rrwgi-ri^^»i 

378 ivih-'g. s. avest o?r 

f^})Ccinions obtained from many parts o£ tlie Briti:>h Isles and tlie 
United States, and exhibit many points in the morpbological 
.structure of the plant that were previously unlaiown, as well aa 
proving conclusively that the above-mentioned species are merely 

forms of one plant. 

This rare species oiFenium generally frequents the few Dea- 
mid-bearing places in the bogs of mountainous countries, and is 
remarkable among all other De.^mids as j^ossessing a considerable 
]mmber of transverse sutures. Each transverse suture observed 
on the cell-wall of a Desmid represents a position at which cell- 
division has taken ])lace, and as I have observed as many as 
bixicen distinct transverse sutures iti one individual of this 
species (long, 212 /j, hit. 25/i) from Oughtershaw Tarn, W. 
Yorks., distributed at intervals from end to end, it follows that 
this plant had undergone cell-division at sixteen different points 
along its length. This is noteworthy, as in the vast majority of 
Desinids cell-division can take place only at one point (the 
it^lhmns) situated in a median position between the two ends *. 

There is a wide range of variation in the comparative 
length and breadth of this species as well as in outward form. 
One of the shortest specimens (long. 12r]^, lat. 24 ^u) was only 
51 times longer than broad, and one of the longest forms (long. 
274 /i, lat. 23 /x) was 11'9 times longer than broad, behig over 
twice as long as the former. Two specimens of the same br^'adth, 
26^, had lengths of 179^ and 221 /x respectively. This large 
range of variation in comparative length and breadth is owing to 
the inequality in the positions of the sutures, for if division were 
to take place at a suture near to one end of the cell, and the 
newly developed halves ultimately became of approximately the 
&ame proportions as the corresponding parent halves, then along 
and a short individual would be j^roduced. The irregularity in 
the position of the sutures also accounts for the marked varia- 
tions in outward form, because if the newly developed half be 
not exactly equal in length to the correspondent parent h.alf (and 
if division takes place at a suture near one end these halves are 

* In BOine species of Clostcrinm there are two, or even three, transverse 
sutures, and cell-divi^^ion can take place at three points along the cell. T have 
seen as many as 21 transverse lines at one of theee points in a specimen of 
Closterium striolatum from West Ireland; yet, in this specimen, cell-division 
could take place at only two points distant about one third the length of the 
cell from each apex.^ 

■ 1 



proLablj never exactly equal) that section of the cell-wall whicli 
previously enclosed a median portion of the cell no longer does 
so, and^ In this way, in the course of many divisions, a short 
cylindrical portion of the cell-wall, which once occupied a central 
position in the cell, may become shifted about, first towards ouo 
end and then towards the other. Thus tbe widest part of the 
cell may be at any point between the two ends. 

In some specimens the apices are considerably dilated, in others 
not at all, and all stages are met with intermediate between 
these extremes. 

The striolatiou of the cell-wall is the most variable character 
of the species, the striolations being coarse, fine, or broken up 
into series of dots even in different individuals from the same 
gathering, thus exhibiting the main characters of the three forms 
described by Turner as Penium sprostriolatum, P. scandinavicum, 
and P. Boyaniim. The number seen at one time across tbe cell 
varies from about 8 to 13, and this variation may be seen on one 
individual, the striolations being more crowded at some parts of 
the cell-wall than at others. In one individual two striatious 
were observed to be 2-3 ^ apart, and tiic distance between one of 
these and the next one was ry2 fi. They are generally arrauged 
round the cell in a spiral manner from apex to apex, and may 
make about 1^ turns in the whole length of the cell • but in the 
majority of specimens they are much straighter than this, and in 
some are longitudinal although not quite straight. They are not 
always continuous from end to end, but often run only part of 
the distance and then fade away or join with a neighbouring 
Btriolation. In many cases they are very irregular (PI. 8. 
figs. 2, 4, 6, 9, 12), and a reticulation is often present joining 
together several, or all of them. This reticulation may not be 
very marked (PL 8. fig. 2), or it may be concentrated towards 
the middle of the cell (PL 8. fig. 3). In many examples there is 
a marked reticulation at the end of the cell (PL 8. fig. 8), and 
sometimes a reticulated zone is present just below the apex 
(PL 8. fig. 10). Most specimens have a distinct convex apical 
cap which is strongly punctate, the punetulations being con- 
tinuous with those between the striolations. All the specimens 
I have examined were punctate between the striolations, some 
strongly and others faintly ; but I have seen no specimen without 
these punetulations, however minute they may have been, I 





liave not been able to determine definitely whether the striola- 
tions are the thickest or the tliinnest parta of the cell-wall, bu* 
there is every indication tliat they are internal thickenings* In 
the majority of instances the edges of the striolations are not 
ismooth, but exhibit various degrees of roughness, and in some 
specimens under a particular focus a reticulation is perceived 
to exist betAveen the punctulations apparently connecting the 

striolations together (ri 8. fig. 11). 

Trom these facts it is clearly evident that the three species sepa- 
rated by Turner, and based upon differences in the strength of 
striolations, are merely forms of one and the same plant. The 
striolations have been shown to vary considerably in number 
and strength in different individuals in the same gathering, even 
on different parts of the same individual, and upon these cha- 
racters Turner based his separation of Penium spirostriolatum and 
P. scandinavicum. In some examples the striolations frequently 
become discontinuous, forming series of dots {cfi\ PI. 8. figs. 3, 4, 
& G) ; and as this character was utilized to separate P. Eoyaimvi, 
this species must also be rcgi^rded as a mere form of P. spiro- 

2. Closteeium steiolatum, ETirenh. — The small amount of 
variation met with in specimens of this species is mainly found 
in tlie comparative breadth of the apices and the middle portion 
of the cell, and in the striolation of the cell-wall. The following 
table shows this variation in a series of specimens from three 
localities : 

Specimens from 

Epping Forest, Essex 

Olaphanij Yorks, 

Breadth com- 

piircd with 


(average of 25 

Frensham, Surrey 

1 : 7-97 
1 : 8-65 

1 : 11-64 

breadth of 
apex com- 
pared with 
diameter of 

1 : 2-41 
1 : 2^5 

1 : 2-07 

breadth of 

apex com- 
pared with 
diameter of 

of strio- 
lations in 
20 jw. 

1 : 302 
1 : 2*51 






Tlie specimens from ilie Surrey locality \sere not only longer 



than usual, but the apices were proportionately broader and more 
inflated tliaa is generally the case in this species. The Yorkshire 
specimens had no trace of an inflation at the apices, and the 
cell-M^all was almost colourless, this being a common feature of 
mountain specimens of Clostcrium sfriolatttm. It might be 
inferred from the preceding table tliat the sliortest and broadest 
forms possess the fewest striatious (only 13 iu 20 /i), but that 
this is not so is shown by the fact that equally short specimens 


1 : l'7o) from Cam PelJ, W, Torks., possessed 

17 striatlons in 20^. In a large series of specimens a con- 
siderable range of curvature is found, from the ordinary regu- 
larly curved examples to individuals which are almost straight 
{and generally short)- 
central portion of the eel! 

Some of the longer forms have the 

straight and 

apices considerably 
curved; these forms have been named var. ortlioiiotumy Eoy (in 
Joum. Bot xxviii. 1S90, p. 33G). 

Towards the attenuated ends of the cell the striolations become 
fcAver iu number, and this redaction may be caused in two ways : 
either by the gradual fading out of a few of the striolations, or by 
the fusion of some of them before they reach the apex (fig, 3). 
This fusion takes place very gradually (fig. 3, «), or, more rarely, 
suddenly (fig. 3, h). The cell-wall between the striolations is 
very minutely punctulatc, the punctulations being marked in 
some instauceSj but almost inappreciable in others. 

Fig. ?. 

a * 


Part of tlie cell-wall of three specimens of Closiermm striolatum^ Ehrenb 

From Frensham, Surrey. X 1280. 

The average British specimens of this species have a gradual 

• 2n2 


Mil. G. S. WEST ON 

and regular curvature, and there is no trace of a ventral inflation ; 
whereas tlie average N.-American specimens, besides being of 
larger dimensions, have a distinct small inflation on the ventral 

The following 

surface and proportionately narrower ends. 

dimensions arc those of a specimen from Nova Scotia for com- 

parison with those of the 


specimens tabulated on 

p, 380: — Long. 380 ju ; lat. 53/^ : lat. apic. 14 ft. 

3. CLOSTEEiuii KuETziT^^Gir, Brcl)., in Mem. Soc, Sci. NaU 
Cherbourg, vol. iv, 185B, p. 156, t. 2. f. 40. — This is a species 
which retains a comparatively constant outward form, but ex- 
hibits considerable variatioji in the extent (^f the ventral inflation 
of the semicells and in the striolationa of the cell-wall. 

The annexed table is a comparison of the measurements, &c., 
of several specimens taken from various parts of the country. 
The striatipns on those from Oxfordshire were not only fewer in 
number, but relatively stronger than those present on th 
majority of individuals from other localities, and for this reason 
the Oxfordshire examples might properly be relegated to Tar, 
vittatum, Nordst. {'' Alg(d. Smasak./' BoL Notiser,18S7, p. 1G3). 

Specimens from 


W. Yorkshire 





410 /x 

21 •:. fi 

426 /f 


430 /i 

14 ju 

434 /i 


Breadth : 
length . 

St riolations 

in 10 


1 : 1907 
1 : 18-r> 
1 : 30 7 

1 : 25-5 





4. EuAsxKUM DiDELTA, Italfs, in Ann. Sf Mag. Nat. ITist. 
vol. xiv. 1844, p. 100, t. 7. f. 2. — TIuh species, Avhich, in temperate 
regions, is one o£ the most widely distributed of the genu?, was 
first described as Cosmnrimn Didclta by Meneghiiii, " Spiopg. 
Desm.," Linnsea, 1840, p. 219, the name HeterocarpeUa Didclta 
having been given by Turpin (in Mem. du Mu?. d'Hist. Nat. Paris, 
1828, torn. xvi. p. 315, t. 13. f. IG) to a plant of doubtful 
identity. Many forms of the species have been described, amono- 
which the following may be mentioned :— var. sinuatum, F. Gay, 
"Essai Monogr. Conj.," Montpellier, 18S4, p, 56, t. 1. f. H • 

- \ 


var.j Arclaer, in Quart. Jourii. Micr. Sci, 1875, p» 414; var. 
tatricum^ E.acib(trski, Pamietnik Wydz. Akad, Umiej* w Krakow. 
voL X, p. 92, t. 13. f. 3 ; forma, Schmidle, in Ocsterr. hot, 
Zeitsclir. xlv. 1S95, no. 7, p. 22, t. 16. f. 6, &c. ; and I also 
give figures of some forms from widely separated localities 
(PI. 8. figs. 13-19) which will illustrate the considerable range of 
variation that is often met with. Some of these forms are more 
or less transitional between Etiastrum ajjine^ lialfs, ^. am- 

^uUaceum,liul^Sj E, liuvicrosum^ Kalfs, and E. citneaticm, Jenner. 

5. MiCRASTEKiAS TEU^^CATA, Brch.y hi Ralfs^ Brit. Besm. 
1848, p. 75, t. S, f. 4, t. 10. f. o. — This species, which was fir^t 
described as Cosmariiim fmncatam by Corda in ^ Almanach do 
Carlsbad; 1S35, p. 180, t. 2. ff". 23-24, is probably the most 
generally distributed Britisli species of the geuusj and is often 
found up to considerable altitudes in mountain SpJiapium-hog^. 
It is equally widely distributed throughout continental Europe 
and North America, and for this reason it has frequeJitly been 
made the subject of remarks by both English and foreign 
botanists. About twenty varieties have been described by 
diflferent observers, many of which are not only connected with 
the typical plant by series of intermediate forms, but also con- 
nected one with another by similar intermediate series. Perhaps 
the most interesting series of variations are those described 
and figured by Jacobscn in ' Botani^^k Tidsskrift/ vol- viii. 1875, 
p. 152, t. 8, &\ 2'S. These figures alone show that the species 
is subject to very considerable variation, and an examination of 
any gathering in which it is abundant will afford ample evidence 
that this variation is of frequent occurrence. Adding to this 
the rather remarlvable fact that forms met with from different 
localities are rarely, if ever, identical in the extent and disposi- 
tion of their lobulation, it behoves one to make an exceptionally 
careful study of the species before definitely assigning a varietal 
name to any individual specimen under consideration. 

This is w^ell illustrated by the figures I have given (PL 9. 
figs. 9-16) of eight specimens, each from widely separated 
localities, and drawn under the same magnification. They show 
the wide range of variation in outward form, in the extent of 
the lateral lobulation, the considerable differences met with in 
the nature of the lateral incisions, the disparity in size, and the 
variations in the comparative length and breadth of the indi- 

"T^f« ■ ■'! PVii ^-r^— - ~ 1-' '- - ^ - ■ — - -- - --.^- r - ppi II L^ 


;jS4 MR. G. S, WEST OX 

viduals. The smallest specimen U from Miuncsota, U,S.A. : 
long. 102 jj, ht 98 ft ; the largest from Capel Curig, N< Wales : 
long. 13S /i, lat. 129 fx. 

6* MrcRASTERiAS DEXTicuLATA, Breb,^ in Mem, Soo, AcacL 
Sc, art. Fdlaise^ 1835, p. 54, t. 8. — This species^ although not 
quite so generally abundant as M. truncata^ is by no means 
uncommcu, and has a world-wide distribution. Many variations 
have been described in the lobulation of the margin of the cell 
and in tlie form of the polar lobes ; but I will confine my remarks- 
to some other peculiaritict^ frequently exhibited. In 1862, 
Archer described a species of this genus under the name of 
M* Thomasiana (Proc. Dubl, N"at. Hist. Soc. p. 72, t. 2. ff. 1-5 ; 
Micr. Journ. p. 259, t. 12), and, although a typical specimen of 
Archer's species possesses quite sufiicieiit spci'ific difPerences to 
separate it easily from M. dcnticitlata^ yet many intermediate 

forms are constantly met with. This fact hiduced Jacobseii 
(Botan. Tidsskrift, vol. viii. 1875, p. 187) to regard ilf. Thomasiana 

as forma Thomasiana of M. denticidata. AV^hethcr he wuB fully 
justified in so doing may long remain an open question, but 
there is no doubt that the main distiuguishing feature of M. 
Thomasiana (the three large protuberances at the base of each 
semicell) is subject to very considerable variation- l^igs. 2-5, 
PL 9j represent a few vertical \le\\^ of intoimediate furuis, 
which show tlie extent to which the median protuberances may 

be developed or suppressed. The extremities of these pro- 
tuberances may be rounded, papillate, or even bidentate {cfr. 
figs. 8, 5-8), and it not unfrcquently happens that more than 
three are present on each Bide (fig. 5). The latter is, moreover, 
a form counectiug M, clenticulata^ Breb., with a species recently 
described by Bisset in S(*ott. jS'at. 1803, p. 17-1, t. i. f. 2, as 
M. verrucosa. Individuals are often met with in which only two 
of these basal protuberances are present (figs* G & 7) ; and the 
smaller denticulations on the surface of the cell, which have 

a defiaite arrangement in the typical form of M, Thomasiana^ 
are frequently quite irregular in their disposition (figs. 1, 7, & 8). 
The lobulation of the margin of the eel! is described as being 
more acutely dentate in M, Thomasiana than in M. denticulata; 
but specimens of the latter species often possess an acutely 
dentate lobulatiouj without any of those more salient characters 
appertaining to M, Thomasiana, 



r t - rw 

386 ME. Q. S. WEST OlS 

The variations in the relative proportions of this species are 
illustrated by the preceding diagram (p. 385), which is con- 
structed to show the independent variation in different directions 
of the length, hreadth, and isthmus. The specimens are taken 
purposely from widely separated localities. 

7. XANTnrniiTM Smitutt, Arch., var. vabiabile, JSfordst., 
" Algol. Smtisak.;' Bot. Notlser, 1887, p. 159 ; Kongl. Sv. VeL- 
Akad. Ilandl. Bd. xxii. no. 8, 1888, p. 44, t. 4. ff. 27-29.— I 
have seen this plant in many parts of the British Isles, some- 
times in large quantity, and at other times very sparingly, but 
in all cases in SpJiagntm-hogs. From the constant manner in 
which it retains its distinctive features, I am ranch inclined to 
regard it as a separate species apart from X. SmitUi, Arch. 
The semicells are usually pyramidate, with broadly truncate 
apices, but many forma are met with intermediate between such 
a trapezoid and a rectangular semiceil. There are three spines 
at each of the basal angles, these showing most distinctly at each 
of the poles of the vertical view. The latter are described 
and tigured by Nordstedt {I. c.) as truncate, but I always find 
them to be rounded, and this has elsewhere been mentioned to 
be the case {cfr. Jouru. Tiuj. Mier. Soc. 1896, p. 156). Three 
spines are generally present at each of the superior angles of 
the semicells, althougli two or even four are not uncommonly 
observed, and then- disj)osition is often somewhat irregular 
{cjy. PI. 8. figs. 20-22, h, V of vertical views). The centrafpro- 
tuberance in the great majority of specimens is in the form of a 
simple papilla, but in a few I have observed it to be truncate and 
trituberculate (PL 8. figs. 20, a & h). 

8. CosMAEiuM L.EVE, Raheiili., Flor, Europ. Algar. iii. 1868, 
p. ] 01.— This species, figured by Nordstedt in Ofvers. af k! 
Vet.-Akad. Eorh. 1S70, no. 6, t. 12. f. 4, is subject to consider- 
able variation in the form of the semicells. Those of the typical 
form are of a somewhat semielliptical or subsemicircular outline, 
and very slightly retuse in the middle of the apex, the latter 
feature being characteristic of all forms of the species. A pure 
gathering obtained from the North of France consisted of very 
fine, large forms, mostly typical in outline (PI. 10. figs. 1 & 2), 
but in some cases with a tendency of the semicells to become 
more rounded: long. 28-34 yu ; lat. 10-23 /z; lat. isthm. 5-5-8 u. 



In another almost pure gathering of this species from Hanka 
Deela, Somaliland, the specimens wore smaller (long. 19'5-28/i ; 
lat. 11'5-17/i ; lat. isthm. 3-5 ^), more elongate and somewhat 
HDgular, many of them approaching the var. septentrionale^ 
Wille C' Eersky. A ^ 
Torh. 1879, no. 5, p* 43, t. 12, f. 31). This variety has heen 
considered by some authors to he more nearly related to Cos- 
marlitm Menegliimi^ Breb, (in Ealf^, Brit. Desm. p. 9G, t. xv. 
f. 6) than to <7. l(Bve^ Eabcnh. ; but I think the range of variation 
exhibited by the spechnens from Somaliland proves this supposi- 
tion to bo erroneous, all intermediate sjfcagct^ between typical 
G. Icrve and the var. septentrional e being met with in this one 

C l<£ve var. septentrionale is very frequent in this country, 

and is it^^elf subject to a certain amount of variation, especially 
with regard to the angularity of the semicells and the character 
of the superior lateral margins, the latter often exhibiting a 
marked undulation, I ligure several such specimens : one from 
Bowness, AV^eslmoreland, long. 25*5^, lat. IG^, lat. isthm. 4*8^, 
crass. 9 ^i (PI. 10. fig. 8); one from near Gigglcswick, AY. Torks., 
long. 24 ju, lat. 15 /i, lat. isthm. 5'2 /x (PL 10, fig. 7) ; and one 
from Epping Porest, Essex, long. 24 //, lat. 15"5 /i, lat. isthm. 
5-5 11 (PL 10. fig. 9). 

The cell-membrane of the typical form is delicately scrobiculate, 
but that of the var. septentrionale is generally smooth. 

9. CosMAHTU.M IIegnksii, Meinsch^ ^* Algenjl, von Franh.r 
Abltandl* Naturliistor. Geselhch. Nilrnherg^ Bd, iii. 1866, p. 112, 
t* 7. f- 8-— This minute species is not unfrequent in many of 
the mountain localities rich in Dcsmids, and any account of its 
various forms must necessarily be of particular interest. 

In a gathering from Spkagnitm and TItricularia minor on 
Puttenham Common, Surrey, an immense nuniber of individuals 
were obtained in active division. The specimens were typical in 
size (long, 6-10/i; lat. 6*2-9'5 ii ; lat. isthm. 3-4'7 \i\ crass. 5 ^u) 
and many of them typical in outline ; i. e,^ the seraicells were 
transversely oblong, with slightly retuse lateral margins, with the 
inferior and superior angles mncrojiulatc, and w^ith tw^o small 
macros, one on each side of a refuse middle portion of the apex 
(PL 10. figs. 10, 12, 13, 15, 16). Some of the specimens, how- 
ever, had the inferior angles of the seraicells slightly emarginate, 

jffT- ™t -^-w^-— r-^T- y '^^ ^, -x 

■ tf 

I-'- ■■■ 




this resulting in a conspicuous alteration in the form o£ the sinus 
(PI. 10- figs, 11, 14, 17). Many stages were observed in the 
division of the cells, and it often happened that a second division 
of the cells commenced before the first was completed. This 
sometimes continued until several immature cells intervened 
between the original adult semicells (PL 10. figs. 14, 15)» A 
precise parallel to this is seen in Staurastrum Irachiatuvt, 
Jialls (cfr, AVest & Q, S. West in Journ. Hoj. Micr, Soc. 1896, 
p. 159, t- 4. ff. 55--5G). In some cases division had taken place 
in one of these undeveloped cells which had previously become 
free, and on the completion of this division the newly-formed 
semicells wore typical, showing that if a characteristic feature of 
a species be absent from any individual, it mny be produced at 
its maximinn In the semicells of a succeeding generation (PL 10, 
figs. IG, 17). 

In a gatlicring of an immense quantity of this species from 
Eiccall Common, E* Yorks., the specimens were all of a rather 
large size (long. 10-12-5 [i ; lat. 8*G-10"5 /x ; lat. islhm, 3^6-4'5 /i;. 
crass* 5 /i), and the superior angles were in many cases emar- 
ginate (rj, 10. figs, IS, 19). 

Prom Pilmoor, N. Yorkshire, two forms were seen: one small 

form with much rounded semicells (long. G-6^ ; lat, G"6-7*4juj 

lat. isthm. 3*7^; crass. 3'9 /u), which might be regarded as var, 

trititm^ West & Gr. S. A7cst in Trans. Linn. Soc, Bot. scr. II, 

vol. V. 1895, p. 59, t. 9. f. 24 (PI. 10. fig. 20) ; and another very 

large form with somewliat rectangular semicells and frequently 

with emarginate tmperior angles (long. 10"9-11'7^; lat, lO'l- 
10'9^; lat- isthm. 4'G-5'G^; crass, 5'4 /j). This is the plant 

described by A. W. IJennett aa Euastntm crcnulatiim'^ in Journ, 

Eoy. Micr. Soc. 1887, p. 17, t. 4. if. 20-21. 

Great variation is met with in the vertical view of this species, 

some examples appearing quite elliptical, others having slightly 

tumid lateral margins and rounded poles, and yet others possess- 

ing a prominent protuberance in the middle on each side and a 
distlucf", though smaller, one on each side near the poles {cfr. 
PL 10. figs. 11, 19, 20, 21, h). The extent to which these pro- 
tuberances are developed varies greatly even in specimens from 
the same locality, and this has induced me to remark upon a very 
interesting point. 

Eennett'a figure of the side view of this plant is incorrect. 


r t « 


la 1894 Eicliler & Gruhvinski described a ya>v, polonicum o^ 
Gosmariitm NoecE-ScmlicB^ Wille (liospr, "VTydz. matcm.-przyr. 
Akad. Umiej, Krakow, tom. xxviiu p, 170, t. 5» f, 27), and the year 
following Schmidle described a var. montanum of G. Befjnesii 
(efr, ' Hedwigia/ 1895, p. 7-i, t. 1. f. 9; Oestorr. Bot. Zeitsclir. 
xlv, lS95j p- 3S9j t. 15. f. 11), About the same time a species was 
described as <7. Pseudoregncsii {cf)\ West & Gr, S, West, Trans- 
Linu, Soc, Bot. scr.ii, vol. v* p. 59, t. G. ff. 42-43) ; and shortly 
afterwards these wxro sliowu to be identical forms, all referable 
to G Merjncsii or C. Pseiuhregnesii (efr. AYest & G. S. West 
in Journ. Bot. sxxiv. 189G, p, 33G-7). Schmidle has since termed 
his form G, montanum ; but I think that a consideration of the 
variations described above as occurring in C. Begnesii proves 
conclusively tlmt Ids species cannot be separated from the latter 
except as a variety, and therefore all the above-mentioned 
forms will fall nnder G. Hegnesii, Keinsch, and its var. montanum^ 

10. CosMAEiVM :cii£i::TUxr, Breh.y in Ralfs, Brit. Desm, 1848, 
p. 102, t. IG. f. 5. — This Desmid is by no means frequent, 
and seems to have a preference for the marshes of low-lying 
districts, in which situations it is sometimes obtained in 

In a gathering of an immense quantity of this species from 
Welsh Harp, Middlesex, many variations in form Avore observed. 
The typical form of the semicells may be described as subrect- 
angular with the lateral margins slightly dlvergentj the basal 
and apical angles roundedj and the apex somewhat convex. The 
divergence of the lateral margins varies very much {cfr. PL 10. 
figs. 22 & 26), and this causes the semicells of some forms to 
possess a much broader apex than those of others. The con- 
formation of the apex is also markedly different in ditferent 
individuals. In some it is straight or but slightly convex, and 
may be even retuse in the middle, whereas in others it is strikingly 
elevated, being very convex and often truncate iu the median 
part (PI. 10. figs. 25, 26). These two conformations of the apex 
may, however, be found in the semicells of the same individual. 

There is a considerable range in the size and in the roundness 
of the angles of this type of G, hirctitm, distinguished by its 
single inflation on each side of the vertical view. This latter 
character varied, in specimens from the same gathering, from a 

■^- n r 


MU. a. S. WEST ON 

scarcely appreciable swelliaij on oacli side to a protu"berance of 
some magnitude (cfr. PL 10. figs. 27, 28), In 1879 Wille de- 
scribed a var- intermedium of this species (" Ferskv. Alg, fra 
Nov. Seml.;^ Ofverd. af K. Yet.-Akad. Porh. 1879, no. 5, p. 35, 
t. 12. f. 15)^ and in 1888 T3oldt described two fonns — forma 
groenlandica and forma suhconspersa (''Dcsmid. fran Grronl.,'' 
Eiliang till K. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Ilandl. Bd. xiii. Afd. iii. no. 5, 
p. 25, t. 2. f. 2G) ; but tlicse forms do not possess any cbaracters 
sufficiently definite for tliera to have received varietal names, as 
all tLrco of them, and all intermediate stages, were abundant in 
the gathering from Welsh Harp, Middlesex, Thus it may be said 
that the semicells of typical Cosmaritim hiretum may possess any 

approximately subrectangular 


polygonal contour, and in 

vertical view may possess anything between a well-marked pro- 
tuberance in the middle on each side and a scarcely appreciable 

A second type of this species, more rarely found, exhibits 
rather different characters. In 1S75 Nordstedt described two 
forms (" Dcsm. Arct./' Ofvcrs. af K. Vet.-Akad, Porh. no. 6, 
p. 2(jj t. 7. fE. 18, 19) which he named forma sup crnumcr aria 
and subsp, trigihherum. These are each characterized by the 
possession of three protuberances on each side in the vertical 
vicWj a (central one and one close to each end, I always find 
this second type of Q, hiretum^ although showing a considerable 
range of variation in outline, to be more rounded in ireneral 

Cosmarlu/ii hircfitni. 

Fir^t li/p e\ \v i t ] 1 o n e 
inflation on cuch 
side uJ' vertical 

VI e \v . 

Second tt/pe (\nr. 
trigibbcrum): with 

three inflations 
on (.'aoh side of 
vertical view. 

Proportion of 
breadtli to 



Average of u 
number of 


1 : 113 

1 : 1-04 


of largest 

Long. 48 p ; lat, 

51 p,\ lat. 
isthriK ir>/*. 

Long. 57*5 /t ; 
lat. 54^; lat. 

isthm. 21 ju. 


of smallest 


Long. 38^; lat. 
3f> IX ; lat. 
iBthni. 13 p.. 

Long. 43 ^ ; lat. 
38 ijl ; lat. 
isthm. 12 IX. 


23 /i. 



J ■> 



contour and rarely to possess semicells v:ith divergent lateral 
margins. The three protuberances on each side of the vertical 
view may be slight aud more or Ic^a of equal size, or tbe central 
one may be much larger than the other two, the latter varying 
in their relative proximity to the ends (PL 10- figs. 32 bj 3B, 

From the table on p. 390 it is seen that although the first 
type is relatively a little longer than the second, the latter 
reaches the largest dimensions, especially with regard to 


The granulation of these two types is precisely the same ; in 
fact, I sliould be justified in saying that tlie granulation of this 
species is its most constant feature, being eminently characteristic 
of all its forms. 

11. CosMA"RiTJM oirmosTiciiuMj Litnd.y^^ Desw. Suec.,'^ Act^ 

Soc. Scienf. UpsaL 1870, p. 24, t. 2. f. 9. — This species is 
characterized by the possession of large granules arranged in 
approximately vertical and horizontal series across the surface 
of the semirclls. The vertical arrangement is generally more 
readily discernible than the horizontal, the latter being at times 
replaced by oblique series. In the centre of the semicells 
the granules exhibit a variation with regard to their relative 
size, and in certain individuals one or more of them may be 
duplicated. In the vertical view the granules may show a 

distinct arrangement in transverse lines, or a clear space may 
be evident in the centre. Cfr. PL 11. figs. 1-4- 

12, Statjrastiium: 


Be&m.l' LinncEa, 1840, p. 228. — In a gathering of a large quantity 
of this species from Eoundhay Park, "VV- Torks., the semicells 
were observed to vary considerably in outward form. In some 
examples they were perfectly elliptical, in others reniform, in 
others elliptico-semicircular, and in many cases distinct basal 
angles were present, causing an almost linear sinus. Speci- 
mens were noticed with one scmicell triangular and the other 
quadrangular, but the presence of both a three-angled and a 
four -angled semicell on the same plant is a variation of very 
frequent occurrence in species of this genus. 

13. Statjbastrum: beachiatlm^ Ralfs, Brit, Desm. 1848, 
p. 131, t. 23. f. 9. — This species frequents the most suitable 




i ■ r - -._ ■ 


'^ -^tT 

■ t 




portionci of Sphagmtm-hog^^ in which situations it may sometimes 
be obtained in abundance. It is subject to considerable yaria- 
tion in tlje character of its smooth processes* In some forms 
they are k)ng and gradually attenuate to the apex, which is 
bifurcate (PL 11. figR. 5 & 12); in others there is a distinct 
constriction near the apices of the processes immediately below 
the bifurcation (PI. 11. figs, 10 & 11); and it often happens that 
the divisions of the furcate apices are much rounded, being in 
some cases almost totally reduced (PL 11. figs. 6, 7, and 11). 
The latter forms are produced by rapid division of the cells, 
^ome of these forms are proportionately broader than others. 
Long. c. proc. 27-30*5 /x; lat. c. proc, 27-lS^. 

I have examined a form with short, thick processes and widely 
furcate apices, from several localities, notably from Slieve 
Donurd, Co. Down, Ireland, and from Cornwall, from which 
places pure gatherings of the form were obtained. The apices of 
the processes were bi- or trifurcate, both types being present in 
the processes of the same cell, or even of the same semicell, and 
the divisions of the apex were large and acute. Long. c. proc. 
7-29 /( ; lat, c. proc. 25-31 ^- The processes of one semicell 
more or less alternate with those of the other, the amount of 
twist of the two scmicoUs varying very considerably in diiFerent 

Some remarkable forms of this species from Ireland were 
noticed, in which a scries of immature segments w^ere present 
between the adult semicells {cfr. Jonrn. Eoy. Micr. Soc. 1896, 
p. 159, t. 4. if. 5i-55). ]N"o species is known in which the 
zygospore exhibits so much variation as it does in S. hrachiaium. 

11. Staukastku.u ItEiNscnir, liojj, in Scott, Nat. 1SS3, p. 39. 
This plant was first mentioned by Eeinsch as ^' Staurastrum isp." 
in his ' Contrib. ad Algol, et Fung.' vol. i. Lipsise, 1875, p. 86, 
t. 17. f. 5, and was shortly afterwards described by Eoy, who 
found it from several localities in Scotland, as S. BeinscJiii, I 
find it frequently in this country, more , particularly in upland 
SpJtagnumA)Og^^ in which situations it often occurs in quantity. 
The form of the semicells varies considerably, some being almost 
fusifornij others elliptical, and yet others almost semicircular, 
this causing a corresponding variation in the sinus. There are 
from two to four small spines at each lateral angle, and several 
x)thers along the lateral margins, definitely arranged in one or 

■m-^ M p - ■ - ^ . r" 


two series, the latter being most obvious in slightly tilted speci- 
mens (cfr. PL 11. figs. 17 b" and Idh'). Typically there is but 
one series of four i^pines, the two Juiddle spines being the largest. 
In some cases, however, the median pair alone arc present; and 
in other specimens there may be a second series of four smaller 
tipines beneatli the larger series. In vertical view, the lateral 
margins may be concave, straight, or slightly convex, all these 
differences being frequently met with in the same gathering. 
The spines present at the lateral angles may be irregularly dis- 
posed or may be arranged one above another in a vertical plane. 
It is a small species and retains a relatively constant size : 
long, sine spin. 21-25 /x ; lat. sine spin. li)-2G fi ; lat. iithm. G*5- 

7-5 ju. 

15. 8taurastp-Um cr.K^TL.vTUM, Delp,^ in Mein. R. Acead, ScL 
Torino^ ser. ii. tom. :sxviii. 1877, p. G8, 1. 12. ff. 1-11. Fit (/cast rum 
eremiJaticm, !N'acg. Gatt, einz. Alg., Zurich, 1S19, p. 129, t. 8. B. 
Much variation was observed in a large gathering of this species 
from Eoundhay Park, W, Yorks. Some specimens were con- 
siderably broader than long (including the processes), and these 
usually possessed the emarginate warts developed at their 
maximum- long. 22-23 /x; lat, c. proc* 27-33//. A series of 
forms were observed which exhibited a gradual shortening of the 
processes, and consequently a proportionate mcrease in the 
length of the cells : long, 23 /i ; lat. c. proc. 21-24 /i. Those 
forms with very short processes were sometimes remarkable for 
the reduction of the emarginate warts on the apices of the semi- 
cells (fifr. PL 11. figs, 21-27). Some examples possessed mucli 
lu common with >S^ inar^jaritaceum^ Menegh., var. ornatum^ 

Boldt (in Ofvers. af K. Vet,-Akad- Eorh. 1885, no. % p. 116, 
t. 5, f. 27 j since placed by Turner as a species — >$', ornatuin), 

16. SxAuitASTKUM ACULEATiTii, 3Ienc(jli.^ ^^ Sijuops. Z>^sm.," 
Linnaea^ 1810, p, 22G. — Tliis jdant, first described by Ehrenberg 
(Die Infus. als voUk. Organ., Leipzig, 1838, p. 142, t. 10, f. 12) 
as Desmidiitvi actileatum^ is one of the most characteristic species 
of the genus* Yet it is one which has been frequently mis- 
understood, large nuuibers of forms having been figured under 
the name of S. aculeahcm which belong to Avidely different 
species. Figs. 28-32^ PI. 11, are accurate representations of 
botli European and American forms. As indicated by its spe- 
cific name, the spines are well developed and are always arranged 


TT^ ^ ^^ -.-'- T 

'^^■^l ' ' ^ - F.^, 

394 HE. G. S. WEST ON 

on a definite system, altbougli this is not readily diaccrnible at 

first sight. There arc always three or four largo spines at each 

angle of the semicell and a lateral series, strongly developed, 

extending from angle to angle, as well as a more dorsal series 

also extending from angle to angle, those in the middle being 

as a rule (though not always) emarginatc. Occasionally a few 

of the spines of the lateral series are duplicated, and the 

produced angles of the semicells possess encircling ringlets of 

minute denticulatioiis. Any specimen which does not possess 

the above-mentioned characters cannot possibly be a form of 
Staiirastrum aciileatum* 

In 1872 !Nordstedt described a y^v. ornatum of this species 
("Desm. Spctsb.,'^ Ofvers. af K. Vet,-Alvad. Purh. 1872, uo. 6, 
p, 40, t. 7. f. 27), and since that time much confusion has arisen 
with regard to certain allied forms. There can be no question 
that Nordstedt's variety is an extreme form of S, acujcatum in 
which the lateral and dorsal series of spines haye become more 
numerous and somewhat complicated ; but the arrangement of 
these spines is precisely similar to that in the typical form (as 
can be seen in Nordstedt's fig. 27 h). A few years subsequently 
to thisAYille described some forms from Nova Zembla (''Perskv. 
Alg, fra Nov, Semi.," Ofvcrs, af K. Vet.-Alvad. Fcirh. 1879, no. 5, 
pp. 54-55, t, 13. ff. G7-G9) which he named S. aculcnttcm^ Menegh.^ 
var. ornatum Nordst. forma sj)i?ioszssima, and S. aculeatum var. 
depauperatum ; these belong undoubtedly to the same series of 
forms as S. secvcostatuvi and S. margaritaceuvu Boldt iias de- 
scribed a ^^ iovmdi^ simplex^^ of var. ornatum^ Nordst. (" Desm. 
GronL," Bib. till K. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Handl. Bd. xiii. Afd. iii. 
no. 5, p. 38, t- 2. f. 49), which is unquestionably a form of 
S.sexcostafum ^\\b^j), prodicctiim^ West; and Boergescn has also 
failed to comprehend the characters of S. aculeatum^ having 
described a subsp.f?05;?xo5j92i?oswm of this specics(Botan, Tidsslmft, 
Bd. xvii. p. 147^ t- G. f, 8) which is without doubt referable to 
S, rostellum^ Eoy et Biss. The list of confusing mistakes does 
not stop here, however, for we find forms of still more widely 
separated species referred to S, aculeatum. One more instance 
will suffice: Schmidle has recently described ('^.Lappmarks Siiasw,- 
alg./' Bih. till K. Sv, Vet.-Akad. Handl. 1898, Bd. xxiv. Afd. iii, 
no. 8, p. 55, t. 2. f. 44) a var. hifidum of S. aculeatum which 
certainly has no connection whatever with this species, but 
ratlier with S. forficulatum^ Lund., and more particularly with 

^ ■ 

■ I 


the forms he himself describos in the same paper as Staurastntm 
forftculatum var, longicorne {L c, t, ii, ff* 42-43); in fact» 
Schmidle's S, aculeatuui var. lijldion ia, in my opinioiij much nearer 
S, forjiculatum^ Lund., than is his S^forficalatum var. loiKjicorne. 
The variations I have noticed in 8. aculeatum are perhaps 
worth mentioning. The. most typical examples were from Capel 
Curig, N. AVales, and from the United States, the former speci- 
mens possessing the most strongly developed spines (PI 11. 
fio^. 31). Erom Orono, Maine, many examples were met with 
which had the spines considerably reduced in length, but were 
otherwise typical^ and from Thursloy Common, Surrey, a .some- 
what smaller but fully developed form Avas abundant (Pi. 11. 

fig, 30). 

17. Stauuastkum vestitum, Halfs, Brit. Desm. p. 143, t. xxiii. 

f^ 1, J'ew species exhibit so much variation as this, and at 

the same time retain their distinctive features. I need hardly 
mention that the main diagnostic cliaracter of IS. vestitum is the 
possession of a pair of furcate spines in the middle of the lateral 
margins of the vertical view. These spines are themselves 
subject to much variation, being sometimes simple aculei, at 
other times furcate to their base, and more rarely doubly furcate. 
The general plan of arrangement of the spines and emarginate 
warts on S. vcdituvi is precisely like that on S. acidcatum. The 

an'des of >S'. vestitum, \\hich possess three w^ell-raarked divergent 
spines at their apices, are more produced than those of S.aculea- 
tinn and as a rule, the two median spines of the dorsal 
series become converted into emarginate warts. Of th^ laternl 
scries of spines, which are such a marked feature of S. aculea- 
tum either the two median spines only remain in S. vestitum, 
or they are much more prominent than the reeb. Those are 
the characteristic furcate spines mentioned above. The front 
view of a typical form of S, veatitum resembles very closely that 
of some forms of 8. aculeatum, but in the majority of specimens 
of the former species the angles are produced into processes of 
various length. In some these processes are very long (lat. c. 
proc. 90 /i), and in others they are very short (lat. c. proe. 46//). 
In a gathering from Arderry Lough, AV^ Ireland, some forms 
were observed which in front view could hardly be distinguished 
from S. anatlnum, Cooke & Wills: long. s. proc. 35 /i, c. proc. 
'52;^; lat. c. proc. 90-98 /u; lat. isthm. IS'S /i. 

Li:yN. joritN.— BOTANX, VOL. XXXIV. 2e 

-r -r" 1- 

, -r : 


There are several di>tinct varieties of ihis species : — var. de- 
nudatum, Xortlst. (*'Desm. Brasil./' Vidensk. Medd. nat. Foreiu 
KjobenhavG, 18C9, p. 230, t 4- f. 40), iu wliich the dorsal series 
of emarginate warts are much reduced; var. semivestUum, West 
(Journ. Eoy. Micr. Soc. 1892, p. 732, t. 9- f. 38), a small 
twisted form with only cue of the furcate spines on eacli lateral 
margin ; and var. fortmn. West & G. S. West (Journ. Liiui. Soc., 
Bot* vol. xxxiii. (1S9S) p. 317, t. 18. f. IG), a larger form with 
curved processes twisted on their axes. 

Var. ornata, Lstv, (in Notarisia, no. 5, 1SS7, p. 210), is de- 
scribtd " semicellulis dorso mucronihus hideutatis ornatis," but 
tliis is a character of the typical form. 

18, Sx.vURASTitUM nrucTO EHu:\i, TJre'Z'.^ in Menegl. '' S(fnops, 
Desm.'' Lhmwa, 1840, p- 226.— This species, first described by 
Breblsson as Ulnatella furciqera (hi C. L. Clicvalier, ' Des 
Microscopes et do leur Tlsage/ Paris, 1839, p. 272) , beloni^s to tluit 
section of the irenus Stauj^astrum characterized by tlie possession 
of a superior and an inferior whorl of processes. The typical 
form pos>esscs three processes iu each of the whorls, the superior 
processes being situated immediately above the inferior, and 
placed at an augic of about sixty degrees to them. It is often 
found in quantity in pools amongst MyriopliijlJiim, Sphafjnum, 
and Utrlcularia ; and in examining a large nnmber of apecfuiens 
from Birkhouse Moor Tarn, Helvellyn, and Pilrnoor, near Thirsk 
I was sufficiently fortunate to find one example from each locality 
which differed strikingly from the typical form, Tlio superior 

wliorl of processes of one semicell was duplica(ed, two processes 
being situated immediately above each one of the loAver whorl, 
Iu one example (PL 10. fig. 35) the two semicells were equally 
developed, but in the other (PL 10. fig. 80) thn semicell with tlie 
duplicated processes was more robust than the normal one and 
the processes themselves much fehorter and differently toothed 
at their apices. 

In 1813,Ehrenberg ('' Yerbreit, u. Einfluss, mikr, Leb. Slid. u. 
N. Amer.," Pliysik. Abh. Preuss. Ak. AViss, Berlin, t 4. f. 23) 
described DcsmiJiam eui^teplianum ; this was referred five \ 
later by Palfs (Brit. Desm. p. 215) to Staura^trum as S. euste- 
flicuium^ and has since appeared under that name in several text- 






Brit. Desm. 1887, p. 177, t. 62. f. 2). It differs from Siaur- 

a^trum furcigerum, Brcb., only in the duplicated superior whorl 
of processes, and, carefully considering tlua fact, Nord.stedt 
(" Desm. frSu Eoruholm," Vidensk. Medd. natur. Forcn. Kjobea- 
havn, 1888, p. 207) placed it under 8. furcUjerum as forma 
emtephana. That he was qnite correct in so doing Is at once 
evident from a consideration of the variation in the two specimens 
described above, in which one scmicell represents S.furcigerum 
and the other S. eusfephamm. It id quite certain, therefore, 
that S. eustepha7ium, Ealfs, must be regarded iu the future as 


JVordst. I have ex- 

amined gatherings in wliich the form custephana alone was 
present, but it is as a rule intermingled with tlie typical plant. 

Another form of this species is forma anntjera,''^Qi-^<i. {I.e.). 
This .vas first described by J3rebisson as Staurastrum armbjeruni 
in Mem. Soc. Sci. Kat. Clierbourg, vol. iv. 185G, p. 130', and 
subsequently redescribed by lleinsch 

as S. pseudofarcifjienim 

in Abhandl. Naturhistor. Gesellsch. :Niirnberg, 1806, Bd. iii. 

p. 1G9, t.^ 11. f. 2. It only differs from typlcari. farcirjerum in 
the duplication of the superior processes and in the slightly 
crenulate margins of all the processes, which have no small spines 
or granules. 

The ouly other notable variation exhibited by this species 
appears to be the occasional development of a very robust 
furm, similar to the stout semicell in fig. 3G, PI. 10, but with 
only three superior processes. This form was described as 
Siaumstrum montanum by Eaciborski (" Nonn. Desm. Polon. " 
Pamietnik. Akad. Umiej. Krakow., Wydz. matem.-przyr. vol. x. 
1881, p. 90, t. 12. f. 11), and more recently described as S. farci- 
(jenim var. crassiim, Kchiuder (rorschungsberichteu der Pidaer 
Biol. Stat., Heft 5, 1897, p. 32, t. 3. f. 6). These two have 



19. AETnEODESiius CONVKROENS, Ehrenh., Iufi 
Organism., Leipzig, 1838, p. 152, t. 10. f. 18.~Thi 

s species ex- 

hibits a wide range of variaiion in the degree of development of 
the lateial spines. This is at once noticed on comparison of a 
spi'cimeu similar to thut figured from Capel Curlg, N. Wales 
(tig. 4, h, p. 398), with one from Borrowdale, Lake District 
(fig. 4, a, p. 398). Examples arc often found in which the spines 

2e 2 

r T^ J,r^^B-T»- 



of one semicell are normal and those of the other reduced or 
absent, and by further division of such a plant a specimen may 
TiA nrnrliirpd in which the snines are entirely absent (fif?. 4,^). 

On tlie division of this unarmed specimen, however the youn 
semicells may develop typical spines, and it is interesting to 

Fig 4.1 

Arthrodesmus convergens, Ehrenb. All X 520. a, from Borro^Tcialo, Cuin- 
berland ; b, fron^ Cripcl Curig, iN. Wales ; c-f, from Pilmoor, near Thirgk, 
N. Yorks. ; g, from Bowiiess, Westmoreland. 

note that a character which has been entirely lost is sometimes 
reproduced at its maximum development ia a succeeding genera- 
tion (fig. 4,/,*7)- 

It is highly prohahle that there is some direct relationship 
between t!.e unarmed forms of Arthrodesmus convergens, Ehreiib., 
and Cosmarium scenedesmus^ Delp. (Mem. R, Accad. Sci- Torino, 

ser. II- tom, xsviii. 1870^ p. 5, t. 7, ff. 28-31')- 

■*, ^ ^■ -'i^ 

T" ■ - 

-- t 



III. — Variations of Cell-contents. 

The arrangement of the chromatophores aud the included 
pyrenoid^ is frequently a conspicuous feature of living Dcdinids, 
and it maybe truly said that some particular disposition of these 
structures is one of the most constant features exhibited by 
several large series of these plants. Taking this into considera- 
tion, Lundell*3 and also Boldtt, described several subgenera of 
Dcsmids founded mainly on the structure aud disposition of the 
chromatophores. Subsequent observers elevated some of these 
subgenera to tlie rank of genera (e. g. JPleurofwniopsisX and 
Pleurenferiiim^); and the arrangement of the chromatophores 
thus assumed an important place in the study of this family of 

Moreover, the genus Cosmaridium was founded by F. (xay 
on precisely those characters which were utilized by Lundell for 
JPleurotceniopsts, his subgenus of Cosmarium^ viz- : — '^ Chromato- 
phori e tsDuiis parietalibus, margine irregulariter lobata, pyren, 
nonnulos involventibus formati." 

There are many strong reasons against the utilization of such 
easily destructible characters for generic distinctions, chief among 
which is the flict that living plants alone could be correctly 
referred to their true genera. Death so far renders the nature 
of tlie cell-contents undeterminable that were certain genera 
of this kind authoritatively recognized, speclmeus sent from 
abroad — and such specimens are generally dried or enclosed in 
preservative media — could not be satisfactorily referred to their 
proper systematic position ; moreover, before these characters can 
be utilized positive proof of their importance has to be obtained, 
and how can this be done better than by a study of their 
variation ? 

A short paper by Liitkemtillerll is the only contribution I can 

* 1\ M- Lundell, " Desm. Suec./* Act. Soc. Scient. Upsah 1870. 

t R. JBoldt, '^Deam, fran Grtmland/' Bill, till K. Sv. Vet.-Atad. IlandL 

Bd. xiii. Afd. iii. no, 5, 1888, p. 31. 

J Utilized as a generic name by G. von Lagerheim in * Botaniska Notiscr/ 

1SS7, p. 197. 

Elevated to a genus by N. Wille in Engler and Prantl, * Die KaturL 

rflanzenfam.' ISDO, p. 11, 

F. G-ay, *' Note sur les Conj. da Midi de la France," Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 

torn, xxxi, 1884, p. 340. 

^ J, Liittemiiller, *' Beobaeht. iiber die Chlorophyllkorper einig. Desinid.," 

Oesterr. botan. Zcitscbriftj xliii* 1893, no. 1, pp. 5-11, no. 2, pp. 41-44, tt. 2-3. 


■1 fc" 

' f I 

^ - 

^ r q ^tT-p ^ ^jr nr 


^ - 



find dealing entirely with this subject, and in it he confines his 
attention to the numhcr of pyrenoids in the genus Coswarium^ 
the chromatophores of Fenimn minuium, Clove*, and of PI euro- 
iceniopsis. In reference to tlie latter he advocates further 
enquiry into the structure of ihc ehromatophores of those genera 
of Dcsmide which include species possessing parietal chlorophyll- 
plates. In a paper entitled ''Observations on the ConjugatcnD^t 
mention will be found of the occurrence of irregularities in the 
chromatopliores of two species of Cosmarium — C. ornafum and 
C. sphagnicoluvi. 

In the description of a species of C/os/m^/m it is customary 
to note the average number of pyrenoids in a soinicell, and the 
character of the moYing granules in the apical locellus or 
vacuole. No doubt these features are of some value as minor 
specific differences, and perhaps in many cases are quite as re- 
liable as the more marked peculiarities of tl^e species of other 
genera; yet I would point out that they are subject to con- 
siderable yariation, and are, therefore, deservin^: of more careful 
study than that usually afforded them. 

The following observations on Closterinm Venus, Ivuetz., were 
made on specimens from Baildon, W, Yorlvs. Out of 500 in- 
dividuals examined 71 per cent, possessed two pyrenoids in each 
semiccll, that is to say, two pyrenoids in each chromatophore. 
The next in frequency, although much scarcer (only IG per cent.), 
were those possessing one pyrenoid in each chromatophore- 
This is illustrated by the following tabic : 

Number of Pyrenoids. 

One in each semicell 

One in one semiceU, two in tbe other 

Two m eacli scmicell 

Two in one senuccll, three in the otlicr 

Three in each semiocll 

iS'innber of Specimens 







=^ LlltkcmullLT records this species as Docld turn Bacul urn, Br^h,\ cfr. West 
& G. S. Wcrit in Journ. Eot. 1805, p. G5. 

t * Annals of Botany,' vol. xii. March 189S, no, 45, 




Tlie moling corpuscles in ihc apical locellus varied in number 
from three to nine, and were by no means conf?tant in number 
at the two ends of the same individual. Out of sixty specimens 
observed, four possessed three moving corpuscles at the end, one 
possessed four, eleven possessed live, nine possessed six, twenty- 
nine possessed seven, three possessed eight, and three possessed 
lune. In some examples one large corpuscle was observed anion 
au aggregation of small ones. 

Tue apical locellus of the genus Closterium is uothing more 
iiur less than a special terminal vacuole containing moving 
corpuscles, and altiiough it varies considerably, it is nevertheless 
utilized in part as a generic distinction (compare the differences 
between the genera Closierium and Hoya). It is a diagnostic 
feature of the genus Closterinm, and is often the sole mc:uia of 
determining the correct position of small species of this genus 
which closely approach liliaplidium, a genus of Palmellaeea! in 
which moving corpuscles are abycut *. 

If a gathering containing a number of living Desmids be kept 
growing for some time in a small glass vessel, it frequently 
happens that many of the specimens develop numbers of small 
moving granules in all parts of the cell. A gathering from 
Birkhouse Moor Tarn, Helvcllyn, which contained a quantity of 
IHeurotmiium coronaium, Ilab.-nh., was kept growing in tliis 
manner for some time, and most of the specimens of this 
spciies became much vacuolated. Geiierally there were from 
lour to six large vacuoles in oaeh semicell, allliougli some were 
noticed in which over twenty were present, and in the majority 
of these vacuoles a large number of moving corpuscles made 
their appearance. The latter were precisely similar to those 
present in the apical vacuoles of Pleurotcenium ; but were 
certainly different from the moving corpuscles jireseut In the 
apical vacuoles of Clostermm. I have noted the occurrence of 
tlie same phenomenon in many species of the genera Peniuniy 


It would 

seem, therefore, that these moving corpuscles can be developed 
in any vacuole in the plant if the latter be pdaced under suitable 
conditions f. They move freely in the fluid vacuole, and always 
collect towards its base as a small, incessantly moving mass. 

* Cfr. W. Archer in Quart. Journ. Micr. Seienoe, ii. 1862, pp. 257-8 ; West 
& G. 8. West in Journ. lioj. Micr. Sue. 1897, p. DOT. 

t Moving corpuscles of a nature similar to those found in Dcsmids have 
been noticed to arise in the vacuoles in the midst of the cell-conteijts of 
lihaijhidium polij morpJmm var. mirahilc. 

. 1 1^ a-1 ■ r XTT ^r3 — , h ■■— y^ v ■ E-| 1 ■ - ■ ^- -I i^ 

r "'1 

402 MR. 0. S. WEST 01?r 


Thus, if the plant be rotuted through 180^ the force of gravity 
immediately causes the corpuscles to descend through the fluid in 
the vacuole until they arrive at its new hase. These corpuscles or 
granules are of a faint yellow colour, and appear brown in a tliin 
stratum ; but when present in immcuse numbers they sometimes 
give the plant a very dark (nlmost a blnck) appearance. 

The following is a complete summary of all the records of 
variation in the cell-contents of Desmids : — 

1. S])irota'nia ohscura^ Ealfs, The structure and arrangement 
of tlie chromato])hores described by Liilhcmiillcr in Ocsterr. 
botan, Zeitschr. xlv. 1895, pp, 2, 93, t. 1. ff. 1-6, 15-19. 

2. Fenhim 'minutinnj Cleve, Variability of chromatophores 
mentioned by Liitkemiiller under the erroneous name of 
Docidiiim Sacuhnn^HYeh. in Ocsterr. botan. Zeitschr, xliii, 1893, 
p. 10, t. 2, ff. 9-15. (Cfr. remarks by West & G, S. West in 
Journ. Bot. vol. xxxiii. 1895, p, 65,) 

3. Cosmarium pyramidatnmy Breb. Yariability of pyrenoids 
described by Liitkemiiller in Oesterr. botan. Zeitschr, xliii. 1893^ 
p. G, t. 2. fr. 1-8. {Cfr. Nordstcdt in Index Desm. p. 215.) 

4. Cosmarium spliagnicohim^ AVest &. G-. S. AVest. Variations 
in chromatophores mentioned in Ann. Bot. vol. xii. 1898, p. 52, 

fP. 34-36. 

5. Cosmarhtm confractnm, Kirchn. A^ariability of pyrenoids 
recorded by Liitkemiiller in Oesterr. botan- Zeitschr. xliii. 189^?, 
p, 8, t 3. fF. 16-18* Erroneously recorded by Liitkemiiller as 
C. pseii-doprotulcrans^ ivirchn. {Cfr. Nordatedt in Index Desm. 

p. 209.) 

6. Cosmarium ornafum, Ealfs, Variability of pyrenoids men- 
tioned by AVest & G. S. West in Ann. Bot. voL xii. 1898, p. 52, 

IV. — Variations in Conjugation. 

Few observations on the conjugation of Desmids ha^e been 
recorded other than the mere mention of the occurrence of zygo- 
spores. I know of no instances of the occurrence of hybrids, and 
of few recorded instances of abnormal conjugation. The im- 
portance of this subject in its bearings on the chassification of 
Dosmids has not been sufficiently recognized, altliough it is a 
study which brings forward most interesting proofs of genetic 
rclationt^hip between many of these plants. It is also important 
ill its bearings on the evolution of the Desmidicae, a few obser- 
vation:^ on vagaries in tlic conjugation of IJyalotheca dissiliens 

. 1 

- ^, 

V t 




liaving given a conclusive argument in favour of the view that 
the Desmidicfc constitute a degenerate family of Conjugates. 
I append a full account of all that is known of the variation 

in the conjugation of these plants : 

1. Clostermm Fritchardianum, Arch. Zygospore formed hy 
the conjugation of three cells : A7c?t & G-. S. AYest in Jouro. 
Eoy. Micr. Soc. 1897, p. 480, t. 6. f. 5. 

2. Cosmarium nitidulum, Do Not. Zygospore formed by the 
conjugation of four cells ; erroneously recorded as a new species 

0. rectosporum—hj W. B. Turner in Kongl. Sv. Vet.-Akad. 
Handl. Bd. xxv. no. 5 (1893), p. 09, t. 10. f. 1(5 e. 

3. Cosmarium llegnesii, Eeinsch. Variability in form of 

zygospore : West & (x. S. West in Jouru. Hoy. Micr. Soc. 1896, 

p. 155, t. 3. ff. 30-31. 

Zygospore formed by con- 

4. Staiirastriim teliferum, Ealis. 
jugation of three cells : West in Journ. Linn. Soc, Bot. vol. xxix. 

(1892) p. 175, t. 24. f. 5. 

5. SyaJotheca dissiliens, Breb. Abnormal conjugation meu^ 
tioned by Joshua in Journ. Bot. vol. xx. 1SS2, p. 301 ; " cell. 
copuL monstr." described and figured by Boldt in Bihang till 
K. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Handl. Bd. xiii. Afd. iii. no. 5, 1S8S, p. 43, t. 2. 
f. 53 ; cfr. also West & G-. S. West in Ana. Bot. vol. xii. 1898, 
p. 53, t. 4. f. 37. 

Y. — Some Interrelationsliips of the Besmidiea; deduced 

from a study of thvir Variation. 

The foregoing account of variations observed in a natural 
state enables us to adduce evidence which offers some clue to 
the relationships that exist between many dilferent forms, and 
it realizes in part tbat which should be one of the main objects 
of classification, namely, how species may be brought into rela- 
tionship one with auother. The importance of this study cannot 
be overestimated, as it is the surest means of arriving at the 
most approximate limitations of what we call ' species,' and only 
after the attainment of a competent knowledge of the variability 
in the group can we form a conception of the evolution of 

The question of the specific distinctness of many of these 
plants has been raised many times and by many people, and 
although it is one which will take a very long time to answer, 
yet a study of their variation will go far towards its solution. 

J 'j^-a'- — ■ I ■ nb_. p ' r^' / -r^ir r 

401 MI?. G. S. AVEST ON 

The late Mr. "WilUam Arclier stated * that '' it is not proven 
that some other form, which in tlie present state of knowledge 
we are constrained to suppose a distinct species, may not in 
truth be only a phase of variation or of development, or an 
' alternation of geiieration ' of tlie actual species, whose extremes 
of variation, or whose life-history, are as yet nnlmown." Yet 
thatemincntphycologisthimself maintained tliat the inexperienced 
lumpiiitr together of species is as much to be deprecated as their 
over-multiplication, Klebs was certaiidy in error in groiipinf^ 
together many of the forms that he figured ia his '' De^midiacecii 
Osfprcus^ens " t, and concerning such treatment of tlicse plants 
I will again quote a few rennirks made by Archer J :— "I would 
draw attention to a circumstance I am disposed to look upoa 
as an almost unimpeachable argument as to their actual specific 
distinctness. I allude to the fact that, no matter liow numerous 
or how few the fronds, the conjugating specimens always con- 
jugate like form or species with like form or species— tlie 
abundant with their abundant neighbours of the same species, 
the rare seeking out the rare of the same species, and over- 
looking the possibly more numerous specimens of a perliapa 
closely-allied species. And it is marvellous, however few a 
certain species may be amongst the mass of others, by what 
attraction or force these little vegetable organisms, not endowed 
with a special locomotive power, are impelled to seek only their 
fellows when about to conjngate, avoiding other more abundant 
species, themselves even, perhaps, conjugating with each other 
at the time." But even allowing that the vast majority of these 
w^ell-marked plants possess a specific distinctness, I would never- 
theless join with Dr. Eoy § in a protest against the ''multipli- 
cation of so-called varieties " by certain inexperienced authors, 
-who take no cognizance of the variability of species. As 
Dr. Roy remarks, "the time will no doubt come when species 
will be largely reduced, but it has not come yet; neither will it 
be accelerated by the indiscriminate manufacture of varieties, 
and still less by what is worse, varieties of A^arieties !*' 

W. Areber, " Descript, of new sp. of Micrasferlas, with remarks on tlio 
distinclions between M. roiata and M. denticulata:' QuarL Joui-n. Micr. Sci, 
Kew Ser., toL ii. 1SC>2, pp. 23G-7. 

t Schrift. d. plipik.'oekonom. Geseneeh, zu Xonigsberg, vol. xxii. 1879, 
pp. 1-42, tt. 1-3. 

% W. Archer, /. c. p. 237. 

J. Eoy & J. P. Bisset, *' Oa Scott. Deem./' Ann. Scott. Nat. Hist., April 


Many of tlie so-called varieties tliat have been described for 
certain species are shown, by a study of tlie variation of the 
species, to be merely transitory forms founded upon accidental 
differences of a temporary cliaracter. (Cfr, Cosmari'um biretum 
van intermedium^ C, hirefum forma grcenJandica, and C hiretinn 
forma subconspersa^ p» 390, supra.) In a few cases, however, it 
can be shown by the same means that what was at one time 
regarded as a variety of a particular species, is in truth as much 
a distinct species (so far as we can comprehend tlie word 
' species ') as tlie plant to which it was formerly referred. In 
fact, the true affinity existing between many species of Desmids 
can be ascertained only by a careful study of their various forms, 
as exhibited in large nun^bcrs of specimens from divers districts ; 
and in the following pages I liave endeavoured to show clearly 
the particular relationship which exists between certain species 
about the position of which there has always been much discus- 
sion. It will also be seen that tliis study proves in some 
instances tliat species wliich have been imagined to possess a 
close relationship have only an apparent affinity, and have really 
arisen at some earlier or later stage in a particular line of descent, 
or else along totally diffi^-rent lines of evolutionary development. 

I will 6rst call attention to tliree species which, althougli very 
local, are widely distributed in Europe and N. America, viz.: 
Staurastrum vesiitum^ Ealfs, >S'. acuJeatum^ Menegh-, and 8. con- 
troversum^ Breb. S, vestitum is a species which cannot readily 
be mistaken, and yet at the same time is one which exhibits a 
wide range of variation {cfr, page 395, suj)ra). On. the other 
hand, S. aculeatum is a species which has frequently been mis- 
understood, and, although closely related to S. vestitum, it 
exhibits a Iciss range of variation than the latter* S, contro- 
vcrsum appears to me to be more nearly related to ^S'. vestitum^ 
var* semivestitum than to ^S'. aculeatum ; and I think it highly 
probable that both ^S', controversum and >S'. acitleatum were 
originally evolved from 8. vestitum along different lines, the 
former through such forms as that mentioned by Schmidlc in 
*Hedvvigia/ IS95, t. i. f . 22. S. vestitum itselt probably aro-^e 
atonga series terminating with S. Pseudoselaldi^W ^lle^ S. Sehaldi^ 
Eein:^ch, S. SehaJdi var, aJtum, West & Gr. S- AVest, and 
8, anaflumn, Cooke & AVills, its earlier forms being long-armed 
like S. anatinumj and its later forms, which gave origin to 
8* aculeatum, being short-armed. 



■ ^ ■■ T^ff I _T- 





Another series of species which lias been confused with that 
inchiding Staurastrum aeuleatum is the one whicli is constitated 
by S. margaritaceum^ Menegh., S. sexcostatum, Breb., and their 
derivatives. Certain forms derived from S. sexcostafum have 
most certainly acquired a resemblance to a few extreme forms of 
S, aeuleatum \ but this fact, in my opinion, is not owing to 
direct specific relationship, but rather to parallelism of modifica- 
tion along two totally different lines of evolution. The following 
table may better illustrate the idea that I intend to convey : 


b.bEBALDi VAfl ALTUM ^1%1 h G3 WCST 

S,Anatinum, Cooke^ Wilis. 



/ ^ 


S.CoNTRovtftSUM Dnto. / 




S.MAROARfTAcruM Menech, 

S.Marcaritaceum vars^ 

S.Sekcostatuw Srtcfl, 


I [S,AcuL.v.OFikATUM F Simplex BoldtJ] 


I 1. 



5,Arct4cum Koa § 


[S.AcuLV. Ornatum FSpihosissima Wilu]; 
[S.Acul.V.Depauperatum Wille] : 






W. Schmidle in aicdwigia/ 1895, t. i, f. 22, 
t Cfr. 8, margaritaceu77i var. figui-cd by West in Jourii. Eoy. Mien Soc. 
1890, t, 6, f. 32. 

J S, aeuleatum var. ornatim, Norrlat. f, simplex, Eoldt, is unquestionably a 
form of 8. sexcostatum subsp. producium. West, in Journ. Boy. Micr. Soc. 

1892, p. 733, t, 9, f. 34. 

§ S. AitCTicuM nob. includes S. aeuleatum var, ornatum, NordsL, f spinosissima, 
Wlllc (in Ofvers. af X. Vet.-Akad. Furb. 1879, no. 5, p, 54, t. 13. ff. G7-fi8), 
and probably 8, aeulcafum var, depanperatmn, Wille {L c. p. 55, t. 13. f. 69). 
The name * splnosissimum ' could not he adopted, as there is a S. spinosissimum, 
W. B. Turner. 

r r" ' 


A]]other precisely similar case is l)rouglit forward in studying 

the forms allied to Micrasterim oscitans^ Ealt's, and M. pinnati- 

Jida^ Ealfs. In the first place, what is Micrasferias oscitaus^ 

Ealfs ? It was described by Ralfs * in 1845 and figured by him t 
in 1848. Since that date no one has reported tlie occurrence of 
the typical form exactly as Lo figured it, although many forma 
have been described and figured intermediate between J/", oscitans 
and a much more abundant species found some years later (1850), 
VIZ. M. miccronaia, liabenh. (fir^t described as Tetraehasfrum 
mucronatum^ Dixon];). M, mitcronata is a species frequently 
met with in upland SjjJtaffnnm'hog^, and the plant described as 
3f, oscitans by Ealfs is unquestionably an extreme form of the 
same species, and, as ifc seems, a very rare one also. It is un- 
fortunate til at the form fir^^t found and described was the rare 
and aberrant oue^ as its specific name must be used, whereas the 
form commonly met with has to stand as a variety of it (viz. 
Jif* oscitans, l^alfs, var. mucronata^ AViIle§). There can be no 
doubt that both M, oscitans^ Ealfs, and M, laticcj^Sj Nordst. 
have arisen from that assemblage of forms known under the 
name of ilT. oscitans var. mucronatay but the origin of the latter 
is somewhat doubtfuL After much consideration I should be 



certain forms of J/, oscitans var. mitcronata^ such as those 

jid some forms of j\I. o 
Micrasferias pinnatiji 


It w^as first 

described by Kuetzing J+ as Euastnun pinnatifidum^ and many 
authors have followed Kabeuhor^t §§ in placing it as a variety of 

* Eulfa in Jonner, FL Timbridge Wells, 1845, p. 198* 
t Ealfs, Brit. Desm. t. 10. f. 2. 

t Dixon in Trans. Dubl. :^at.. Hist. Soc, 1859, p. 204, t. 1. ff. 5-8. 
N. Wille, " Bidrag till IS^orgcsFerskv.-Alg.," Chrbtiania Yid.- 
Selsk. Forbandl, 1880, no. 11, p. 21, t, 1. f. 3. 

II Nurdstedt in Vidensk. Medd. f. d. nat. Foren. Kjobenhavn, 1869, p. 220, 
t. 2. f. 14. 

^ Nordstedt, Lc. p. 222, cum fig. xjlogr. 

** Cooke in ' Grevillea; vol. ix. 1881, p, 89, t 141. ff 2b, c. 
tt Of. the form in West & G. S. West, ** Some N.-AuieA Desm.," Trans. Linn. 
Soc, Bot. ser. II. vol. v. pt. 5, p. 23S, 1. 14. f. L 
\\ Kuetzing, Pbycol. German, 1845, p. 134. 
§ Eabenborst, Krypt. Flor. Saclis. 1S03, p. 1S4 ; Flor. Europ. Algar. iii, p. 189. 

n ^F 

T T -I ■ r ,' f -Mf 





A figure of M, ItabenliorstU 

of M. CruX'Melitenus figured by 

Micrasterias oscifans^ but for rcasoua best known to themselves. 
Ill studying the numerous forms of it and of allied species, one ia 
struck by the continuous series they present, — a series ranging 
from M* Cru^'MeUtensiSj Ilass., through M. Rahenhordiiy 
Kirehn., iLT. pinnatifida var. dlvisa^ "West, M> pinnatifida var, 
expansa, Turner, 3L pinnatiJiJa var. injiata^ AV^olIe, ilf. pinnati- 
Jida^ Ealfs, M. arcuata var. suhpinnoilfula^ West & Gr. S. AV^e^t, 
M. areuatdy Bail., and 2L arcuata var* expansa^ Nordst. The 
series is complete as we go back through the varieties of M, inn- 
atlfida to i)/. liabcnJiorsfii ; and I think there can be no doubt 
that the latter species is a derivative of M. Crux-McUtejisis^ 
the intermediate formes being such as those mentioned by Gut- 

winski *, Eaciborski t, and Borge 

, tatrica, ah-o given by llaciborsld g, is identical with one 

semicell of the specimen 
Gutwini^ki. Micrasterias incisa, Breb., has evidently orighiated 
from J\L pinnatfjlda var- injiata^ AVoUcj and M, arcuata var. 
suhpinnatijida. West & G- S. West ||i is a form exactly inter- 
mediate between M, pinnatiftda and J/", arcuata. 

I have already mentioned that many authors have placed 
M.pinnatifida as avarioty of J/.o^'c/Zans, but I strongly dlsnpprove 
this arran*^ement. It is true that the two species somewhat 
resemble each other in outline, but they differ greatly in size, 
in the form of the lateral lobes, and especially in the form of the 
polar lobes, i'ronj these facts, and from the above-mtntioued 
evolutionary series wliich I have shown to exist, I think that llie 
two species can be justly regarded as occupying two extreme 

brancbea in the phylogeny of the spccits of Micrasterias — 
branches uhich have undergone a parallelism of modification 
A\-ith regard to external morphological characters, with a result 
that the majority of authors liiivc failed to discriminate betw^ecn 
two well-marked series of fornid. 

* K, Gutwinski, '-Flora Gloiiuvv okolic Lwowa" Spruw,Ivum. fizyjogr. Akacl* 
Umicj* Krakuw. torn, xxvii* t. 3, f. 28. 

t it. Rjiciborski, " Desin. Polon./' Paniietnik Akarl. Umirj. w Krakowie, 
Wydz. matom.-przyr. torn. x. 1885, t. 14. f. 4, 

+ 0. Uorge, *' Suss\v,-clilor, Arebnngel," KIi. till K, Sy, Vet.-Akad, Haudl, 

Bd. ^\\. Afd. iii. no. 5, t. 3. i. 40. 


w Kmkowie, tuiu. xvii. 188'J, t. 7. f 2. 

II West k G. S. West, '' Wehv, Afric. Alg./* Journ. Bot. xxxv. 1&07, p. 86, 

t. 366. f 7. 



1 append tlie following tabic to illustrate this point 





M.oscmNs vAn mucronata Wiuc. 

M.LATictPS NonosT 


M.03CITANS Raits , 


M.Crux-Mllitcwsis Ha33 






MjNCisA QRta 


RALf3 \ 


M,arcuata var suepiNNATiFiDA West X G 3 West, 

M.arcuata Sai 



I can find only one paper dealing with the question of llie 
general evolution of D^^sinids^ and thnt hy Bougou *. In it he 
attempts to show by moans of a " Gcnoalogic des Dcstnidiee:^ 
(de bas en hint) '' that the Desmic?ie\T; were originally derived 
from the Infusoria Plagellata, and that the maximuui degree 
of specialization has been reached by Ili/alotlieca dissiliens ! 
Alto<"^ether it is a production testifying to the scant knowleJ^^e 
of the author with regard to the Detsiuidicoo in general. In the 
first place, 1 think it has been almost concluisively proved f that 
the Desmidiea) arc a degenerate family of Algse which have 
originated from filamentous conjugates by loss of the filainentjus 
condition ts accompanied by the development of spccializ^^d 
morphological charuclers. It is a notable fact that Desmidium 

* Eoiigon in ' Le Micrographo Preparateur/ toI. v. no. 2, 1897, p. 07* 
t West & G. S. West. " Obd. on the Corj./' Ann. Bot. vd. xii. ]\larch 1898. 
\ This has been again acquired by about ei^^ht genera and several iudividual 
species of other genera. 


.^ ■^■ 

t ^^" 

i-r^T * 

•■ Im 


MR. G. S. WEST O^ 

cylindncum is the only known Desiuid i. wljich the zygo^^pore 
remains in one of the conjugating cells (presumably the lemale)^ 
and the occasional reversion to this type in Hyalotheca dissiliens 
goes far to prove that in all probahility this was the ancestral 
mode of conjugation in Desmidiesej and one which has been lo«t 
by all except Desmidium cylindricum. Secondly, there is un- 
doubtedly no relationship whatever between the genus CJosienum 

and the flagellate Infusoria. 

Having hinted at the probable descent of the Desmidica) from 
filamentous Conjugates, it now becomes expedient to fix upon 
those <T^encra through which this descent could possibly have been 
accomplished, and, after due consideration, the genera GenicuJaria^ 
Gonatozygon^ and Cylindrocystis present themselves- I tliink 
the two former genera may be regarded as but little removed 
from tlie Zygnemaceae ; and although there is much vagueness 
concerning the origin of Cylindrocijsfis^ yet it closely resembles 
the individual cells of certain species o^ Zygnema^. The main 
line of evolution from CyJindrocystis passed on to the genus 
Fenhany an off^shoot giviug rise to the genus Mesotcenium and 
finally to Spirot(£nia. Sume may take exception to the view that 
the genus Spirotwnia originated from the genus Mesot omnium ^ 
and be constrained to regard the latter genus as derived from 
the former ; Spirotwma itself being a derivative either of Genicu- 
laria or some filamentous conjugate with a spirally-disposed 
ehromatophore. If, however, those species of Spirotcenia bc- 
lon<^ing to the subgenus '''' Polytwnia'^^ t, in which the ehromato- 
phore is cristate, possessing several spiral ridges, be compared 
with certain species of Mesotd'iuum J, it is seen that a slight 
twistin"- of the ehromatophore is all that is necessary to convert 
such a Mesot(jeniuvt into a Spirotamia referable to the subgenus 
*•'' Fohjti^niaJ^ Taking this into consideration along Avith the 

* In the early spring these isolated cells of Zygnema are frequently met with 
in mountain-gatherings, and they bear a striking resemblance to the individuals 
of Cyluidrocysth crassa^ Dc Bary, not uncommonly i'ound in abundance from 
the siiine localities. 

1" Sect. Volytmnia, Kabenh, Krypt. Flor. Sachs. 18G3, p. 178; Turner in 
Kongl. Sv. Vet-Akad. Ilandl. Bd. 25, no. 5, 1893, p. 23 (subgen.) ; Liitkcniullcr, 
**Ueber die Gattung Spirotienla" Oesterr. botan. Zeilschr. xliii, 1895, p. U2 
(subgen. Tolyiceuia). 

+ Especially such a species as M. macrococcum, Kirchn. ( = Jli, Bratmii, De 

Bary, Conj. p. 74, t. 7 a, ff. 1-8). 




fact that species of both these genera are often found associated 
together amongst mosses on wet rocks, or in S_pliagnum-ho^^^ 
and that fho Mesotcsnia are the more predominant, it seems highly 
probable that at least ono series of species of Spirofccnia were 
derived from Me so f senium. 

Prom Feniiim there are two offshoots, one terminating in 
Roya and tho other passing througli Closterlum to Pleivrotceniunt 
Sind Docidium; but the main line of descent passes on direct 
from Penium to Tetmemorus^ the latter genus ultimately giving 
rise to Euastnnn through such forms as Tetmemorits Jissiis^ 
and Euastntm giganteum f. From Tdmemorus we get an offshoot 
of two rare genera, first Iclttliyocercics^ and from it, Triploceras. 

With regard to the hirgc genus Gosmarium^ embracing as it 
does a multitude of forms, I think there can be little doubt that 
it originated from Euastrum^ many species being met with 
intermediate between those two genera J; and that the genus 
Micrasterias wsi^ similarly derived irom Uuasf rum is clearly indi- 
cated by the presence of such species as Micraderias Moehli and 
M. €uastroicIes§. The genus Cosmocladhtm has unquestionably 
arisen as a solitary offshoot from Cosmarium; and it is highly 
probable that another small offshoot accounts for the genera 
Sj^ondglosium and Fhymatodocis^ the main line of descent passing 
along two courses, one to the genus Xanthidlitm and the other 

to the genus Staurasfram. 

The genus Xantliidium has been derived chiefly from Oosmarium 
and probably in part from Micrasterias. Some forms of the 
species Xantkidiujn coneinnum and X Bolinsonianum are very 
closely allied to Cosmariuvi Heimerlii and C. sphagnicolum^ and 

Teimemont^ fissios, West & G* S. West, **Welw. Afric. Alg./' Jouni. Bot. 

1807, p. 81, t. 308. f. 25. 

t Eimstrum giganteum, Nordst. m De Toni, Syll. Algar. p. 1106 (1889); 
Tet mcmor us giga7iteus, Wood J in Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 1870, p. 19, 

I Ch^Eiiastrum cosmaroides, West&G. S.West, *' Alg. Madag. " Trans. Linn. 
Soc. ser. II. Bot. vol. v. p. 54, t. 6. f. 23 ; E. suhornahtm, West & G. S. West, 
*'N.-Amer. Desm." I.e. ToL t. p. 245, t. 14. f. 40; Cosmarium suhlohahtm. 
Arch, in Pritch. Infus, ed. 4, 1861, p. 731 { = Euastncm sublvbatum, Brcb. in Ealf3 
Brit. Desm. 1848, p. 91, t. 32. f. 4) ; C. mhhinale, Lagerli., "Cliloroph. aua 
Abessin. u. Koi-dofan/' Nuova Notarisia, ser. it. p. 1G4 ; C. genuosum, Nordst., 
" Algolog. smfisak.," Botan. Notiser, 1887, p* 161. 

Micrasterias Mochii, West (& G. S. West, "Desm. Singapore/' Journ, Linn 
Soc, Bot. vol. xxxiii. 1897, p. 162; M. euasiroides , Josh., "Burm. Desm.," 
Journ. Linn. Soc, Bot. vol. xxi. 188(3, P- ^^"^i ^^ 2^* ^- ^'^■ 


^ vr f- 

^^7' '. '^r' 


412 MB. G. S. WEST ON 


that it ''might just as correctly be called Cosmarhtm ccantlddi- 

forme '^ Such species as Xaniltidium armatum, Enbenh., and 

X hiftircatum, Borge t, bear such a striking rescmblauee to 

Micrasterias anomala, Turner, that no doubt can exist as to their 

close relationship. 

It is highly probable that the large genus Staumstrum is a 
diphyletic assemblage, being derived partly from Cosmarium and 
most probably in part from Xanthidiuvi. The direct transition 
from Cosmarhtm to Btaurastritm is exhibited by the triangular 
varieties of Cosmarhtm liretum, C cbstatum, C, psemJoprotuberans, 
&c,t, and by Staurasfrum cosmarioides^^ S. orliculare^ S.mttticum^ 
S, acarides^ &c,, not to mention the close resemblance existing 
between Cosmarium ci/Undricum and a six-e]ided form of Staura- 
strum Meriani, or the puzzling cliaractcrs of sucli species as 
Staitrasirum areolatum or S, Laconicnse. A transitional form 
between XantTiidhim and Staurasintm is illustrated by the tri- 
angular variety of Xantliidmm antilopa^nm [j, the earliest indica- 
tion of the production of triangular forms along this line of 
descent being seen in Micrastcrias and even in Evastriim%, 

From the genus Siaurastrum there is a small offshoot to the 
genus Bicliotomvm, but a line of descent also passes to ArtJiro- 
desmus, a genus which unquestionably derives its species partly 
from Siaurastrum (although mostly from Xantlndhwiy Several 
species of Arthrodesmiis with smooth cells and lateral spines 
resemble very closely such species of Staurastriiw as >S'. dejectum, 

Kongl. Sv, Yct.-Akad. Handl. Ed. xxv. no. 5, 18M, p. 99. 
t O- Borge in Eih. till K, Sv. Vet.-Akad. HuikH. Ud. ssii. Afd. iii< no. 9, 

p.lO, t. 2. r. 24. 

\ Cosmarimn hlreium Tur. triqnetrum^ Ureb. in Mem* Soc. Sci. nat. Cher- 
bourg, iv. 1S:.0, p. 130, t. 1. f. 9. C. codaium var. triqiidrum, Xord.t. in 
Ofvers. af X. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Forh. 1875, no. G, p. 25 ( = C. ahnorme var. trique- 
inm, Nordst., 1872). C. pseudoproiuhcrans var. irujonum, Nordsl. '*Desm. 

Gronl.," I c, 1885, no. 3, p, 7, t. 7. t 2. 

Siaurastrum cosmarioides, IsTordst., *' Desin* Bras.," Vidcnsk. Medd, f. d. nat. 

Foren. Kjobenliavn, 18C9, p. 223, t. 4, f. 43, very nmdi rcscnibks a triangular 

variety of Comiarium pyramidaium, Ercb. ; consult also tLo reniarte made by 

Etrrgeson in Videnst. Medd. Foren. Kjiibenh. 1890, pp. 49-50, c. fF. 1-G. 

|[ X. antilo'pmtm var. triquetrum, Lund, in Acta Soc. Scicnt. Upsal. 1871, 
p, 76, t. 5, f. G ; Wolle, Desm. U. S. 1884, t 22. ff. 1-3. 

^ Cfr. JSL j)hinaiifida yar. trigona, West in Journ. EoL xxvii. 1889, p. 206, 
t. 291, f. 15; and EJImmcromni forma triquetra, Scbroder in Forschungabericliten 

dcr Ploner Biol. Stat. 1897, p* 38, t. 2. f. 3- 



Staurastrum DicJciei^ Ac.; so mucTi so that MenegKini*, and 
afterwards Jacobsent, Mere induced to regVLvd Arthrodesmus Incus 
as a species of Staurastrum^ and Nordstedt and Lofgren X were 
undecided under which genus to place Arthrodesmiis psilos^orus. 
The main line of descent from Xantlddium to Arthrodesmus ia 
conspicuously evident by the occurrence of species which have 
been referred, with almost equal rectitudcj to each of these 
genera § ; and it may be well here to empliasize the fact that 
although species belonging to cither of these genera are as a 
rule easily distinguishable, yet the only valid difference between 
the two genera is the presence of the central protuberance in 
Xanthidium \\ and its entire absence in Arthrodesmus* 

The genua OnycJionema is a natural derivative of ArtJiro- 

desmus^ by the development of the apical processes and consequent 
assumption of a filamentous condition, and a slight reduction of 
these apical processes would result in the formation o£ the genus 
Sjjh(Jtrozos7nay the connectiug processes of S. Aubertianum var, 
Archerii being of exactly the same nature as those of an Onyclio- 
nema %, In the evolution of the genus Streptonema the apical 
processes were further specialized, and a modiiication of these 
structured to lorm broader projections of the apical part of the 
Cell-wall resulted in the production of those species now placed 
under the genus Desmidium, Thid view I have further confirmed 
by the examination of a species of Dcsmidium from Ce3'lon, 

actly intermediate between this genus and Strejyionema, 



some species of Desmidium the broad apical procc^sses are very 

MenegUini, ** Synopa. Desm.," Linna^a, 1840, p. 228. 
t Jacobsen, " Desm. Danni,/' Botani^k Tidi^skrill, vol. viii. 1874, p. 204. 
X Nordstedt & Lofgren in Wittr. & ^*oi'd:st. Alg. Exsic. 188^, No. 558, c. fig. 

Xanthidium tetracentrotum, Wolle, Dcsm* U.S. p. 95, t. 22. ff. 8-9, and 

« ft 

Arthrodesmus incrassaius, Lagerli. in Ofvers. af K. Sv. Yet.-Akad. Forli. 1885^ 
no. 7, p. 242, t. 1. i\ 18 ; cfr. West & G. S, West in Trans. Linn, Soc, Eot. ser. II. 
vol. V. p. 258, t. 15. f. 24* Also Xanthidium acanthopJiorum, Nordst. in Acta 
Univers. Lund. vol. xvi. 1880, p. 11, t. 1. 1". 20 ; referred by Eaciborski to Arthro- 
desmus in Pamietuik Wydz. iii. Akad. Ujuiej. w Krakowie, torn. xvii. 1889, p. 97^ 

t. 6. f. la 

K There are, however, a few species of Xanthidium without this central pro- 
tuberance (X leiodermum, Roy. & Eiss,, X, bengalicum^ W. B. Turn.), and many 
others in which it is only slightly developed. 

% Cfr, West & G. S. West in Trans. Linn. Soc, Eot. ser, IL vol v. p. 230» 
t. 12. ff. 7-8 ; Gutwinski in Sprawozd, Kom. fizyj, Akad. Umiej. w Krakowie, 
torn, xxvii. p. 29, t. L f . 4, 

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Ancestral filamentous Gonjugatcs . 








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Th^hjcvy of the Genera of Desmids. 





VARtixrox m the desmidie^. 


much reduced iu length, and a total suppression of them resulted 
in the genu^ Vidpnoprium^ the latter genus ultimately producing 
Gymnoz7jga by an elongation of the cells. Iltjalotheca dissiliens 
may probably have had an origin from Dldj/mopriam quadraium^ 
D, cd^uale^ or some allied form, and other species of Sj^alotheca^ 
such as T£. neglecta^ which so nearly resembles a species of 
Gymnozyga^ may have had an origin from the latter genus. 
At present, however, we know very little about many of the 
filamentous Desmidie?e, and for this reason any remarks as to 
their origin must necessarily be mostly conjecturaL 

The accompanying table (p. 414) of the phylogeny o£ the genera 
of Desmids may serve to illustrate the foregoing hypothesis. 


«, a\ a'^^cel! or setnicell from front view. 

h, b\ V 





— ij » )) 

=:ba5:il view of semicell. 

vertical view 
side view. 

Plate 8. 

Figs. 1-12, Petiiiim spirostrioIaiumyliiir'kQr. I, specitneu froua Oughtershaw 

Taru, W. Yorks., X52C; 2, from Llyii Padarn, N. Wales, x520 ; 
3, from Castletown, S.W* Ireland, X520 ; 4, from Minnesota, 
U.S.A., X520; 5, from Cromagloun, S.W. Ireland, x520j 0, one 
apex of fig. 5, x830; 7, from Cromagloan, S. W. Ireland, X520; 
8-10, apiees of three specimens from Oiiglitershaw Tarn, W. Yorks., 
X 1280 ; 11-12, portions of cell-wall of a specimen from Llyn Padarn, 
N.Wales, X 12^0. 
„ 13-19, Eaastntm Bldelta^'RM^^. x220. 13, specimen from Thursley 

Coirmon, Surrey; 14, from Elea Tarn, AVeatmoreland ; 15 & 16, 
from near Clapham, W. Yorka. ; 17, from Widdalc Beck, N, Yorks.; 
18 & It), from Castletown, S.W. Ireland. 

„ 20-22. Xanthidiwn Smiihii^ Arch., Tar. variabiles I^ordst. x520. 20, 

specimens from Esher Comuioa, Surrey ; 21 & 22, from near 
Devil's Jumps, Frensliam, Sui-rey. 

Plate 9. 

Figs, 1-8. Micrasterias Thomasianaj Arcb., and intermediate forms between 

this species and M. denticidata^ Breb. 1 & 2, specimens from 
Terrington^ N. Yorks., Xl70; 3 & 4, from Wrynose, Lancashire, 
■Xl70; 5, from Thursley Common, Surrey, Xl70; 6, from Singa- 
pore, X3'J0; 7 & 8, from Glen Shee, Perthshire, Scotland, X^OO 

(8 d is slightly oblique). 

li:n"x. jouny, — botany, tol. xxxiy. 


k 1 

J^ "f 

. n 




Figs. 9-16. Micrasferias tru7icaia, Breb. X2ii0. 9, speciiueii from Widdale ■ 

Beck, N. Yoi'ks. ; 10, from near Cljijjliam, W. Yorisi ; 11, from 

Bowness, Westmoreland ; 12, from Gleu Shee, Perthsliire, Scotland; 
13, from Llyn Padarn, N. jW^ales ; 14, from Capcl Curig, IN. Wales ; 
15, from Tbursley Common, Surrey; 16, from Minneapolis, 

Minnesota, U.S.A. 

Platk 10. 







Figs. 1-G. Cosmarhim Icsve^ Eabenh. x5i20, 1 &; 2, specimens from near 

Paris; 3-6, from Hauka Deola, Somaliland, 
7-9. Cosmarium Imve, Eabenh., yar. scptenirionale, Wille. x520. 7, 
specimen from Cocket Moss, near Giggleswiek, W. Yorks. ; 8, from 

Epping Forest, Essex ; 9, from Buri*owdaIe, Cumborlaud. 
10-21. Co$marii(M Eegncdi, Reinseli, and many forms intermediate 
between the type and van 7no}itanu7n^ ^Q\um(\\Q. Xl280. 10-17, 
specimens from Putteubam Common, Surrey ; 13-17, sbowing pecu* 
liariiies in division of cells ; 18 (very large form) and 19, from Riccall 
Common, E. Yorks. ; 20 and 21 (very large form) from Pilmoor* 
near Tbirsk, N. Yorks. 

22-28. Cosmarmnn biretum, Breb. Xo20. All the specimens from the lake, 

Welsh Harp, Middlesex. 
29-34. Cosmarium hiTctum, Br(5b., var trigihhenim^ Nordst. X 520. 29-31, 

and 34, speci^nens from The Waebes, Sutton, Cambridgeshire; 32* 

from Wbiteley Common, Surrey ; 33, from Eoundbay Park. Leeds, 

W. Yorks. 
35-36. Staurastritm furcigcTiim, Breb,, one semicell typical and the other 

with six superior processes (as in forma eustephana, Nordst.). X520. 

35, specimen from Birkbouse Moor Tarn, Ilelvellyn, Westmoreland; 

36, from Pilmoor, near Tbirsk, N. Yorks. 

Plate 11. 

Figs. 1-4. Cosmarmm ortfiostichttm, Lund. x520. 1, specimen from Tbursley 

Common, Surrey ; 2, from Ballynaliincb, Conneiiiara, Ireland; 3, 
from the United States; 4, from the New Forest, Hants. 
5-15. Staurasirum hrachiatu'm^ Balfs. x520. 5-8, specimens from near 
Devil's JumpSj Frensham, Surrey, 9, from Slieve Donard, Mourno 
Mts., Co, Antrim, Ireland; 10, from Orono, Maine, U.S.A.; 11, 
from Puttenbam Common, Surrey ; 12, from Tbursley Common, 
Surrey; 13-15, from Penzance, Cornwall, 

16-20, Staiirasirtim Eeinacliii.'RoY. X520, 16 & 17, specimens from 
near Devil's Jumps, Frensbam, Surrey (17&" is slightly oblique) 5 
18&19. from Lund's Fell, N. Yorks. (19 i^' is oblique); 20, from 
Houghton Moor, Cornwall. 

21-27* Siiturasinim cre^mlattim, Delp, X520. All specimens from 
Eoundbay Park, Leeds, W. Yorks, 

28-32. Staurastrnm ac^deaium^ Menogb. X 520. 28 & 29, specimens 
from Orono, Maine, LT.S.A.;30, from Tbursley Common, Surrey ; 31, 
from Capel Curig, N. Wales; 32, from Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.A. 





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Linn. Sue. Joukn. Bot. \^)L. XXXIV. 

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Vol. XXXIV. D 









I. On Notheia anomala^ Harv. et Bail. By Ethkl Sarel 

Bartok (Comrauuicated by Geoege MuREAT,Esq*, 

r,RS., P.L.S.). (Plates 12-14.) 417 

II. Caryophyllacecd of the Chinese Province of Sze-chueu. 

By rREDERic N- Williams, F.L.S 426 



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Elected 24th May, 1899, 


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C. B. Clarke, M.A.. F,Il.a 
Prank Crisp, LL.B., B.A. 

A, D. Michael, RZ.S., RR.M.8. 
G. K M. Murray, P.R.S, 


Frank Crisp, LL.B., B.A, 


B, Daydon Jackson, Esq, | Prof. G. B, Howes, LL.D., F.E.S, 


C. B. Clarke, M.A., RR.S. 
Frank Crisp, LL.B., B.A. 

Francis Darwin, M,B,, F.R.S, 
Prof. J. B, Farmer, M.A, 
P. D. Godman, RE.S, 

Henry Groves, Esq. 

A, a L. G Gunther, M,A., M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof, G. B. Howes, LL,D., F.R.S. 

B. Daydon Jackson, Esq. 

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On Notlteia anomala, Harv. et Bail. By Ethel Saeel Barton. 
(Communicated by GtEORGe Murray, E^q.^ r.E.S., F,L,S.) 

[Read 4th May, 1899.] 
(Plates 12-14.) 

The Fucaceoiia genus Notlieia was founded by Harvey and 
Bailey on tlie species N, anomala^ and published in the United 
States Exploring Expedition (Capt. AVilkes), vol. xvii. Botany, 
1862, p. 157. The authors describe it as parasitic on Hormosira 
Sieheri^ and remark on the unusual mode of growth, in which 
"each branch rises as it were viviparously from the scaphidium 
of a preyious branch." They doubt here Avhether it may not be 
some spurious production of the host-plant, but in a note added 
later, loc, cit,^ Dr. Harvey expresses himself as satisfied that 
^^ Hollieia is really a parasitic alga and not a metamorphie 
state 0? Hormosira,'^ Eour figures arc given of Notlieia^ among 
which is one of " a perisporc with parauemata*" This evidently 
represents an autheridium, for it contains a large number of 
regularly arranged cells, and the text describes the fruit as con- 
sisting of ^' spores in very narrow, almost linear, slightly obovate, 
almost parietal pcrispores." 

The next records are in Hooker's ^ Elora of New Zealand/ 
vol. ii- 1855, p. 215, and Hooker's 'Handbook of the New 
Zealand Elora/ 18G4, p. 653, which, however, add nothing to the 
description of Harvey and Bailey. In '' Observations on the 
FucoidesB of Banks Peninsula^' (Trunf::actions of the New 
Zealand Institute, vol. xviii. 1885, p, 308), Mr. Laing gives a 
sbort account of Notheia. He quotes Hooker's description in 
the ' Handbook^ {I* c), and for the first time records^the oogouia, 
which he also figures. He says, however^ that from lack of good 
material ho could not verify the number of oosx^lieres in each 


Miss Mitchell in a note on N, 

(Murray's ' Phycological Memoir 

1893). She 

finds eight oosphercs in each oogonium, though their arrangement, 
as figured by her, does not agree with the result of my investi- 
gations, to be described later. She gives good figures, natural 

Bize, of Nothe 

growing on its two hosts, Hormosira and 




Kjellinan(Englor aud Prantl'g Natiirl- Pflanzenfam. i. Abt. ii, 
p, 280, 1891) and De Toni (Sjlloge Algarum, vol. iii. Pucoid. 
p. 224) summarize the previous knoM^ledgo of JV. anomala^ but 
do not add to it. 

In the ^ Bibliotheca Eotanica ' a paper, " Ueber Auf b:iu und 
Entwickelung einiger rucaceen," by Dr, Eduard Gruber, con- 
tains a short account of Notheia, He deals mainly with the 
growing-2)oint and the development of the conceptacles, de- 
scribing also the growth of the young branch. He mentions 
the oogonia only, and regards the plant as probably dioecious. 
The parasitism of Noilieia is passed over, and no account is 
given of the early stages inside the host-plant. 

This paper of Dr, Grruber was brouglit to my notice after m}^ 
own investigation had been completed, and was therefore the 
more interesting as affording an opportu,uity of comparing results 
in the few points where our work had overlapped, I venture to 
differ from Dr. Gruber in a few details, but iu the matter of tlie 
growing-point he was right and I wrong. These differences will 
be dealt with as they arise. 

Notlteia anomala is recorded from Australia, Tasmania, and 
New Zealand as parasitic om Ilormosira Siud XiphopJwra ; and 
specimens from these localities are preserved iu the British 
Museum, collected by Dr. Harvey, Mr. Bracebridge AV^ilsou, aud 
Mr. Laing. The last-named collector tells me in a letter that 
he has never found AT. anomala para^^itic on any other alga than 
Ilormosira^ though he has seen large quantities of Xi^lioiHiora 
in a living state. 

The material on which this investigation was made was in part 
collected by Mr. Bracebridge Wilson at Geelong, Australia, and 
in part by Mr. W. E. Laing, of Christchurch, New Zealand, 
who has most kindly sent me supplies of material preserved 
according to various methods. He has also given me the benefit 
of his own observations made on living material, for which I 
here offer him my grateful thanks; but especially am I iu- 
debted to him for his generosity in sending me the material for 
a research which could have been so ably carried out by himself. 

Notheia anomala is a slender, branched alga from 5-8 cm, hi^-h, 
though, according to De Toni, sometimes attaining a height of 
15 cm. The largest plants I have seen do not exceed 12 cm., 
and in general they do not by any means reach this height. 
The mature stem is about 1| mm. in diameter and is branched 





ftt intervals in no particular orderj cacli branch again throwing 
out smaller brancblets. Those taper considerably both at their 
apex and at their point of connection with the stem, giving the 
whole plant a rather fragile ap])earance (PL 12. fig. 1). 

The thallus of JV. anomala consists of three layers of tissue, 
as in Turhinaria and other members of Pucacese. The centre is 
occupied by the usual strand of elongated cells having very thin 
transverse and thick longitudinal walls. The breadth of this 
strand increases with the age of the plant, and in the oldest 
portions of the thallus the thick walls become much pitted, 
while other filaments arising from them intertwine irregularly 
^among them (PL 12, figs. 2 & 3). These filaments, or " liyph^ '^ 
as Prof. Oltmanns calls them, have been described and figured 
by him for Ascojyhjllum nodosum ('' Beitr. z. Kenntn, dcr Puca- 
<^een/' BibL Bot, Heft 14, 1889, pi. x. fig. 1). The layer imme- 
diately surrounding the central strnnd consists in the young 
plant of roundish cells with jnts in their walls, and as the thallus 
increases in age the cells become longer and the walls thicker, 
thereby showing up in marked contrast the thin places In the 
cell-walls (PL 12. fig. 2h). The cortical layer shows the usual 
narrow, radially elongated cells. 

The growiug-point of N. anomala docs not lie at the base of a 
depression as in many of the Pucacese, but forms the topmost 
point of the thallus. It consists of three apical cells, as has 
been shown by Dr. Gruber {h c), who figures the growing-point 
both in transrerse and longitudinal section, and compares it with 
that of Uormosira^ which has three or, more often, four apical 
cells. My own conclusions with regard to the apex of Notlieia 
were, as stated above, different from those of Dr. Gruber, since 
I believed that there w^as but one a2>ical cell; but after reading 
his paper and re-examining the series of sections, there is no 
doubt as to the correctness of his decision. The division of 
these apical cells takes place, according to Dr. Gruber, by the 
cutting off of cells at the periphery, and these then divide by 
radial and basal walls to form the various layers of tissue. 

Immediately below the apex of N, anomala may be seen the 
first appearance of young cryptostomata, also described by 
Dn Gruber. They arise in the usual way by the arrested growth 
of one of the epidermal cells, which at once produces a hair with 
,a large basal cell (PL 13. fig. 4). The depression enlarges by 
longitudinal division and subdivision of this arrested epidermal 


i", ^ T. . iT^' 


cell, thus forming a layer which lines the cavity. Each o£ these 
cells produces a hair in the young cryptostoma, thus formiu^^ a 
thick tuft of long hairs which protrude througli tlie moutli and 
are plainly visible to the nated eye in the young branches of 
the plant (V]. 13. fig. 5). 

In some of the cryptostomata, however, a cell wliich lies at 
the base of the depression, instead of producing a liair, grows up 
into a small round protuberance, and after division proceeds to 
cut off from the apex successive cells to form a young branch 
(PI. 13. fig. G), These apical cells arc exactly similar to those 
of the primary thallus, as would be expected. As growth in 
length takes place, the lower cells begin to divide up to form the 
various layers of tissue, and this transverse division keeps pace 
with a corresponding division of the cryptostoma-cell, which 
originally gave rise to tlie branch. So that before tlie young 
branch is sufficiently advanced to protrude through the opening 
of the cryptostoma its base has become quite broad, and gives 
the appearance of having originated from a group of cells rather 
than from a single cell (PL 13. fig. 7). The remaining cells of 
the cryptostoma continue to produce hairs as usual. 

In Dr. Gruber's description of the young cryptostoma and 
the origin of the branch he says that when the hairs fall off a 
flask-shaped cell is left at the base, which probably gives rise to 
the young branch. But the hairs do not fall off in the very 
early stages of the cryptostoma, and it is in tliesc stages that 
the first sign of the branch is seen. There seems to me no 
doubt tliat the branch arises direct from one of the cells of the 
lining layer. 

Since the branching takes place in this way from the crypto- 
stomata, it follows that branches arise from all sides of the 
thallus irregularly; indeed I have seen in one section three 
cryptostomata with a branch growing out of each. In one 
instance of an old cryptostoma I have seen the centre occupied 
by the base of a thick branch and at the side there was bcnnnin*^ 
to shoot up another small branch, showing that one cryptostoma 
can produce more than one branch, and that these need not 
jicccssarily spring from the centre, I have failed, however, to 
find a case in which two branches have succeeded in irrowin^ to 


maturity from the same cryptostoma. 

All this time the cells lining the cavity of the cryptostoma 
have continued to divide, as well as the thallus-cells surroundinn- 

- I 


it. The large area of lining-cells thus produced shows of course 
very few hairs, for many of these have fallen off and the re- 
maiader have become separated from each other by the formation 
of the new colls, Prom these there now push up small out- 
growths which develop into antheridia, oogonia, aad unbranched 
paraphyscs (PI. 13. fig. 8). 

Dr. Gruber describes the growth in size of the cryptostoma 
(or, as he calls it throughout, the eonccptaclc) as taking place 
through separation from each other of the cells surrounding the 
initial cell. My observations lead me rather to tlie conclusion 
that repeated cell-division of the liuing layer and, later on, a 
growth in size of the individual cells take place, thus accounting 
for the appearance of new hairs, and later on of reproductive 
organs, from all parts of the cavity. In mature conceptacles 
the walls of the lining-cells are still connected with each other 
at their base, while the upper part becomes free by pushing up 
into the open space of the cavity. By this means the actual 
surface area of each such lining-cell is enlarged, and one cell 
can thus bear an oogonium and one or even two paraphyses. 

As I have pointed out above, the bodies which we now know 
to be antheridia \verc probably first noted by Harvey and Bailey, 
since the figure (/. c) evidently refers to these bodies under the 
name of sporangia* They arise direct from the lining-cell of 
the cryptostoma, or conceptacle as it has now become, and contain 
numerous antherozoids (PI. 13. fig* 0). They are about 55 ft 
long and 15 ft broad, resembling entirely the antheridia of 
Hormosira and other Fucacese. They grow in the same con- 
ceptacles as the oogonia, but are not so plentiful. This is, so 
far as 1 know, the only recorded case of antlieridia growing 
directly from the walls of the conceptacle in the same manner 
as oogonia ; and it was not until after an examination of a large 
number of conceptacles that I felt justified in regarding these 
bodies as antheridia and not as oogonia, of which tlie cell-contents 
had been in some way disorganized. But the regularity of the 
antherozoids, and the final confirmation of their existence in fresh 
material by Mr. Laing, placed the question beyond doubt. 

The general rule as to the position of the reproductive organs 
in Fucacefc, /. ^., that the antheridia arise on branclicd hairs and 
the oogonia from the walls of the conceptacle, is now shown to 
have exceptions in both cases. Notlieia has antheridia arising 
3 ike oogonia, while Sarcoj.)Jtycus (Miss F. Gr. AVhitting, in 

T 1. 

^ V 

- -"r . 



Murray*s PliycoL Mem. p. 39, pi. 12. fig. 3) and Burvillcea 
(Laing, in Trans. N- Z, Inst, xviii. (1885) p. 308) have oogonia 

on "branrliod liairs like antlicridia. 

The oogonia of Notheia are ratliur larger than the antheridia 
and measure 75 ^ by 20 /i. They contain 8 oospheres, one at 
each end, and, between these, three groups of two each, the 
oospheres of the two outermoBt groups corresponding in position, 
while in the middle group the oospheres lie crossways. Thus if 
the two outermost groups show both oospheres side by side, the 
middle group shows only one, the second oosphore being hidden 
behind it (PL 13. fig- 10)- 

The unbranchcd paraphyses are of the usual size and kiud 
found in female conceptacles, and frequently grow from the 
same cell which bears the anthcridium or oogonium, as mcntioued 


One or two of the long cryptostoma-hairs sometimes persist 
during the time of fructification and may be seen among the 
ripe fruits (PL 13. fig. 8). 

The history of cryptostomata has aroused a certain amount of 
discussion and speculation ; and there is still much to learn 
about their origin and function from the more or less open pits 
of Encoeliacca) to the flask-shaped cavities of ^ucacese — all with 
their typical cryptostoma-hairs. But till now I believe it has 
not been found that all the cryptostomata of any Pucaceous 
alga gradually lose most of their hairs and come to bear repro- 
ductive organs and paraphyscs — become, in fact, fertile concep- 
tacles. Miss Strudwick, who iix*M\\mQi[ Hormosira at my request 
with regard to this point, tells me it is true also of that genus. 
This has been seen in Sj^la chni d turn (Murray's Phycol. Mem. pt. i.- 
1892, p. 5), but in that case the reproductive organs are spo- 
rangia, and the genus is therefore excluded from Fucacese. Of 
the three view^s concerning tlie origin of cryptostomata quoted 
by Mr. Murray (" On the Cryptostomata of Adenocystis^ Alaria, 
and Saccorliiza^^' Phyc. Mem. 1893, p, 59), my own, as to the 
pbylogenetie independence of cryptostoma and conceptacle, must, 
I fear, fall to the ground before this new light thrown on the 
subject by Notlwia, 

Prof Oltmanns's view '^ that the fertile conceptacics are crypto- 
stomata which Iiave in time come to bear organs of rejjroduction,"' 

seems to meet the case more satisfactorily, especially if we re- 
member how the sporangia oiAdenocygtis, Soranthera^ Colpo^nenia^ 

1 - 




Chnoospora^ &q. cluster round the mouth of the cryptostomata. 
It only needs a step for the fruits to drop into tlie cavity in 
their midst, and thus convert the cryptostoma into a fertile 
conceptacle- This view, on the other hand, does not account 
for tlie cryptostomata of Fucits^ Turhinaria, &c., winch might 
be claimed by Prof, Bower in support of his tlieory that crypto- 
stomata are incomplete i?eiual conceptacles- 

That these hairs are of importance to many members of the 
Phaiophycea) is evident by the careful protection they receive; 
but the manner in which they serve the plant has yet to be 
discovered. The subject of cryptostomata and their hairs isy 
however, dangerous ground for speculation, but it is hoped that 
new facts concerning these bodies may eventually throw a clearer 
light on their origin and function. 

Notheia anomala has long been known as the only recorde^l 
parasite among the Fucacea^, but details of this parasitism have 
been wanting. Hooker (Handbook N. Z. Flora, I. c.) says it 
grows from the conceptacles of its host IIorviosira\ but after 
examining a large number of instances of the junction between 
host and parasite, I find this statement incorrect. The point of 
entry is in most cases quite close to the mouth of a cryptostoma 
or conceptacle oi Ilormosiraj but in no case have I seen any part 
of NotJieia penetrate into the conceptacle itself of the host-plant* 
In the earliest stages, the spore apparently divides on the surface 
of the host ai^d throws out a delicate septate filamentj which 
penetrates between the host-cells and branches in every direc- 
tion ; thus forming a sort of loose network, without, however^ 
actually penetrating into the host-cell, liy means of offshoots 
running up to the surface of the host, from one of the filaments 


of Notheia^ the gelatinous cuticular layer of the host-plant is 
thro'svn off and room is made for the parasite to develop. Mean- 
while several of the filameiits inside the host have formed together 
a sort of small cushion (PL 13. fig. 11) from which the young 
shoot grows up, forcing its way through the loose tissue which 
surrounds it (PI, 14, fig. 12). Other cells of the cushion grow 
out into hairs, and the whole has very much the appearance of 
an irregular cryptostoma, producing a young branch as described 
above. As this shoot grows out from the host-lhallus, the sur- 
rounding host-cells divide actively and swell up around the base 
of the young plant (Ph 13. fig. 13), Ehizoids are given off from 
the base of the pseudo-cryptostoma ^vhich penetrate between 

^ .' JT ■■■ - ^ V. v^r-t * ' " ■ '. tf- 


the cellis of the host, forming knots of irregularly shaped cells, 
with long thin prolongations running in all directions. In early 
stages theac rhizoids are seen only at the base immediately below 
the young f^hoot, but later many of the ceils which lie along the 
sides of the pseudo-cryptostoma give off rhizoids in the form of 
thin prolongations (PL 14. fig. 14)* It is only by following 
carefully the various stages of the junction of llorviosi7'a and 
Notheia that it is possible to detect the line of demarcation 
Lctween the two in a mature stage. The shoot of Notheia has 
widened exceedingly at the base, and the host has grown in pro- 
portion round it. In most cases the liost-cells immediately 
adjoining JSotheia bave lost their colour, and it has generally 
been supposed that the line of demarcation corresponded with, 
the change of colour. Bat this |^is not the case, for though the 
tissues of both plants are very much alike, it is possible to see, 
among the colourless cells, a slight irregularity -which marks tlie 
line of contact of Nolheia and its host (Ph 14. figs, 15 & 16), 
It has not been possible to determine whether the contents of 
the Ilonnosira-celh^ immediately adjoining the JVof he i a- ^hoot^ 
have lost their colour through the action of the rhizoids w^hich 

bave passed down between them ; but the fact that age increases 
both the leTigtb of the rhizoids and the depth of tlie colourless 
layer of Ilormosira-colh leads one to suspect some connection 
between the two. I have never seen a genuine instance of tlie 
penetration of a Not he ia-vhizoid into one of the hoat-cells, though 
many ])reparations have led me to think this not improbable. It 
is, however, a point which can only be worked out with satisfac- 
tion on fresh material. 

The early stages in the life-history of N. anomala bring to 
Rtind the figure and description of young adventitious branches 
from the basal disc oi Fucns vesicuhsus^ as described and figured 
by Prof. Oltmanns (in Bibb Bot,, Heft 14, p. 73, tab. 13. figs. 
10-13). Here, of course, there is nothing of a parasitic nature 
to be considered as in Notlieia^ but there is a certain similarity 
in the process of the actual growth. As the result of an injury 
to the thallus, a few cells within the tissue begin to divide 
and shortly form a small protuberance. This grows up in a 
radial direction through the surrounding tissue, the apical cell 
sinks into a depression, and the bi'anch continues to grow^ in 
the normal fashion. 




il^i O 


(J t 





^yU. «>^r^0,^~ 

^^f ^^Q^"-C> 













"^ ^^ft^A. ,, v.. . . " '^' All 



E .o> . B A P H ckl lliyh l^v iitk 

NOTHr.:/v AT-^OMALA^Z/'arr. ^ Bocib 

li^nV^rt ";mio 


b-h rrl 


- '1 

Barbon . 





Hanha^rb imp 


^;OMALA, /far^ ^ BcliL 


fr-i-»- ^r PVHV 

'ip-T r" T r y T^^ ■« 



E.S.BA?H,del HigHejUi] 



NOTHEIA ANOMALA, .%trr £& ^.x;^ , 



- .^^ 

^ ( 



Pinalljj I would express my gratitude to the ofScials of the 
Botanical Department of the British Museum for their never- 
failing kindness and interest. 


Plate 12. 

Fig. 1. Nothcia anomala^ llarv. et Eail., growing on Hormosira. Nat. size. 

2 a. General view of Iballus. Long, sect. 


2 i. Longit. section of mature tliallua, showing part of central strand 

and intermediate lajcr. X 140, 

3 (St. Transverse section of mature thallus, X GO. 
3 b. Cells from centre of same. X 305. 

5. Crjptostoma still more Jidvanced. X 365. 

X 3G5. 

Plate 13. 

Pig. 4. Crjptostoma rather older. X 365. 

6. Very earlj' stage of young branch arising from the base of a crjpto- 

stoma. X 365. 

7. Branch more advanct:d, 

8. Mature conceptuclo, with oogonia aud authcridia. X 140, 

9. Antheridium. X 3G5. 

10. Oogonium, x 305. 

11. Penetrating filaments of Xoiheia. pushing up cuticle of Hormosira 

and forming cushion. X 365. 
13. Various stages of young phmt. X 25. 

a. Hairs arising from cushion of Notheia inside host-plant. 
h. Young shoot which Ijas reached the surface of the host, 
c. Still later stage. 

The light-coloured tissue surrounding the young shoot of Notheia 
is disoriranized host4issue. 

Plate 14. 

Fig. 12. Young shoot of Notheia issuing from host-plant. X 365. 

14. Cells giving off rLizoids along the sidoa of the pseudo-cryptostoma. 

X 400. 

15. Junction of Honnodra and Nofhela, Mature, x 05. 

16. Rhizoids of mature plant. X 400. 

■J ^ ^ 

"-"H I f 


Garyoi)ltyllaee(s of tbe Chinese Province of Sze-cbuen. 

By Feedehic N. AYTLLiil^s, F.L.S. 

[Eead 1st June, 1899.] 

The ])roYmces of Sze-chuen and Tun-nan form tlie westernmost 
divisions of China proper, and until somewhat recently little was 
known of their botany. Tbo flora of Yuii-nan has been assidu- 
ously taken in hand by M. Tranchet iu the course of working 
through the collections made by the Abbe Dolavay in 1882 and 
following years; and he published the first instalment of the 
flora in ISSG, after issuing a preliminary list the year before. 
Our knowledge of the flora of Sze-chuen is based on the distri- 
bution of a h\v collections of mare recent date. Owing to the 
absence of materia], the earlier parts of Mr, W. B* Hemsley's 
* Index Florae Sinensis' contain no reference to plants found to 
occur in Sze-chuen, and it is not tilt the order of Lesuminosse 
is reached that this province is mentioned by name, in giving the 
distribution of Les^edeza juncea. In all the orders which follow, 
the material afforded by such collections as came to hand was 
utilized with the issue of successive parts. 

The following are the collections which include plants from 
the province of Sze-chuen, and whicli require to be systemati- 
cally worked through in order to give any detailed account of 
the flora of this portion of China proper. 

Ahhe Ferny. A small collection in the Paris Museum Her- 
barium, not critically worked out, from the mountaijious region 
of Sze-chuen, made in 1858. 

AlU Belavay, Plants collected a little beyond the northern 
borders of Tun-nan, in 1882-1885. 

liajos Zoczy, A collection made by the botanist attached to 
Count Bela Szechenyi's expedition, organized to explore East 
Central Asia, and which included plants from Kan-su, Tun-nan, 
and Sze-chuen, collected in 1879-80, of which a descriptive list 
was issued by Prof. Kanitz in 188G. 

Able David, Plants collected by him during his stay at Mupin, 
and worked through by M. Franchet in the second volume of 
' Planta) Davidianae ' (1888). Tliis work is published as a con- 
tribution to the flora of Eastern Tibet ; but Mupin and the 
districts explored are politically within the province of Sze-chuen. 

G. iV. Fofanin. Collected plants in 1885, in Kan-su and 

J, - 




]Sr. Sze-chuen. These were distributed tlirough the Petersburg 
Botanic Garden to various licrbaria. 

A. E. Pratt, A collection made in 1890^ chiefly in the neigh- 
bourhood of Tachien-lu, at elevations of 2700 to 4000 metres. 
This collection passed tlirough Mr. Hemsley's hands, and the 
new species were described by him in 1892 in the Socicty^s 
Journal (vol. xxix.). The list of numbers, however, was not 
published in the memoir. 

Prince Henry of Orleans. A small collection (no duplicates) 

made in the same year, between Tachien-lu and the Tibetan 

Dr. A. Henry. Collected in 1889 in AV'estern Ilu-pch, and 
the Wushan districts of Sze-chucn, The numbered specimens 
are constantly cited in the later parts of the ' Index Elorae 




nized it ; he afterwards further explored the Yang-tzc valley in 

Abhe Soulie. The districts of Tacliien-lu and Tongo-lo, and the 
princii^ality of Kiala, were carefully explored by him in 1S93. 
Part of the collection has been worked out by M. Franchet^ 
From the character of the country traversed, the examination 
of further portions of the specimens will probably yield many 
additions to the Chinese flora. 

Ahhe Piccoli. A small collection from Shen-si and N". Sze- 
chuen in 1896. 

. The limits of the province of Sze-chuen seem to vary according 
to the political bias of the cartographer, and differ considerably 
in different maps. For the purpose of this papcr^ the limits are 
those defined in the carefully constructed map of China by 
Pr. Emil Bretschneider, issued in sections. 

Subg. Garyophyllastrum^ sect. Fimh7'iatum. 

1. D. SUPERBITS, Linn, 

■ Hal. Tachieu-lu {Pratt, n. 497, n. 535, 1800 ; Soulie, n. 262, 

Trr ■%'?," 


1 '^r ,H 



2. DiAis'Tiius s/ECHUENsis, sp. nova* 

Griaber, liute vircns, 40 centim- Caulis subsolitarius crectus 
gracilis teres dichototne coryniboseque ramosus. Folia basilaria 
pauca basi apicequo attenuata, 42-48 mm., caulina inferiora 50- 
75 mm.., superiora 35-50 mm,^ omnia patcntia rocurva anguste 

linearia acuminata niollia plana 3-nervia, vagina folii diam. 
sequante. Flores solitarii vel binati, in paniculam laxam diclio- 
tomam dispositi, odorati. Bractese 4 ina^qualcs obovatoe 
anguste metnbranaceo-alatse juxtim pm'purasceutes mucronatee 
adpressse ad ^ calycis tubum. Calyx gracilis purpurascens a 
basi ad apicem distincte striatus, deutibus lanceolatis subulato-' 
acumiuatis 7-niTviis post anthesin erecto-patulis. Petala rosea 
non. contigua, fere ad fauccm barbulatum multifida, area indiviaa 
oblonga parva, ungue longe exserto quam lamina duplo longiore. 
■Capsula eylindrica inclusa. Semina granulata, 

Planta facie _D. siipcrli habitu tenuior ; in speciminibus autcm 
liujus speciei, folia basilaria latiora obtnsa remote 3-nervia, etiam 
'Calyx apice attenuatus brevius dentaius solum apud denies 
purpureus, ejus dentibus post antbosin vix patulis. 

Hah. Tougolo (SouUe, n. G9, 1893). 


3. C. EACOIFEE, Li?in. 

Hob, N". Sze-chuen, near tbe borders of Kan-su (Pofanin^ 
1885)* E. Sze-chucn, near tbe borders of Hii-pcb (A, Henryy 
11. 8805, 1890). W, Sze-chuen, Tachien-lu {Pratt, n. 405, 
1890). S. Sze-cliuen, Mt. Omei at 1200 metres (Faher, n. 152, 

n. GIO, 1887), Mupin {Franchet, PJ. David, ii. p. 22 [1888], 
forma foliis anguste lanceolatis longe acuminatis). 

Subg. Ensilene^ sect, Dichaswsihne. 

4. S. szECHUENsis, sp. nova (ser. BracliyanihcB), 
Perennis. Caules adscendentes, laxe et divaricatim ramosi,* 
glabri. PoHa e basi ovata oblongo-lanceolata attcnuato-acurai- 
nata sessilia, Plorcs in dicbasio laxo plus minus composite, 
•centrales longe pedicellatij alares pedicello quam calyx duplo 
iongiore saffulti. Calyx obconico-oblongus pubescens, nervis 
Tiridibus baud anastomosantibus, dentibus triangularibus acutis 
■ciliatis. Petala emarginata^ ealyce paulluni longiora. Capsula 


V = L 

carvopiiyltjACE.^ of sze-chuen. 


oblongo-globosa subt^ossilis, carpoplioro brevissimo suffulta. 

Semina obtuse granulata, dorso late sulcata, faciebus deprcssa, 

PJanta Silene Tatarinoxini et S, rz^^^^sfr/ affinis, pctalis ecoro- 
natis et seminibus dorso late sulcatis atque alioqui ab ambabus 

diversa; etiam fere facie MeitANDhyi adenakthi, "Williams (i. e. 
Silenes adcnantliw^ Pranchet), speciei yunnanensis, scd capsula 
subsessili non vere nniloculari et petalis emarginatis gaudet, 
Ilab. Tachien-lu {8oulie, n. 111, 1S!)3), 

Subg- Uiisilene^ sect, Botryosilene. 


Hah. Tachien-lu {PraU,\\.5o^, 1S90 ; Soulie, n. 101, n. 3G8, 
n. 645, 1893). 

All the specimens on these four sheets can be referred to thia 
well-marlvcd but polymorphous species. Franchet has described 
di^ forma rubescens from Tun-nan, with rose-coloured petals and a 
more distinctly inflated calyx, but none of the above specimens 
seem to match no, 125 of the Abbe Delavay's plants of Tun-nan, 
which is the type-specimen of this form : though one or more 
of them recall the form described by Kegel as S. tenuis var. 
turgida. With this exception, not previously recorded from 
China proper ; as the south limit of the species hitherto has 
been given as extending to Knuawar in the Himalayas (Jacgue- 
mont ex Ilooh.f.^ Fl. Brit, Ind. h p* 219). 

6. S, FOKTUNET, Vis. 

Hah. Szc-chuen, near the borders of Kan-su {Q-, -S7. Potanin^ 
1885, fob 27G in Herb, Kew), 

In a recent number of tlie ' Botanical Magazine ' (April 1899, 
t. 7649) there is an excellent plate of this plant (which had not 
previously been figured), with carefully drawn details of floral 
structure, from specimens which flowered in the Herbaceous 
Collection at Kew Grardens in September 1898. The plant was 
raised from seeds collected in the province of Shen-si by Father 
Piccoli, of the Jesuit Mission in Hankow. 



Sect, GastroJijclmis^ Jlohrbach. 

7. M. SouLTEi, sp- nova, 

Caules erectiusculi pilis brcvibus reflexis eglandulosis leviter 
vestiti, 1-3-flori. Folia inferiora lincari-lanceolata basi angus- 

I I 


I * 


L , 

430 ME, F- N. \AlLTJ\iLS OX THE 

tata apice aciitata, superiora lincaria acuta, omnia uninervia. 
Calyx fructifer ampliiitus ovatus hirsuto-pubescens, Dervis reticu- 
lato-venosis, dcntibus trianj^ularibus acutis, Pctala bifida ex- 
auriculata inclusa. Cappula ovato-globosa sessilis, dentibus 
recnrvis. Semina purpureo-fuscajdorsi sulcati margine cristato- 
tuberculata, faciebus dc])rcssis vel planis baud tubcrculala. 

Planta MeJandnjo hracln/pctalo^ Fenzl, affinis, speciei bene 
definita? quse in regione Tibetana et in Mongolia occurrit, ab 
oadcm nibilomlnns liabitu valde diversa ; ctiam foliis angusti- 
oribus, petalis e^aurieulatis, et scmiuum structura, satis differt. 

Hah. Taobicn-lu {Soidie, n. 820, 1893). 

8. Melandetum gla:ni>ulosI'M, Williams. 

Syn, Lycbnis glandulosa, Maxim, Fh Tanf/uiica, 'p* SS^t, 29 

Tota dense glanduloao-pilosa, 32-35 centim, Eudix f usiformis 
simplex pleiocepliala, Caulis subsimplex vel fastigiatim pauci- 
ramosus, sulcatus. Folia pleraque basi confertaj obloiiga vel 
oblongo-linearia, infima obtnsa, reliqua subacuta, radicalia in 
petiolum attenuata, caulina pauca sesyilia, basilaria 50-80 mm,, 
superiora 18-22 mm, Plores nntantes, longc pcdicellati, ramos 
terminantes et ex axiliis orti, Uraetese 2 lincarcs nninervise 
herbacese. Calyx campanulatus, dentibus ovatis obtusis dense 
ciliatisj costis nigricaati-viridulis apice coiijunctis. Pctala 
purpurea bifida, lamina exserta in lobos oblongos divisa, ungue 
jlabro sensim versus basin attcnuato obtuse lateque biauriculato, 
appendicibus rotundato-obtusis fornicatis. Pilamcnta ciliata. 
Styli breves recti- Semina reniformia exalata, dorso i:>lano 
seriebus 5 tuberculorum obtusorum dense papillata, disco Icviter 


Habitus M. trisiisy Penzl, quod tamen eglandulosum, flores 
majores, calycem distinctc reticulato-nervosum, petala lamina 

patente majuscula exserta, ungue subito basin versus attenuate 
habet, atque semina duplo majora possidet : confer etiam 3L ca- 

bulicKm^ Boiss., ex Afghania? alpibus. 

Hah. Tachion-lu at 2700-4000 metres (Pratt, n. 550, 1890). 

The plant exactly agrees Avith Col. Przewalsky's specimens 
from N. Tibet (1884), and uith Maximowicz's excellent plate. 



Sect, Elisanthe^ Rohrbaclu 

9. Melandryum CiESPiTOsiTM, Williams. 

Syn. Silene C£e&pitosa, Bur. et FrancJi.^ in Journ, de Bot, 1891, 
p. 22 (non Steven). 

Acaule, csespitosum, 4-6 centim. Folia linear la aeuta^ margine 
sparse oartilagineo-setosa, faciebus glabra. Flores solitarii ; 
pedicelli plerumque calyce breviore.^, pilfs brevibus dense hispidi. 
Calyx oblongo-clavatus purpureas basi truucattis, dentibus ovato- 
rhoinboideis ciliolati^ baud acutis, sinu inter dentes cxcavato- 
rotundato, Petala rosea louge unguiculata, lamina fere ad 
medium bifida, lobis linearibus paruni divaricatis, ad unf^-uem 
utrinsecus obtuse aurleulata, appendicibus parvia biuis obfcusis 
€rectis ovatis iategris contiguis. -Filamenta inferne pilis sparsis 
instructa* Ovarium ovatum^ carpophoro brevisisimo. 

Habitus Sileues PumiUonis^ quam quidem in memoriam 

If tbe plant belonged to Silene the specific name would have 
to be changed, as S. cccspitosa^ Stcveii, is a good species* As 
there is no doubt of its being a Melandrifum^ the original specific 
name is available with its transfer to this genus, 

Kab. Summit of a pass, south of Batang {Pratt, n. 537, n. 559 
1890 ; Soulie, n, 848, 1893). 


Syn. Silene platypetala, Bur, et Francli.^ in Journ. de Bot. 

1891, p. 22. 

Pilis brevibus conspersum. Caulis gracilis ramosus. Polia 
20-26 mm., lineari-lanceolata vel linearia acutissima papillia 
scabrida, margine Isevi auguste cartilaginea. Plores 2-3 laxe 
cymosi, pedicelHs multum lougiores j pedicelli medio bracteati 
yillosi. Calyx obovatus basi truncatus, pilis brevibus albidis 
reversls vestitus, striis purpureis percursus, fructifer apice 
apertus, dentibus demum patentibus triangulari-lanceolatis late 
membranaceis obtusis, inter dentes sinu obtuse rotundato* 
Petala albida vel pallide rosea obcordata, lamina leviter emargi- 
nata latiore quara longa, ad unguem glabrum utriaque obtuse 
auriculata, appendicibus erectis contij^uis obtusis oblon^^is. 
Antherse atropurpureae. Ovarium longe ovatam, carpophoro vix 
longius. Semina rubra acute tuberculata. 

Characteribus plurimis hsej planta species nonnullas Amerx- 

■r " T- 

■ * . 

^ ■ h 



canag {Melandryi Wrightii et iLT. Oreggii^ Eolirb.) revocatj 
quse floribus fructifcris omnibus ercctis gaudent. 

Franchet's description has been compared witli Pratt's speci- 
mens, Francbet's type-specimens not seen, 

Ilah. Tachicn-lu(PmZ^^ n, 530). 

11. Mela^dhtum KTALE^^SE, sp. nova. 

Pubescens, pilis donsis. Caiilis ercctus simplex robustns quadr- 
angulus sulcatus. Polia inferiora lanceobito-Jinearia ad basin 
angnstata, superiora paullum angustiora, omnia acuta, aensim 
minora ; bractese foliia supremis similes. Dicbasium 9-12- 
florum ; florcs centrales arcuati. Calyx brevis basi attenuatus 
breviter pubescens, evenius sed nervis supernc conjunctis, denti- 
l)us triangnlaribus submucronato-acutis late albo-marfi^inatia 
dense ciliatis statu fructifero patentibus. Petalablpartita, lobis 
lineari-oblongis, ungne glabro utrinque obtuse auriculato ex- 
serto, appcndieibus binia obovato-rotundiH brevibus distincte 
emarginatis, Capsula ovato-campanulata subscssilis, carpophoro 
6-plo longior, Semina acute tubcrculata, dorso plana vol leviter 
depressa, faciebus parcius tuberculatis dcprcssa. 

More pubescent tlian the preceding and of more robust liabit, 
with simple stems. Differs from it further in the flowers 
arranged in a multifloral dicbasium, with the calyx attenuate at 
the base, and deeply cleft petals. 

Hah. Tongolo in the principality of Iviala (Souh'e^ n. GGG, 

{Loureiro, !FL Cochinchin. p. 28G [1790], sed cbaracteribus 

amj>liatis et reformatis.) 

Calyx gamophyllus, tubulosus, clavatus, turbinatus vel cam- 
panulatus, fructifer sa;pc superno ampliatus, 5-dentatus, neryia 
10 prominentlbus a^qualibns percursus, evenius vel nervis anasto- 
mosantibiis* Pctala 5 longe unguiculata, appendicibus basi 
fornicatis, unguibus ciliatis, cum staminibus carpophori stipiti- 
formis plus minus elongati apicc insistentia, Nectarium in lobos 
10 divisura, ad planum laminae reflexos. Stamina 10 ; filamenta 
filiformia ; anthertc oblongge. Styli 5, calycis dentibus oppositi. 
Capsula vere unilocularis, dentibus vel valvis 5 apiee maro-inicide 
dehiscens, ovata. Semina plurima, tuberculata vel striolata; 
embryo pcriphcricus.— Hcrbio pcrcnnes, floribus speciosis in 
dichasia dispositis. 



Genus a Loureiro bene conceptam et dilucide definitum, 
genere Linnoeano Coronarid restituto, melius pro parte prosiliente 
generis Lychnidis a Linnaeo male definiti substituendum. 

Syn, Lyclmis subg. Eu-lychnis, Fax in Mngl. Sf Frantl^ 
NatlirL Pflanzenf. iii- Abt. i. p, 73(1889). 

12- Hedona DAAanr, Williams. 

Syn, Lycbnis Davidi, FrancJi. PL David, ii, p* 22 (1888). 

MulticauliSj caespitosa, Eami florcntos uniflori, 4-6 centim. 
Folia parya 4-G mm.;, ovato-lanceolata vel ovato-spathulata, mar- 
gine pilis crustaccis longe ciliata. Calyx nibescens pilis crustaceis 
conapersisj campanulato-tubulosus evcnius basi truncatus umbili- 
-catu3, dentibus ovatis rotundatis membranaceo-ciliatis. Petala 
biloba pallide purpurea^ calyce duplo longiora, ungue calycem 
fequante, faucc biauriculata. Filamenta glabra. Ovarium sessile 
ovoidcum. Capsula breviter stipitata. Semina reniformia 
complanata striolata anguste striolata* 

Planta babitu Silenes acatdisy floribus majoribus efc foliis 


Sah On high rocks in the Mupin district, "Western Sze- 


Subg. Orfhodon, sect. Cheileodontia^ scr. Uecticapsulares* 

13, C. SZECHTJE^SB, sp. nova. 

Annuum, pilis patentibus glandulosia breviter hirsutis resti- 
tum, viscosnm, 17-22 centim, Caulcs simplices vel ima basi 
f urcati. Folia sessilia lanceolata obtusa. Dichasium divaricatum 
multiflorum ; pedicelli florifcri arcuati ; pedicelli fructiferi caly- 
cem duplo superantes demam erect i ; bracteae omnino herbacese. 
Calyx umbilicatus truncatus ; sepala oblongo-lauceolata subacuta, 
cxtcriora anguste scariosa, reliqua latius marginato-scariosa. 
Petala oblongo-cuneata breviter bidentata, calycem sequantia vel 
■60 panllo breviora, nnguibua glabris. Stamina 10 ; filamenta 
glabra. Capsula longe tubulosa stricte recta cylindrica 10-nervia 
calyce duplo longior. Semina pauca, 

Planta Cerastio Duri(jdi affinis, speciei quae regiones alpinaa 
Armenlae Turcicae attingitj sad diversa caulibus simplicibua, 
pedicellis frnctiferia calycem duplo supcrantibus, et petalis 

longioribus oblongo-cuneatls. 

Hah. Tachien-lu {Soulie^ n. 14G, 1893). 



c T fc-, C 




14. Ceeastium: alpinitm, var. Fisctierianum, Ser, (sp.). 
B^ab. N. part of the province {Q. N. Pofanin, 1885, ex ] 
Hort. Petropolit.). 

* Petiolarcs, FenzL 

15. S. wusHAXEXsiSj sp. nova. 

Caules decumbenti-ramosi vol flaccidc adscendcntcs, glabri. 
Polia longe pctio]ata ovato-cordata acuminata uninorvia glabra. 
Flores pauci apctali alares sparsi lougo pcduuculati; pedunculi 
pib's albis transvcrsis paucis instructi, caljce 4-plo longiorcs ; 
bractese herbacca), Sepala membranacea uninervia eHIptica vix 
acuta. Semina magna globoso-reniformia acuta tuberculata. 

Hah, District of North Wushan (A. Ilenrif. n. 7047 1R!^0V 


Hah. E. SzG-cliucn (Faher, 1887). Mupin (Franch. PL 

David, ii, p. 23 [1888]). 

** Inaignes, FenzL 

17- S. NUTANS, f^p. nova. 

Plauta 19-24 centim, Caules teretcs, glabri vel parcc pubcruli, 
valde gcniculati. Eolia lanceolata acuta uninervia carnosula 
villoso-canescentia. Floras nutantcs ; pedicelli apicem versus 
rcJloxi; bracteac lierbacca?. Sepala anguste lanceolata acuta. 
Petala bipartita, calyccm acquantia, Capyula obovata. 


*** Ilolostea?, FenzL 

18. S, SouLiEi, sp. nova- 

Perennis, glabra, 23-26 ccntim. Caules ramosi, superno 
repetite cymosi. Folia uninervia acuminata, margine villosa. 
Flores alares ct termiuales; alares sparsi, terminales dichotomo- 
cymosi; bractca? scariosse. Flores longe pediccllati; pedicelli 

plo longiores. Sepala anguste lanceolata acuminata 
trinervia marglne scariosa, Petala bipartita, calyce subbreviora, 
Capsula brcviter obovata. 

Hah, Tachien-lu (Soulie, n. 914, n. 971). 

19. S. IIeneti, sp, nova. 

Glabra. Caules procumbentes, lG-18 centim., tenues. Folia 




anguste lineari-lanceolata uninervia acuta. Flores solitarii ; 
pedicelli unifariam glanduloso-pubescentes. Sepala anguste 
lanceolata acuminata glandulosa, pilis sparsis liispidis purpureis 
iDstructa. Pctala biloba uuguiculata, ealyee l|-plo longiora. 
Capsula ovoideo-globosa- 

Distinguislicd from allied species by the scattered stiff purple 
hairs which invest the calyx. 


^'*** Larbrese, Fei^zL 

20- Stellabta dichasioides, sp. nova. 

Glabra. Caules terctes. I'olia subovali-lanccolata acuta 
uninervia. Flores nutantes in dichotomiis iteratis. Sepala 
anguste lanceolata acuminata tomontosa anguste scariosa. Petala 
bipartita calyccm ecquantia. Semina mamillata. 




{Rev. E. Filler, n. 337, 18S7.) The specimens i ^ 
those of typical .S'- uJiginosa^ wliich, according to Franchet, is 
found in the neighbouring province of Yun-nan {Belavay. 
n. 1127), 

22. S. UDA, sj^. nova. 

Caespitosa, viridis, glabra. Caules fijiformes fragiles dcbiles. 
Folia anguste lincari-lanccolata acuminata uninervia, non succu- 
lenta. Flores longe pedicellati ; pedicelli foliis superioribus 3- 
4-plo longiores, Sepala lanceolata acuminata 3-ncrvia anguste 
ecariosa. Petala bipartita calycis 3- breviora, Capsula obovato- 
globosa. Semina mamillata. 

Near >S', uliginosa^ but bracts foliaceous. 



23. K. Datidi, Franch. PI, David, i, p* 51, t. 10 (1884), 


JSoc. sxiii. p. 67 (1886). 

Hah. S, Wushan (A. Henry, 1889). 

The genus wa^ re-establislied by Maximowiez, and its cha- 
racters were more clearly defined. As defined originally by 


Turczaninow (1838), from the characters given, one would 
scarcely be justified in maintaining it as a genus distinct from 
Stellaria. Maximowicz, however, in a careful study of a series 
of specimens of Kraschejiinnihovia rujpestris, indicates other cha- 
racters, such as the diverse type of the structure of the flowers 
found at the hase of the stem in contact with the soil, as com- 
pared with those terminating the flowering stems. And on the 
characters brought together by Maximowicz its separation from 
Stellaria is certainly warranted. The plant described as Stellaria 
lulbosa, Wulf., in tlic 'Flora of British India ' is certainly to be 
referred to K. Davidt (and is a form of it), which is recorded by 
Franchct from the neighbouring province of Tun-nan (Delavai/, 
n. 1035, 1884). Mr. Hemsley records the species elsewhere in 
China only from Jchol, in the province of Chih-li {David, 
n. 1924). Trauchct also forbears to separate the genus from 
Stellaria, as he says : — " L'ancien genre Krascheninnilcovia est 
aujourd'hui rapportc aux Stellaria par presque tons les auteurs, 
bien qu'il ne soit pas moins ncttcment caraeterise que la plu- 
part des aiitrcs genres de Caryopbyllacees, maintcnus plutot 
par habitude qu'cnraison d'une valour rdelle." 

Subg. JEuarcnaria, 

24. A. NAPULTOEBA, Franch. 
Hal. Tachien-lu (rratt, 189< 

25- A. SEEPTLLTFOLiA, Linn. 

Hah. Yang-tze valley {Bev. E. Faher, n. 33G, 1887). District 
Mupin (ex Franch. PL David, ii. p. 23 [1888]). 

Subg. Eremogoneastrum, 

26. A. KAN8UENSIS, Maxim. 

Hah, N. Sze-chuen {Fotanin, 1885); Tachien-lu (Pratt, 

n. 617, 1890). 

27. A. POLTTMCuoiDES, Edgew. 

Hah. Batang on the river Di-chu, and east of Tachien-lu 
{Loczy n. 227, ex Kanitz, Bot. Centr. Asiatic. Exped. Szcchenyi, 
in Math. Naturwisscusch. Ber. IJng. iii. [1886]). 

■^.r. t ' 




Subg. Odontostemma. 

28. Abenaria yujnnanensis, Franch. 
Hah. Tacliien-lu (Prati, u. 155, 1890). 

29- A. Delatatt, Fmneh. 

Hah. Taclnen-lu {rratt, u. 5G1, 1890). 

30. A< QL"AUEIDENTATA, WiUiams, in Journ. Linn. Soc,^ Hot. 

xxxiii. p, 432 (1898). 

Hah. N. Sze-chuen (ex 3IaMm. FL Tangutica, p. 84 [1889], 
" Lepyrodidis qiiadridentata ")• 

Subg, Macrogyne. 

31. A. SZKC11UENSI8, sp. noYa. 

Plantula 30-45 mm. alta, vix aupra humam, nana diffusa 
multiflora glanduloso-pube&=cens. Cauliculi tennes. Polia 7-12 
mm., linearia obtusa, basi dilatata, kxe connata, paree ciliolata. 
Pedicelli axillares et terminales. Calyx basi truncatns ; sepala 
2^-4 mm., dense glandulosa, lauceolata acuta, margine anguste 
scariosa. Petala calyce 2^-plo lougiora, alba ovalia breviter 
unguiculata. JStyli ^ubulati, calycem louge stuperantes. 

DifFors from A. longistyla in the more diffuse multifloral stems 
producing both axillary and terminal flowers, iu the small sepals 
acute instead of mucronate at the apex, and the large OYal petals. 
It is not very different from A. linearifbUa, Franch., from which 
it is distinguished by the leaves ; though tho latter is stated to 
have winged seeds, and should thus be transferred to Moehringia^ 
for \\hich therefore I propose the name of M» lixeahifolta. 

Hah. Tachien-lu {Soulie, n. 814, 1893). 






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I. On the Origin of the Basidiomycetes. By Gteobge 


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II. On some Mosses from China and Japan. By Ernest 

Stanley Salmon. (Communicated by J. G. Baker,, E.L.S.) (Plate 17.) .....449 

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l*JOO-HK>i, m audition to the officers, are ; — 

E. G. Baker, Esq. 

Prof. J. B. Farmer, M.A. 

Albert C. L, G, Gunther, M.D., F.P.S. 

W. B. Hemsley, F.R.S. 

H. W. Monckton, F.G.S. 

Prof. F. Wall Oliver, D.Sc. 
Howard Saunders, F.Z.S. 
Roland Triinen, F.R.S. 
F. Newton Williams, L.R.O.P. 


Note.— The Charter and Bye-Law8 of the Society, as aniPnrlpr? t^ 
the 19th March, 1891, maybehad on application. ^' "^^'^ *° 

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1 -' ' '- 

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Subg. Odontostemma 

28. Arenarja yunxanensiSj branch. 
Rah. Tachien-lu {Pratt, n, 155, 1890). 

29. A, DelavatIj Franch. 

Hah. Tacluen-lu {Pratt, n, 561, 1890). 

30. A. quadeidentata, TFiUiams, in Journ. Linn, Soc.y Bot^ 
xxxiii. p. 432 (1898). 

Sah. N. Sze-chuen (ex Maxim, FL Tangntica, p. 84 [1889], 
" Lepyrodiclis quadridentata *'). 

Subg. Macrogyne, 

81. A. szEcnuENSis, sp. nova. 

Plantula 30-45 mm< alta, vix supra humum, nana diffusa 
multiflora glanduloso-pubescens. Cauliculi tenues. Folia 7-12 
mm., linearia obtusa, basi dilatata, laxe connata, parce ciliolata. 
Pedicelli axillares et termiuales. Calyx basi truncatus; aepala 
2|-4 mm., dense glandulosa, lanceolata acuta, margine angusta 

scariosa, Petala calyce 2|-plo longiora, alba ovalia breviter 
unguiculata. Styli subulati, calycem longo superantes. 

Differti from A. longistyla in the more diffuse multifloral stems 
producing both axillary and terminal flowers, in the small sepals 
acute instead of mucronate at tiie apex, and the large oval petals. 

It is not very different from A, linearifolia^ Franch., from which 

it is distinguished by the leaves ; though the latter is stated to 
have winged seeds, and should thus be transferred to Moehringia^ 

for which therefore I propose the name of M. LiK^EARiroLiA. 
Hah. Tachien-lu {Soulie, n. 814, 1893). 


; * 

' 4 ^ ^ 


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of fungi under 


On the Origin of the Basidioraycetes, 
By George MASskE, F.L.S* 

[Eead 18th January, 1900,] 
(Plateh 15 & 16.) 

The recent extensive researches by Brefeld (1) have thrown 
much light on the morphology and affinities of the group of 
fungi known as the Basidiomycetes, and even those who cannot 
accept his interpretation as to aflSnities in its entirety, are 
doubtless ready to admit that, due in a large measure to his 

and deductions therefrom, we possess at the 
present day a clearer and truer conception of the general 
development or evolution of the 
aideration than heretofore. 

As is well known, the gradual differentiation of the spcjiahzcd 
portions of hyphse or basidia immediately bearing conidia, are 
considered by Brefeld as constituting the one essential factor 
in indicating true affinity and descent in the Basidiomycetes, 
Hence in the Protobasidiomycetes, characterized by having 
basidia divided into two to four superposed cells by transverse 
septa, each cell producing a conidium, Brefeld sees a counter- 
part in the promycelium or the fertile hjphse produced directly 
on spore germination in the Ustilagine^, and inclines to the view 
that the Protobasidiomycetes may be derived from the Usti- 
lagineEe through the Uredinese, Auriculariee, and Pilacrea?, when 
the transversely septate basidium is replaced by a vertically 
divided basidium in Tremellese and Dacryomycetse ; a transition 
group, leading to the Autobasidiomycetes, including the Gastro- 
mycet®, Phalloidese, and Hymenomycetse, characterized by 
basidia consisting of a single cell — neither transversely nor 
vertically septate — and bearing the spores at or near the apex, 
and usually definite in number. 

The existence of septate basidia, however, is not an entirely 
recent discovery ; those of Pilacre Peter sii^ Berk- & Broome, 



In fact the basidia of the last-named species were first described 
by Tulasne (3) thirty-four years ago, the description being 
followed \>\ the paragraph quoted below — the first time we 

-I 4 

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T- I 



■■■ 1 ! 

■•^ . .1 V 

ORiaiN or THE easidiomycetes. 


■believe since its publication — tlie sul}stauce of which is con- 
sidered by most mycologists as being a much later conception. 
^* Palmam, qui meruit, ferat." 

Tulasne aays: — '^ On sera certaincmeut frappe comme nou3 
de la resaemblance singuliore qu'ofFrent les crosiscs fertiles de 
V Hypochnits purpureas avec le promycelium des Puccinies et 
autres Urediuees, c^est a dire avec ces germes d'abord clavi- 
formes, puis circinanta et S2}iculifcrerf, dont nous avons autrefois 
donne dcs fi;^ures dans ce Eecueil (ser. 4^ t. ii. pis. 7-12). La 
similitude n'est meme pas moindre pour les corps reproducteurSj 
spores ou sporidies, et nous trouvons certainement la un example 
■des analogies qui peuvent relier deux membres, d*ailleurs tres- 
dissemblables, d'une meme famille vegetale " (3. 296). 

Quite receiitly Juel, a Swedish botanist, has demonstrated that 
the somewhat widely difFused, and not by any means uncom- 
mon fungus called Stilhum vulgare^ Tode, the type of the large 
genus Sfilhitmy Tode, located in the Ilyphomycetcs, is indeed a 
typical ProtobasidiomycetCj having the characteristic transversely 
.septate basidia, each seguieut o£ the basidium producing a single 
basidiospore (4). 

The segmentation of the basidium is preceded by nuclear 
division, each segment containing a single nucleus which again 
divides, one nucleus passing into the spore, the other remaining 
in the basidium (PI. 15. figs. 2-6). 

Juel examined other species belonging to Stilbum^ and found 
that they did not present the Protobasidiomycete features 
foundings', vulgare; and suggests that the generic name Stilbum 
.should be retained for those members proved to belong to the 
Protobasidioinycetes, and that another genus should be estab- 
lished for tliose members of the old genus which, on account of 
their structurOj have yet to be considered as belonging to the 

The genus Stilbum^ as originally uuderstoodj contains about 
seventy species ; all are minute, and the general structure may be 
compared to that of a sheaf of corn* The hyphae are arranged 
in a parallel fascicle, the free tips bearing the conidia spreading 
on all sides, and forming a more or less globose fertile head, 
terminating an elongated slender etem, the whole resembling a 
drumstick in miniature. Every part is compact and firm, the 
component hyphae being to some extent cemented together by 


2 k2 


Tuhercularia^ Tode, another genus included in the Hypho- 
mycctes, is morphologically indistinguishable in all essential 
features from Stilhitm^ but separated by systematists on account 
of the shorter stem, tlie subglobose head being nearly, or in many 
species quite, sessile on the matrix, as in the well-known Tuber- 
cularia vulgaris^ Tode, which forms coral-red pustules on 
decaying or dead branches. 

Tuhercidaria includes about seventy species, several of which 
are the oonidial condition of asei'j;erou9 fund belonsin^: to the 
genus Nectria. 

About thirty members of the long-stemmed or Sfilbuin-i'onnis 
are also known to represent the conidial condition of species of 
Nectria or Sphderostilhe^ the name given by Tulasne to those 
species of the old genus Nectria having 1-septate spores and a 
Stilbum as the conidial form of reproduction (5). 

In many instances the genetic relation between a conidial 
condition and its higher form of fruit is not distinctly proved ; 
the researches of Tulasne (6), Ilartig (7), and others, however, 
leave no doubt as to the relationship between Stilhitm or 
Tuhercularia and species of Nectria. 

The general structure is alike in all known instances. A 
compact parenchymatous base or stroma forms in the substance 
of the matrix, and eventually projects above its surface as a 
cushion -like body ; from the superficial cells of this stroma the 
fertile hyphsD — conidiophores or basidia — of the Tuhercularia or 
Stilbiim originate. At a later date the primordia of the ascigerous 
or Nectria-^oYxa of reproduction appear in the peripheral portion 
of the stroma ; these gradually develop into the characteristic red 
porithecia which s-tud the surface of the stroma in Nectria 
proper, the conidial phase being obliterated by the later develoj)- 
ment of the perithecia ; whereas in Sphc^rostilhe the lon^r- 
stemmed Stilhu m-Qondiiioyi and the ascigerous perithecia are 
both present at the same time (PL 15. fig. 7). 

A second, and even third conidial form of reproduction, also 
produced by the stroma, is present in some species of Nectria, 
but appear to have no bearing on the subject under con- 

In additioii to those form-speciea of Tuhercularia and Stilbum 
known for certainty to represent the conidial condition of species 
of Nectria ov Sph(jdrostilhe^ many species belonging to each of these 
genera exist that have not up to the present been correlated 

IT ' 



with any higher form of fruit, and in many instances it would 
appear that such must be considered as entities or species ; the 
facts in favour of such an argument being the power to repro- 
duce themselves apparently indefinitely, and the absence of 
proof as to the existence of any other phase of reproduction in 
their life-cycle. 

Assuming this statement to prove correct, it suggests the 
following problem : 

How long must a conidial form continue to reproduce itself 
after the disappearance of its higher phase in the cycle of 
development, before it can be cousidered as a species in the 
ordinary acceptance of that term ? 

If taken to task as to the evidence of a second phase having 
existed at any previous period in the life-history of such 
organisms, it may be stated that presumable evidence is forth- 
coming, not only in the genera Stilbum and Tubercularia, but in 
numerous other instances where a conidial or simple phase has, 
from analogy, lost for all time tlie higher stage of fruit it once 

The evidence obtainable in the genera under consideration 
consists in the presence, in several instances, of a more or less 
well-developed stroma, which, liowever, only produces conidia, 
whereas, following the sequence of gradual disappearance of the 
stroma, we come to species where this primordial structure has 
entirely disappeared. 

In the form-genus Botr//tis, we have a similar decadence of the 
stroma or sclerotium, which in some species produces the asci- 

gerous condition only, in 

others the ascigerous or conidial 

condition, depending on external conditions, in others again 
giving origin to conidia only; whereas in a host of other species 
the stroma is quite rudimentary or entirely absent, the conidial 
condition alone remaining. 

It is in the Uredinese, however, thatw^e encounter the clearest 
evidence of the gradual disappearance of one or other of the 
forms originally included in the life-cycle of the various species. 

After the announcement of Juel's discovery, I examined nume- 
rous species of Stilbum and Tuhercularia^ for the purpose of 
ascertaining whether some other members might not prove on 
careful examination also to belong to the Protobasidionfiycetes. . 

Among those examined was the Stilhum-Qon^ii\on of SpJicero- 
stilhe microspora^i Cooke & Massee ; and here I was much surprised 



T -m 


r, ■ 



ri ^ 


H' .\ 




to find that tlie structure of tlio fertile tips of the hyphae agreed' 
in every detail with tliose of iStilbmn vulgare, as described and 
figured by JueL It was clearly evident that if the one was a 
Protobasidiomycete, the other must necessarily be one also- 

(Phl6. figs- 10-12). 

Furthermore, this discovery revealed the somewhat unexpected 

fact that the conidial condition of an ascigerons fuugus was 

itself a typical member of the Protobasidiomycetes, 

Tuhercidaria volutella^ Corda, is also a true Protobasidiomycete, 
having distinctly clavate, transversely septate basidia, each 
septum bearing a single spore (PL 16. fig. 16). 

As stated by Juel, I found that many species of Stilbum and 
Tuber ciil aria possessed basidia or spore-bearing hyplia? differing 
in structure from those of Stilbum vtilrjare, and indicating at first 
sight the possibility of belonging to a distinct genus, as su 
by Juel. However, after having examined over one hundred 
species included in the two genera, it w^as clearly seen that all 
the basidia conformed to a single type of structure, the differences 
observable being entirely due to two minor modifications of the 
typical form; 1, the relative length of the two or three fertile 
cells of the basidium ; 2, the relative expansion into a clavato 
form of the two or three fertile cells constituting the basidium. 

In TiibercuJaria vulgaris^ Tode, the conidial condition oiJ^ectria 
einnabarina^ Fries (PI. 16. fig. 15), the spore-bearing structure 
s farthest removed from the typical form of a Protobasidiomy- 
cete basidium as illustrated by that of Stilbum vulgare\ the 
fertile cells are much elongated, perfectly cylindrical, and not 

thicker than the supporting hypha. 

Intermediate between this primitive type and the true basidium- 
form as already stated to exist in Tuhcrcularia vohilclla. Corda, 
may be instanced the basidia of Tubercularia svhpediceUatay 
Schweinitz, where the fertile cells are shortened as compared with 
those of T. cinnabarinay Tode, and collectively form a narrowly 
clavate body (PI. 16* fig* 17). 

In Stilbum fasciculatitm^ Berk- & Broome, the conidial condi- 
tion oi Sphcerostilhe gracilipeSy Tul. (PL 16. fig. 13), tlie basidia are 
identical in structure with those oi Hirneola AuricuIa-Jiidce^'Berk.^ 
as figured by De Bary (8), and also with those of Av.ricularia 
sambucindy Mart., described and figured by Brefeld (9). These 
prove conclusively that the cells composing the basidium may be 

considerably elongated, and not at all clavate. 

^rr i:- 

. J 



The remaining 

Isaria, Per=i., a genus included in the Hypbomycetes, and 
containing about eighty species, is closely allied to Stilbttm and 
Tuhercularia^ differing more especially in the component fascicle 
of hyphsR not being cemented into a compact mass, but remaining 
loose and open, consequently tlie fertile liead is spreading and not 
globose (PL 16. fig. 18). About twenty-two of the so-called species 
oi Isaria are known to form the conidial condition of species of 
the ascigerous genus Cordyceps^ Fries, which for the most part 
are parasites on the hodies of various insects, 
species grow on wood and various decaying vegetable matter, 
dung, &c., and in all probability do not at the present day include 
any ascigerous phase in their cycle of development. 

Isaria pulclierrima, Berk. & Broome, a beautiful species 
forming delicate feathery, erect tufts on hard wood, has basidia 
not at all distinguishable from those of Stilhiimmlgare (PI. 16. 
fig. 19); and an examination of numerous species of Isaria shows 
exactly the same sequence of structure of the basidia as that 

already described under Stilbum aud Tiihercularia. 

Many striking examples of characteristic Protobasidiomycetes^ 
allied to one or other of the three genera mentioned above, 
are described aud beautifully figured by MoUer in his excellent 
work on Brazilian Protobasidiomycetes (10); among others may 
be mentioned Pilacrella delcotans, MoUer, which resembles in 
frencral aspect and morphological details Isaria puIcJierrima^ 

Berk. & Broome- 

It has already been stated that, even from the standpoint of 
the systematist, basing his conclusions on features presented by 
mature structures only, there is no valid difference between the 
genera Stilhim and Tubercularia : many members of both genera 
are known to represent the conidial condition of species o^Nectria^ 
whereas other members are almost certainly self-sustaining in 
every respect, having no other form of fruit included in their 


Isaria, again, is very closely allied to the two preceding genera, 

differing only in the less compact sporophore ; many species are 

proved conidial stages of ascigerous forms, as CorJyceps] others, 

again, possess no higher phase of reproduction* 

iPinally, in all three genera we find exactly the same sequence 

of progression in the form and structure of the basidia, from 

what may be termed the conidiophore type, having elongated, 

unthickened spore-producing hyphal cells, to very short and 

I ■ 1 

■ ■ ^. 




swollen fertile cells forming the characteristic basidium. This 
complete transition connecting the extreme poles — conidiophore 
and basidium— proves that Juel's suggestion to separate those 
species presenting the typical basidium from the remainder still 
having the conidiophore form of basidium, cannot be followed, 
and furtlier proves that the suggestion resulted from an examina- 
tion of only a limited number of species. 

As a rule those species of Stilbiim^ Ac, known to be the coni- 
dial form of ascigerous fungi have the most primitive basidia, that 
is basidia of the conidiophore type; whereas the independent 
species more frequently have typical Protobasidiomycete basidia. 
To this rule, however, there are marked exceptions, as already 
shown in the case of the conidial condition of Sph^rostilbe 
microspora, where the basidia are short-celled and clavate* 

The above discovery further indicates that the Protobasidio- 
mycetes as a group are derived from the conidial phase In the 
life-cycle of ascigerous fungi; the evolution is effected by the 
disappearance of the ascigerous form of reproduction, whereby 
the conidial stage assumes the standard of a species : this change 
being contemporaneous with the gradual conversion of the so- 
called conidiophore to the typical basidium or spore-bearing 

The earlier realization of this fact was probably retarded to a 
certain extent by the Friesian conception of a Easidiornvcete, 
which required above all things the presence of a compact, con- 
tinuous hymenial surface. This idea held good until corrected 
by the researches of De Bary, Brefeld, and Moller. 

As already stated, Brefeld supposes the Autobasidiomycetes 
to be descended from the Protobasidiomvcetes throuirh the dis- 
appearance of the transverse septa in the basidium, and tlje gradual 
concentration of the spores in a definite number at its apex- 

To those who can accept an unproved assumption, the basidium 
of Tulosfoma^ a cylindrical organ without septa, and having three 
or four spores scattered at intervals throughout its length, looks 
very much like the basidium of a Protobasidiomycete in which 
the transverse septa have been arrested; but unfortunately we 
possess no evidence of the gradual disappearance of septa in the 
basidia of any known Protobasidiomycete, whereas, on the other 
hand, it can be demonstrated that the basidia of Tulostoma agree 
in all essentials with so-called conidiophores that pass directly 
into typical Autobasidiomycete basidia. 




Moller, who has made a more extensive and thorough study of 
the Protobasidiomycetes than auy other author, considers that 
the Protobasidiomycetes and Autobasidiomycctes are two inde- 
pendent groups having a different origin respectively, and sums 
up his conviction in the following words : 

'' Unter den bekannten Thatsachcn spricht keinc dafiir, das eine 
Protobasidie sich durch Verlust der Theilwande nachtrao-lich zur 
Autobasidie umgestalten kuane" (11). 

On this point I am quite in agreement with Moller, and see in 
the instances given below what appears to be a more feasible 
explanation of the gradual evolution of the Autoba^Idiomycetes 
than the required arrest of the transverse septa of the basidia of 
the Protobasidiomycetes, and the gradual concentration of the 
spores at the apex of the basidium. 

Bonlanger has described (12) a new genus of fungi — Matron- 
>chofia — which under the old dispensation would be placed in 
tlie Hyphomycetes, aleng with Stilhum, Isaria, &g. ' The fungus 
MatroueJiotia varians, Boulanger, is a mucli-branched Sfilbum- 
like plant, showing every transition from inflated cylindrical 
conidiophores bearing from three to Bve spores scattered at 
intervals over the surface of the conidiopliore — exactly as in 
Tulostoma — to the other extreme of presenting a clavate basidlum 
bearing four spores at its apex — exactly as in true Autobasidio- 

A second species belonging to the same genus, MatroueJiotia 
.compleiis, Moller, a native of Brazil, has since been described by 
Moller (13). This specien corroborates Boulangcr's account in 
every particular* The conidiophores are cylindric-clavate, and 
bear from three to five spores placed at different levels — again 
as in Tulostoma ; while others of the spore-bearing structures are 
-clavate, and bear four spores at the apex. Now in these two 
instances we have a transition from a conidiophore or Tulostoma^ 
like basidium to the form of basidium characteristic of the 
Autobasidiomycetes, without necessitating the disappearance of 
transverse septa. 

In the genus Botrytis^ containing about 120 species — again 
belonging to the Hypbomycetes — four divisions or subgenera 
are recognized, depending on the gradual change of the conidio- 
phores to wliat may be called the basidium type. The most 
primitive section is represented by Euhotrytis^ where the spores 
,are borne singly at the tips of slender pointed branchlets. 

- ^*-^ ■ .■'■ 


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T^ T* MTM^'^T t iWiB' 




In Polyaclis tlie spore-bearing branelilcta are slightly thickened 
and obtuse, and bear several spores. In Pht/matotriclium the ti2)& 
of the fertile branchlets are clavate and bear several spicules or in- 
cipient sterigmata, each giving origin to a spore. Finally, in the 
subgenus Cnstiilaria the fertile tips are clavate and bear at the 
apex a variable number of slender elongated sterigmata, each sup- 
porting a spore (PL 16. fig, 21); differing only from a true Auto- 
basidiomycete in being considered a Hyphoraycete, and in being, 
undoubtedly allied to an assemblage of forms, some of which 
recede from the typical Autobasidiomycete structure iu the 


Compare PL 16. fig. 21 with fig. 20, which illustrates a fertile 
branch of Coniopltora ochracca^ Massec, a typical Autobasidio- 
myccte. Figures 20 and 21 are copied from sltetches made 
several years ago. 

Isaria nmhrina^ Pcrs., the conidial stage of Hypo.ryJon coc- 
cineiim^ Bull. (PI, 16. fig, 22), and Trichoderma viride^ Pers., the 
conidial form of Ilifpocrea rvfa, Pr. (PL 16. fig, 23), further illust- 
rate the conidial stage of ascigerous fungi having spore-bearing 
bodies closely resembling the basidia of the Autobasidiomycetes. 
The resemblance is so close in fact that had these structures been 
borne by an organism agreeing with our preconceived conception 
of wliat^'an Autobasidiomycete should be, based on the old 
traditional standard, their conformity with the ideal type would 
never have been questioned. 


1. The conidial condition of certain ascigerous fungi bear 
their spores on structures morphologically indistinguishable from 
the basidia of the Protobasidiomycetos. 

2, Some members of the same form-genera as those de- 
scribed in paragraph 1, as Stilhum vulgarej Tode, have lost the 
ascigerous condition from their life-cycle, and are accepted as 
true Protobasidiomycctcs ; hence we are justified in concluding 
that the Protobasidiomycetes as a group originated from ancestors 
that represented the conidial condition of aacigerous fungi. 

3- There is no evidence in favour of the suggestion that the 
Autobasidiomycetes are descended from the Protobasidiomycetes: 
on the other hand, the evidence in favour of the Autobasidio- 

p ■ . ^ 





mycetes having been derived by gradual modification of the 
spore-bearing organs, or basidia of conidial forms of certain 
ascigerous fungi, is not lacking. 



1. Brefeld, Oscar, — Unters. aua dem gesamrat. der My- 

kologie: vii. Heft, Protobasidiomyceten (1888); viii- Heft^ 
Autobasidiomyceteu (1889). 

2. TuLASNE, L- E. & C— ''N"ote3 upon the Tremellineous 

Fungi and their Analogues," Journ. Linn. Soc. (Bot.) xiii* 
pp. 31-42 (1871), The figures intended for the illustration 
of this article were mislaid at the moment of publication, 
but being afterwards found, the article was reproduced 
under the following title : '' JS^ouyelles notes sur les Eungi 
Tremellini et leurs allies, par MM. Tulasne," Ann. Sci. 
Nat. (Bot.), ser. V. vol. xv, (1872) p. 215, pis. 9-12. 

3. TuLASNE, E, L. — " Note sur le Ptychogaster alhus^ Goes. 

Ann. Sci. Nat. (Bot.), 9er. V, vol. iv. p. 290 (1865). 

4. JuEL, H. 0. — *' Stilhum vidgare, Tode ; Ein bisher verkannter 

Basidiomycet." Bibang till K. Svenska Vet.-Akad. HandL, 
Band 24, Afd. iii. no. 9, p. 1, 1 pi. (1898). 
6. Ttjlastte, L. E. & C— Selecta Eungorum Carpologia, iii. 

p, 99 (18(55). 

6. TuLASNE, L. E. & C, Op. cif. iii. pp. 05-106, tabs. 10-14 


7. Hartio, E. 

pp. 88-128, Taf. 5-6 (1880). 

8. De Bart, A.— Fungi, Mycetozoa, and Bacteria (Engl, ed.), 

p. 305, fig. 140 a;-^ (1887). 

9. Brefeld, O., Op. cit. Heft vii. Taf. 4. figs. 3-9 (1888), 

10. MiiLLER, Alfred. — Protobasidiomyceten, 1895. This form» 

Heft viii. of Dr. A. W. E. Schimper'a ' Botanische Mittheil- 
ungen aus den Tropen.* 

11. MoLLEB, A., Op, cit. p. 51, 

12, BoTJLANQEE, Em.— Eev. G-en. de Bot., v, p* 401, pb, 12-14 


13. MoLLER, A., Ov, cit, p. 150. 



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■T f -_- - l*_ .- f-'—^ »T T^ 





Plate 15, 

Pig, L Stilhum vuJgarc, Tode. Group of plants. X 50. 

2> 3, 4. Tips of busidia of S. vulgarc, showing progressive nuclear division, 

X 2000 (lifter J iiel). 
5, (5. Basidiii and spores of S, valc/are, X 2000 (after Juel). 
7- Group of aecigerous form of fruit, showing three stipitate conidia- 
bearing strucrures in various forms of development, of Spkcerostilbe 
microspom, Cooke & Massee, X 50 (from type specimen). 
8. Section of eonidial form of fruit of S. microspora. X 200. 
9* Section through stromatic base of S, microspora, showing origin of stem 
of eonidial form of fruit, a ; also aecigerous fruit, bb. X 100. 
10,11, & 12. Basidia and spores from the eonidial' form of fruit of 

S, microspora. x 2000. 
13. Basidia and spores of eonidial form (—Stilhum fusciculatiimy Berk. & 
Broome) of Spheyostilhe (jmciUpes, Tuh X 2000. 

Pj.ate 16. 

Fig. 14. Section through the strojua o{ Nectria cinnaharina, Fries, showing the 

eonidial stage of fructification, a a {= Tuber cut aria vulgaris, Tode); 
and the asL'igerous form of fruit, h^ b. X 50. 

15. Basidia and spores of the eonidial fibrin of fruit of N. cinnaharina, 


16. Basidia and spores of Tahercularia volutella, Corda. X 2000. 

17. Basidia and spores of Tubercularia suhpedicellata, Schwemitz. x 2000. 

18. Isariapnlcherrima, Berk. & Broome, X 30 (from type specimen). 

19. Basidia and spores of 7. pulcherrima. X 2000. 

20. Basidia-henring branch of Coniophora ochracea^ Massee, X 500 (after 


21. Fruiting branch of Bofrj/tis tricephala, Sacc. X 500. 

22. Fertile hypha from the eonidial stage {— Isara umhriiia, Pers.) of 

Hypoxi/lon coccineum, Bull. X 2000. 

23. Conidial cundition (— 7Vi"i.-A(^(:Z6r;j;a viride, Vers.) o[ IlgpocrearufayFr. 

X 2000. 


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assee . 

■ LiN^, Soc. Joimrr.BoT.VoL.XXXIYH.lS 

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RMoTgan Ijlti . 

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ssee . 

Linn. Soc. Joxm^.BoT.VoL.XXXJV.PUe- 


R."Uargan lith . 

"WffSt , Newman inrp. 


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• I 




On some Mosses from China and Japan. By Ernest Stanley 


(Communicated by J. G. Baker, I\RS., F.L.S.) 

[Read 19th April, 1900.] 

(Plate 17.) 

The material on which the following records are based was found 

in the Eoyal Herbarium at Kew, and consists for the most part 

of specimens collected by Mr. C. Ford, F.L.S., Superintendent 

of the Hongkong Botanic Gardens, Dr. E. Faber, and Dr- A. 

Although but few new species appeared in the collections, 
several interesting mosses have been found from a geographical 
point of view. Thus five species — Gymnostomum inconspicuum^ 
Griff., Bicranum lorifoUum^ Mitt. ^ Atrichum obtttsidinji^ C. MiilL, 
Poli/trichum gymnophyllum, Mitt., Papillaria atrata^ Mitt 
hitherto known only from India (mostly from the Himalayan 
region), have appeared in China ] together with six species 




Mitt., Wt 

Schimp. MSS., Besch., Physcomitrium 
scahridens^ Jaeg., Polytrichum spinu- 
m Icevigatum^ Schimp. MSS,, Besch., 

losum^ Mitt., Playiothecium Icevigatum^ Schimp. 
Brachytheciuvi Wichur<ey Broth. — hitherto recorded only from 

Of special interest is the appearance in Jai>an of Polytri- 
chum contortum, Lesq., and OligotricMm Lescurii^ Mitt, (see 
below, pp- 461 & 4G7). P. contortum has been recorded also 
from British Columbia, California, Alaska, and Saghalien; and 
O. Lescurii from Alaska and Kamtchatka. The distribution 
of these two species furnishes evidence in favour of the view 
of the continuity of land in previous times between Japan and 
America by way of Saghalien or the Kurile Isles, Kamtchatka, 
and the Aleutian Isles (see Asa Gray, in Mem. Amer. Acad. 
Arts & Sci. vi. p. 448, 1859; and K, Miyabe, in Mem. Boston 
Soc. Nat. Hist, iv* 1890, nr. 7, pp. 207, 211, 212). 

PlagiotTiecium micanSj Par*, hitherto known only from North 
America, has now been collected at Hongkong. 

I wish to express my thanks to Mr. C- H. Wright, of Kew, 
for kindly giving me information on many points. 


Weisia viRinuLA, Brid.—Ja^m : Miyanoshila, c. fr. (C* Ford, 
Oct, 1890, no. 295). 


P ^ I 

*■ ■.■' 


MR. E. S. SALMON 01^ 

if. (PL 17. figs. 12-18). 

China : IMt Omei, Szechuen (Dr. E. Faber, no. 1111). 


This species was originally discovered by G-rlifitli in India ('' in 
Tupibus madidis, Churra Punjee," Khasia), and published by him 
in 1849 (Not. ii. p. 394). Up to the present time nothing more 
eeems to have been known about the moys. Mitten when writing 
the " Musci Ind. Or/' had not seen the plant, which he placed 
doubtfully in the genus JTymenostylium. Subsequently, however, 
Mitten saw the original specimens of Griffith's (which were 
unnamed), but, apparently overlooking their identity, ap])ended 



quetrum^ Mitt. 


are labelled as foUoua ; — "On dripping rocks, Khasia Mountains, 
No. 26 " ; '' on dripping limestone rocks, Devil's Hole, Churra, 
No* 843," and ^'Moorfmai, in caves with Targionia^ no, 174.'* 
G-riffith's spOLumens have only a very few capsules, and are 
(perhaps through age) uniformly fiavcscent in colour ; the Chinese 
examples are bright green above, and abundantly fruiting, with 
capsules of a bright copper colour, G, inconspicaum shows 
aflBnity w^ith G. curvirostre^ Hedw., from which it differs in 
the more robust habit, larger, wider, more patulous leaves, not 
recurved at the margin, and in the capsules being of the colour 
of those of G, aiirantiacum. The following description is drawn 
up from the examination of the Indian and Chinese plants. 

G. iNCONSPiCUUM, Grif. JVot. ii. p. 394 (1849). 
? Ilymenostylmm inconspicuum^ Mitt. Musci Ind, Or. in Journ. 
Linn. Soc, Bot. iii. (1859J, Supp. p, 33. , 

Gymnostomum (^IlyvienosfijUiiiii) iriquetrum^ Mitt. MSS, in 

Herb. Kew. 

Dioicum ?, late caespitosum^ lajte viride, inferno flavescens inter- 
dum incrustatum, caule erecto 8-10 cm, alto simplice vel plerumque 
ob innovationes multoties di- raro trichotome diviso flexuoso, foliis 
confertis triseriatis nndique subpatulis siccitate subtortilibua e 
basi ovata suberecta amplexicauli lauceolatis acuminatis concavo- 
carinatis, nervo excurrente lutescente, margine piano iutegro, 
cellulis pellucidis Isevibus superioribus quadratisvel irregulariter 
ct breviter rectangulis inferioribUs elongato-rectangulis omuibus 
setate parictibus incrassatis interruptis, foliis pericha^tialibus 
conformibus, paraphysibus filiformibus, capsula in pedunculo 
innovando pseudolaterali erecto rubro 7-9 milk alto gracili 
Isevi oblonga vel obovata erecta parvula circiter 1 milL longa 

* ^ 


1 i_LJ 



aurantlaca nitente, collo iiidistincto siccitate subplicato instructa, 
operculo longe et oblique subiilato-rostrato, calyptra cucul'ata 
angusta paululum infra operculum desceudente. 

GrTMNOSTOMTJM AURANTiACUM, Par. — China : Mt. Otnei, 
Szechuen (Dr. E. Eaber, no. 1112). 


Trematodon" longicaulis, BicJi. — China: on a granite rock 
near the Canton Bazaar, Hongkong, c. fr. (Dr. W. T. Alexander, 
Mar. 1846, no. 16) ; Hongkong, c. fr. (C Ford, Mar. & ^o\. 
1889, nos. 158, 206). 

DiCRANELLA OBSCURA, Sull. ^ Lcsq, (PL 17. figa. 21-29). — 

Dioica, tenella vel elata, dense lateque cajspitosa, Ciespitibus inoUi- 
bus yix sericeis luteo-viridibus, caule erecto vel ascendente-erecto 
^-3 mill, alto simpliec sacpe flexuoso inferne fusco-viridi,foliis 
dense confertis erecto-patentibus interdum subsecundis superior- 
ibus flexuosis e basi subvaginante oblonga vel obovafa subulatis 
canaliculatis integris vel plcrumque summo apice minute et parce 
denticulatis, margine piano, ncrvo percurrcute latiusculo, cellulis 
in basis parte superiore angustia elliptico-rectangulls vel elongato- 
rcctangulis incrassatis, in parte inferiore latioribus, foliis peri- 
ehictialibus e basi longiore magis yaginante subulatis interdum 
curvatis, capsula in 2)eduncuIo erecto 5-25 mill, longo tenui 
flexuoso Isevi stramineo polymorpha, nunc ovato-cylindrica 
2 mill, longa erecta sequali, nunc ovato-globosa 1 milt, longa 
in^equali, a>tate plerumque plicata, brunnea sacpe sub ore 
constricta annulata, annulo lato revolnbili, operculo oblique 
subulato-rostrato, calyptra cucullata Isevi, peristotnii deutibus 
rubris ad medium vel ultra bifidis, cruribus pallidis papillosis, 
sporis majusculis 18-22 ft diam. minutissime asp^rulis. 

Planta mascula femiuea? conformis, sed gracilior, simplex vel 
sub flore terminali gemmiformi innovans, foliis perigonialibus 
externis e basi lato vaginante subulatis, iuteruis late ovatis subito 
at'uminatis, omnibus nervatis, paraphysibus numerosis filiform- 


A -D. heteromallw^ Scbimp, formibus omnibus cellulis basis 
folii superioribus angustis incrassatis, annulo lato nee non 
sporis multo majoribus distiucta ; _D. amplexanti^ Mitt, et D. 
divaricated^ Mitt, affinis, sed foliis dense confertis longe recedens. 

China: moist shady bank opposite Hongkong (Dr. W. T» 
Alexander, Mar. 1845, no, 14); on the ground on a mountain- 
top, Tung-zan (idem, Feb. 1846, no. 15); Hongkong (Wilford, 


452 MK. E- S* SALMON OS 

no. 274) (C. Tord, 1888, 1889, 1890, nos. IG, 157, 159, IGO, 202, 
203, 205, 212, 273, 270, 277). 

Wilson (3. p- 273), wlio examined Dr. Alexander's f^pecimene, 
remarked as follows : — '' Bidymodon proscriptus^ Hornsch. (?) var. 
seta duplo vel triple lonyiorc. In habit this moas is a Tricliosto- 
mum, but tlie peristome is that of Dicranum. It is closely allied to 
D. Icnffirostrisy On the same specimens, and on those collected 
by Wilford, Mitten has written " Cpiodonfium costatum^ M.," 
but this name has not been published. The excellent specimens 
which have been sent subsequently by Ford, show clearly that 
the species is very variable in many characters, especially in the 
degree of robustness of the stems and in the size and shape of 
the capsules. In some examples (Ford, nos* 16, 159) the stems 
are very short, often under 5 mil], high, witli a short ovate or 
globose-ovate capsule, often more or less gibbous, wide or almost 
truncate at the mouth, on a short seta; the whole plant barely 
2 cent.hidi. In these small state?, with the small inclined wide- 

mouthed capsule, -D. ohscitra much recalls in general appearance 
B* Jieteromalla^ but may bo at once distinguished by the narrow 
incrassate cells at the shoulders of the more sheathing base of 
the leaves, the wide annulus, and spores of nearly twice the size. 
In other specimens (nos. 157, 160, 202, 203) the stems reach to 
3 cent, in height, and the whole plant to 5 cent, or more^ 
and tlie capsule becomes sub-cylindric and often symmetrical, 
with a narrower mouth. 

I am indebted to Mr. Mitten and Prof, W. G. Farlow for 
kindly sending me authentic specimens (now in the Eew, Herb.) 
of D. olscura^ which enabled me to establish the identity of the 
plants in the Kew Herbarium. 

DiCBA^UM cEispoFALCATUM, ScJiimp. MSS.^ Bescit, — China: 
Mount Omei, Szechuen, barren (Dr. E. Faber, no* 1109). 

D. LOHiFOLTUMj Mitt. — China: Tientai Mt.^ 2000 ft., Prov- 
Chekiang, c. fr. (Dr. E. Faber, 1889, no. G). 

Through some mistake this species is described in Journ. Linn. 
Soc, Bot. iii. (1859) Supp. p. 15, as having the cells of the leaf 
*'haud interruptis " ; in all the specimens examined, however, 
including the type, the cells are porous from the ^base to the 
apex of the leaf. 

D. JAroNicuM, Milt,y var. tbi^kanense, vjr. nov., foliis et 
foliorum cellulis laticribus, tapsula najore (5 mill, longa) 
erectiore baud srcuato. — China : Hupeh, Kuei, on rock, c, fr*